Common name: kanda
Synonyms and Other Names: kanda mullet, Australian mullet, summer mullet
available through www.itis.gov
Native Range: Indo-Pacific from East Africa and the Red Sea to southern Japan, Micronesia, and the Marquesas.
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Introduced to Oahu, Hawaii in 1955 (Hourigan 1989); inadvertently stocked with Marquesan sardines (Randall 1987). It has established and spread to all islands of Hawaii (Mundy 2005).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Valamugil engeli are found here.
Table last updated 10/4/2018
† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: Found in estuaries (Mundy 2005).
Means of Introduction: Inadvertenly stocked along with a shipment of Marquesan sardines from the Marquesas in 1955 (Randall 1987).
Impact of Introduction: Randall (1987) suggests that the kanda may be competing with a commercially important mullet, Mugil cephalus in Hawaii.
References: (click for full references)
Mundy, B. C. 2005. Checklist of Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology, Number 6.
Randall, J. E. 1987. Introductions of marine fishes to the Hawaiian Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 41: 490-502.
Revision Date: 9/16/2011
Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016
Schofield, P.J., 2019, Valamugil engeli (Bleeker, 1858-59): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=790, Revision Date: 9/16/2011, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 7/16/2019
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.