The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Esox lucius
Esox lucius
(Northern Pike)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758

Common name: Northern Pike

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Scott and Crossman (1973); Pflieger (1975); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991).

Size: 133 cm.

Native Range: Atlantic, Arctic, Pacific, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Labrador to Alaska and south to Pennsylvania, Missouri, and Nebraska (Page and Burr 1991). Native to Montana in the South Saskatchewan River Drainage (Holton and Johnson 1996). 

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Esox lucius are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AK197220218Anchorage; Lower Kenai Peninsula; Lower Susitna River; Matanuska; South Central Alaska; Upper Kenai Peninsula; Upper Susitna River; Yentna River
AZ1967200410Big Chino-Williamson Valley; Bill Williams; Canyon Diablo; Havasu Canyon; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Lake Powell; Silver; Upper Santa Cruz; Upper Verde; Verde
AR197319886Beaver Reservoir; Fourche La Fave; Illinois; Lower Little Arkansas, Oklahoma; North Fork White; Upper Ouachita
CA189120073Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Middle Fork Feather; San Diego
CO1882201932Alamosa-Trinchera; Animas; Big Thompson; Blue; Cache La Poudre; Colorado Headwaters; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; East-Taylor; Fountain; Horse; Huerfano; Lower Gunnison; Lower White; Lower Yampa; McElmo; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; Middle South Platte-Sterling; Piedra; Rio Grande Headwaters; San Luis; South Fork Republican; South Platte; South Platte Headwaters; St. Vrain; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Dolores; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Gunnison; Upper San Juan; Upper White; Upper Yampa
CT194020204Housatonic; New England Region; Outlet Connecticut River; Thames
DE188819812Brandywine-Christina; Upper Chesapeake
GA196919691Upper Oconee
ID1892202210Clearwater; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Lower Boise; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Kootenai; Pend Oreille; Pend Oreille Lake; Spokane; St. Joe; Upper Spokane
IL198619974Big Muddy; Embarras; Mackinaw; Salt
KS1962196710Crooked; Elk; Lower Big Blue; Neosho Headwaters; North Fork Ninnescah; Prairie Dog; South Fork Ninnescah; Upper Cimarron-Bluff; Upper Saline; Upper Smoky Hill
KY1975198610Green; Kentucky; Kentucky Lake; Licking; Licking; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Kentucky; Lower Levisa; Lower Tennessee; Pond
ME181020237Lower Androscoggin River; Lower Kennebec River; Maine Coastal; New England Region; Penobscot River; Presumpscot; Upper Androscoggin River
MD197620223Conococheague-Opequon; Upper Chesapeake; Youghiogheny
MA1991200514Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Blackstone River; Cape Cod; Charles; Chicopee River; Concord River; Farmington River; Housatonic; Hudson-Hoosic; Merrimack River; Millers River; Narragansett; New England Region; Quinebaug River
MO196619974Lake of the Ozarks; Meramec; Sac; Upper Black
MT1950201664Battle; Beaver; Beaver; Beaverhead; Big Dry; Big Muddy; Big Porcupine; Big Sandy; Bitterroot; Blackfoot; Box Elder; Boxelder; Bullwhacker-Dog; Charlie-Little Muddy; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Fisher; Flathead Lake; Flatwillow; Flint-Rock; Fort Peck Reservoir; Frenchman; Gallatin; Judith; Lodge; Lower Bighorn; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Flathead; Lower Milk; Lower Musselshell; Lower Tongue; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Marias; Middle Clark Fork; Middle Fork Flathead; Middle Kootenai; Middle Milk; Milk; Missouri-Poplar; Mizpah; O'Fallon; Pend Oreille; Peoples; Poplar; Porcupine; Prairie Elk-Wolf; Redwater; Rosebud; Sage; Smith; South Fork Flathead; Stillwater; Sun; Swan; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Milk; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri-Dearborn; Upper Tongue; Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin; West Fork Poplar; Whitewater; Willow; Yaak
