The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Valamugil engeli
Valamugil engeli
Marine Fishes

Copyright Info
Valamugil engeli (Bleeker, 1858-59)

Common name: kanda

Synonyms and Other Names: kanda mullet, Australian mullet, summer mullet

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Native Range: Indo-Pacific from East Africa and the Red Sea to southern Japan, Micronesia, and the Marquesas.

Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: Introduced to Oahu, Hawaii in 1955 (Hourigan 1989); inadvertently stocked with Marquesan sardines (Randall 1987).  It has established and spread to all islands of Hawaii (Mundy 2005).

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Valamugil engeli are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
HI195520052Hawaii; Oahu

Table last updated 6/26/2022

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: Found in estuaries (Mundy 2005).

Means of Introduction: Inadvertenly stocked along with a shipment of Marquesan sardines from the Marquesas in 1955 (Randall 1987).

Status: Established.

Impact of Introduction: Randall (1987) suggests that the kanda may be competing with a commercially important mullet, Mugil cephalus in Hawaii.

References: (click for full references)

Mundy, B. C.  2005.  Checklist of Fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago.  Bishop Museum Bulletins in Zoology, Number 6.

Randall, J. E.  1987.  Introductions of marine fishes to the Hawaiian Islands.  Bulletin of Marine Science 41: 490-502.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Schofield, P.J.

Revision Date: 9/16/2011

Peer Review Date: 9/16/2011

Citation Information:
Schofield, P.J., 2022, Valamugil engeli (Bleeker, 1858-59): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=790, Revision Date: 9/16/2011, Peer Review Date: 9/16/2011, Access Date: 6/29/2022

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2022]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/29/2022].

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