NE195120005Frenchman; Lower South Platte; Red Willow; Upper Republican; West Fork Big Blue
NV197820178Granite Springs Valley; Lower Humboldt; Middle Carson; Pilot-Thousand Springs, Nevada, Utah; Pine; South Fork Humboldt; Spring-Steptoe Valleys; Truckee
NH1810202010Ammonoosuc River-Connecticut River; Ashuelot River-Connecticut River; Black River-Connecticut River; Contoocook River; Headwaters Connecticut River; New England; Pemigewasset River; Upper Androscoggin River; Waits River-Connecticut River; West River-Connecticut River
NJ195219922Cohansey-Maurice; Mid-Atlantic Region
NM1965201013Animas; Cimarron; Conchas; Elephant Butte Reservoir; Pecos Headwaters; Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Rio Grande-Santa Fe; Upper Beaver; Upper Canadian; Upper Pecos; Upper Rio Grande; Upper San Juan; Upper San Juan
NY198620014Chenango; Lower Hudson; Mohawk; Upper Susquehanna
NC197619915Albemarle; Middle Roanoke; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; Upper Yadkin
ND198120053Lake Sakakawea; Painted Woods-Square Butte; Upper Lake Oahe
OH198119863Lower Great Miami, Indiana, Ohio; Muskingum; Upper Scioto
OK197319763Lower Cimarron; Lower Neosho; Upper Cimarron
OR199419941Pacific Northwest Region
PA198319863Bald Eagle; Lower Monongahela; Susquehanna
RI199219921New England Region
SD1959200122Bad; Cedar; Crow; Fort Randall Reservoir; Grand; Little White; Lower Belle Fourche; Lower Lake Oahe; Lower Moreau; Lower White; Medicine; Medicine Knoll; Middle Cheyenne-Elk; Middle Cheyenne-Spring; North Fork Snake; Snake; South Fork Grand; Turtle; Upper Lake Oahe; Upper Moreau; Vermillion; West Missouri Coteau
TN193919933Lower Clinch; South Fork Holston; Watts Bar Lake
TX1967199210Amistad Reservoir; Austin-Travis Lakes; Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes; Lower Angelina; Lower Trinity-Tehuacana; Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto; Upper Neches; Upper Salt Fork Red; Upper West Fork Trinity; Yegua
UT198220156Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Lake Powell; Middle Sevier; Upper Colorado-Kane Springs; Upper Lake Powell; Utah Lake
VT1847202010Black River-Connecticut River; Headwaters Connecticut River; Hudson-Hoosic; Mettawee River; Passumpsic River; St. Francois River; Waits River-Connecticut River; West River-Connecticut River; White River; Winooski River
VA1894199418Hampton Roads; James; Lower James; Lower Rappahannock; Lynnhaven-Poquoson; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Pamunkey; Potomac; Rivanna; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; Shenandoah; South Fork Holston; Upper Clinch, Tennessee, Virginia; Upper Dan; Upper James; Upper Roanoke; York
WA197020247Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Hangman; Kettle; Lake Washington; Lower Spokane; Pend Oreille; San Juan Islands
WV1986199511Big Sandy; Cacapon-Town; Conococheague-Opequon; Little Kanawha; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Lower Kanawha; Potomac; Upper Kanawha; Upper Monongahela; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; West Fork
WI198319832Ontonagon; Upper Wisconsin
WY196619965Belle Fourche; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; North Platte; Upper Belle Fourche; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir

Table last updated 4/20/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: This species has been intentionally stocked as a sport fish in most areas. In some cases, introductions were illegal, and these include such sites as Coeur d'Alene Lake, Idaho; Keyhole Reservoir, Wyoming; and Beaver Creek Reservoir, Bitterroot River, and Flathead River, Montana (McMahon and Bennett 1996), and lakes in Alaska (Bell, personal communication). McMahon and Bennett (1996) gave a table of western reservoirs with introduced populations and the method of introduction for each one. First stocked in Arizona in 1967 (Rinne 1995). In addition to being stocked as a sport fish, Pflieger (1997) stated that Esox lucius was stocked in Missouri reservoirs to introduce a large predator that could more effectively prey on the large populations of carp and gizzard shad present in such artificial environments.

Status: Established in many localities. Extirpated in California (Hubbs et al. 1979).

Impact of Introduction: The piscivorous Northern Pike has been shown to significantly reduce prey density and has the potential to cause large-scale changes in fish communities, even resulting in species elimination (He and Kitchell 1990). A study conducted in Wisconsin showed introduced pike mostly affected four minnow species; redbelly dace Phoxinus eos, finescale dace P. neogaeus, fathead minnow Pimephales promelas, and brassy minnow Hybognathus hankinsoni. Pike apparently had less effect on other species in the pond (He and Kitchell 1990). Impacts can be either direct, such as by predation, or indirect, such as by causing prey fish to alter their behavior (He and Kitchell 1990). In Montana, Northern Pike commonly deplete their prey and become stunted (McMahon and Bennett 1996). A study conducted by T. Jones (University of Montana) in 1990, found Northern Pike eliminated most other fishes except for the pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, which was likely protected by its deep body shape and stiff spines, making it difficult prey (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Northern Pike may be responsible for declines of native westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in the Stillwater lakes in Montana (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Northern Pike are reported to be "a problem" in the Yampa River in Colorado (Whitmore 1997). Illegally stocked lakes in Alaska are home to unique populations of threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus. These populations have been isolated for 22,000 years and have evolved a number of striking phenotypic traits. The presence of nonindigenous pike in these same lakes threatens the stickleback's very existence (Bell, personal communication). Trapping in lakes where pike had not been stocked yielded sticklebacks and native salmonids. Trapping in adjacent lakes where pike had been stocked yielded nothing but pike (Bell, personal communication).  In Maine, the pike's presence in Pushaw Lake is suspected of destroying one of the state's premier landlocked salmon populations (Boucher 2003). The Pushaw Lake population may gain access to the Piscataquis River. Since the Northern Pike preys upon the Atlantic salmon, the populations of this and other native species may be threatened. The presence of Northern Pike, along with other introduced piscivores, reduced the richness of native minnow communities in Adirondack lakes (Findlay et al. 2000).

When Northern Pike are stocked in lakes containing native muskellunge E. masquinongy, the two species may hybridize. Although the male tiger muskellunge are sterile, females are often fertile and are capable of backcrossing (Becker 1983). Northern Pike are replacing native muskellunge in many Wisconsin lakes (Becker 1983). It is also believed that because Northern Pike generally spawn a month earlier than muskellunge, the older pike may prey on younger muskellunge (Gilbert, personal communication). This species has been documented to naturally hybridize with E. niger (Herke et al. 1990).

Remarks: Tyus et al. (1982) gave a distribution map of this species in the upper Colorado basin.

References: (click for full references)

Associated Press. 2003. State biologist on the hunt for non-native Kenai pike. Anchorage Daily News. October 24, 2003.

Bailey, R. M. and M. O. Allum. 1962. Fishes of South Dakota. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 119:1-131.

Baxter, G. T., and J. R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department Bulletin 4, Cheyenne, WY. 168 pp.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press Madison, WI. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/EcoNatRes.FishesWI.

Boucher, D. 2003. Illegal fish stockings threaten Maine lakes and rivers. Available online at URL http://www.state.me.us

Brown, C. J. D. 1971. Fishes of Montana. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.

Buchanan, T. M. 1973. Key to the fishes of Arkansas. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, AR. 68 pp., 198 maps.

Burr, B.M., and L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. Pages 287-324 in Hocutt, C.H., and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons. New York, NY.

Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 4. 398 pp.

Clay, W. M. 1975. The fishes of Kentucky. Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort, KY. 416 pp.

Cooper, E. L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA.

Cordone, A.J. - Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. Response to NBS-G non-indigenous questionaire. 1992.

Cross, F. B. 1967. Handbook of Fishes of Kansas. State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication 45, Topeka, KS.

Dahlberg, M. D., and D. C. Scott. 1971a. The freshwater fishes of Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:1-64.

Deacon, J. E., and J. E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

Denoncourt, R. F., T. B. Robbins, and R. Hesser. 1975a. Recent introductions and reintroductions to the Pennsylvania fish fauna of the Susquehanna River drainage above Conowingo Dam. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 49:57-58.

Eddy, S., and J. C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley, 3rd edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Everhart, W. H., and W. R. Seaman. 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks Division, Denver, CO. 75 pp.

Findlay, C.S., D.G. Bert, and L. Zheng. 2000. Effect of introduced piscivores on native minnow communities in Adirondack lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:570-580. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/f99-276

Foust, T. 2001. Fewer bass a concern at Parker Canyon Lake. Arizona Daily Star, Tucson.

Fowler, H. W. 1952. A list of the fishes of New Jersey, with off-shore species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia CIV:89-151.

Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA. 323 pp.

Hartel, K. E. 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Fish Department, Cambridge, MA. 2. September. pp. 1-9.

He, X., and J. F. Kitchell. 1990. Direct and indirect effects of predation on a fish community: a whole lake experiment. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:825-835.

Hendricks, M. L., J. R. Stauffer, Jr., C. H. Hocutt, and C. R. Gilbert. 1979. A preliminary checklist of the fishes of the Youghiogheny River. Chicago Academy of Sciences, Natural History Miscellanea 203:1-15.

Holton, G. D. 1990. A field guide to Montana fishes. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. 104 pp.

Holton, G. D. and H. E. Johnson. 1996. A field guide to Montana fishes, second edition. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Helena, MT. 104pp.

Howells, R. G. 1992a. Annotated list of introduced non-native fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants in Texas waters. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. 19 pp.

Hubbs, C. L., W. I. Follett, and L. J. Dempster. 1979. List of the fishes of California. California Academy Science Occasional Papers 133. 51 pp.

Hubert, W. 1994. Exotic fish. Pages 158-174 in T. L. Parrish, and S. H. Anderson, editors. Exotic species manual. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records – Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Jones, R.A. - Fisheries Bureau, Departments of Environmental Protection, Hartford, CT. Response to NBS-G nonindigenous questionaire. 1992.

Jones, D. J. 1963. A history of Nebraska's fisheries resources. Dingell-Hohnson Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Project F-4-R Publication. Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission..

Kelly, J. M. 2001. Bait-bucket biology. Post Standard, Syracuse, NY. June 28, 2001.

Kircheis, F. W. 1994. Update on freshwater fish species reproducing in Maine. Maine Naturalist 2(1):25-28.

Kuhne, E. R. 1939. A guide to the fishes of Tennessee and the mid-South. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Nashville, TN. 124 pp.

Lampman, B. H. 1946. The coming of the pond fishes. Binfords and Mort, Portland, OR.

Lapin, W.J. - Dept. of Envir. Manag., Div. of Fish and Wildl., West Kingson, RI. Response to NBS-G nonindigenous questionaire. 1992.

Li, H. - Professor, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Linder, A. D. 1963. Idaho's alien fishes. Tebiwa 6(2):12-15.

Luebke, R. W. 1978. Evaluation of a multi-predator introduction. Federal Aid Project F-31-R-4.

Madison, D. 2003. Outlaw Introductions. Montana Outdoors. July/August 2003. p 26-35.

Mallard, B. 2003. Invasive species: Life after Sebago. Kennebec Journal. August 27, 2003.

McMahon, T. E., and D. H. Bennett. 1996. Walleye and northern pike: boost or bane to northwest fisheries? Fisheries 21(8):6-13.

Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

Miller, R. J., and H. W. Robison. 1973. The fishes of Oklahoma. Oklahoma State University Press, Stillwater, OK.

Minckley, W. L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department. Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

Morrow, J. E. 1980. The freshwater fishes of Alaska. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, AK.

Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO. 343 pp.

Phillips, G. L., W. D. Schmid, J. C. Underhill. 1982. Fishes of the Minnesota region. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Polson, J. 1964. New reservoirs ? new fish species. Kansas Fish and Game 21(3):3-6.

Pritchard, D. L., O. D. May, Jr., and L. Rider. 1976. Stocking of predators in the predator-stocking-evaluation reservoirs. Proceedings of the 30th annual conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 30(1976):108-113.

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Schmidt, B. - Chief Fisheries Mangement, Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT. Response to NBS-G non-indigenous questionaire. 1992.

Simpson, J., and R. Wallace. 1978. Fishes of Idaho. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, ID.

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Southwick, R. - District Fisheries Supervisor, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. Richmond, VA. Response to NBS-G non-indigenous questionaire. 1992.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

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Stienstra, T. 2003. Pike could devastate fisheries; scientists say predator could devastate Delta. San Francisco Chronicle. January 29, 2003.

Stiles, E. W. 1978. Vertebrates of New Jersey. Edmund W. Stiles, Somerset, NJ.

Sublette, J. E., M. D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. 393 pp.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Todd, B. 1962. Explosive new fish in Kansas. Kansas Fish and Game 20(1):3-5.

Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH.

Underhill, J. C. 1959. Fishes of the Vermillion River, South Dakota. Proceedings of the South Dakota Academy of Science 38:96-102.

Vinyard, G.L. 2001. Fish Species Recorded from Nevada. Biological Resources Research Center. University of Nevada, Reno. 5 pp.

Webster, D. A. 1942. The life histories of some Connecticut fishes in State Board of Fisheries and Game. A fishery survey of important Connecticut lakes. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 63.

Whitmore, S. 1997. Aquatic nuisance species in Region 6 of the Fish and Wildlife Service. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Great Plains Fish and Wildlife Mangement Assistance Office, Pierre, SD.

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FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 7/1/2019

Peer Review Date: 7/22/2015

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Esox lucius Linnaeus, 1758: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=676, Revision Date: 7/1/2019, Peer Review Date: 7/22/2015, Access Date: 4/21/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [4/21/2024].

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