Disclaimer:

The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Sander vitreus
Sander vitreus
(Walleye)
Fishes
Native Transplant
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Sander vitreus (Mitchill, 1818)

Common name: Walleye

Synonyms and Other Names: (walleyed pike); Stizostedion vitreum

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).

Size: 91 cm.

Native Range: St. Lawrence-Great Lakes, Arctic, and Mississippi River basins from Quebec to Northwest Territories, and south to Alabama and Arkansas (Page and Burr 1991).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Sander vitreus are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Alabama195319812Middle Tallapoosa; Mulberry
Arizona188020049Canyon Diablo; Grand Canyon; Lake Mead; Little Colorado Headwaters; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Salt; Silver; Upper Verde
Arkansas1950198813Beaver Reservoir; Bull Shoals Lake; Dardanelle Reservoir; Fourche La Fave; Frog-Mulberry; Little Missouri; Lower Little Arkansas; Lower Saline; Ouachita Headwaters; Petit Jean; Robert S. Kerr Reservoir; Upper Ouachita; Upper Saline
California187419502Lower Sacramento; Upper Coon-Upper Auburn
Colorado1880200933Alamosa-Trinchera; Big Thompson; Cache La Poudre; Clear; Colorado Headwaters; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Fountain; Horse; Huerfano; Lower Gunnison; Lower San Juan-Four Corners; Lower White; Lower Yampa; McElmo; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; North Platte; Piedra; Purgatoire; Republican; Rio Grande Headwaters; San Luis; South Fork Republican; South Platte; St. Vrain; Two Butte; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith; Upper Dolores; Upper Gunnison; Upper San Juan; Upper South Platte; Upper Yampa
Connecticut194019995Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; New England Region; Quinnipiac; Thames
Delaware197419952Brandywine-Christina; Delaware Bay
Florida196019823Florida Southeast Coast; Kissimmee; Vero Beach
Georgia1971199811Altamaha; Apalachicola Basin; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Oconee; Lower Savannah; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Savannah; South Atlantic-Gulf Region; Tugaloo; Upper Chattahoochee; Upper Oconee
Idaho1951201112Bear Lake; Beaver-Camas; Goose; Lower Bear; Lower Snake-Asotin; Middle Bear; North Fork Payette; Pend Oreille Lake; Salmon Falls; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane; Weiser
Indiana18931938*
Iowa200120011Missouri-Little Sioux
Kansas1865201216Delaware; Fall; Lower Big Blue; Middle Neosho; Middle Smoky Hill; Neosho Headwaters; Prairie Dog; South Fork Ninnescah; Upper Cimarron-Bluff; Upper Cottonwood; Upper Neosho; Upper North Fork Solomon; Upper Saline; Upper Smoky Hill; Upper South Fork Solomon; Upper Verdigris
Kentucky198620095Middle Fork Kentucky; Red; Rough; Upper Cumberland; Upper Kentucky
Louisiana197419974Bayou D'Arbonne; Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge; Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre; Toledo Bend Reservoir
Maine191420103Lower Kennebec; New England Region; St. Croix
Maryland196920079Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Susquehanna; Mid Atlantic Region; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Upper Chesapeake; Youghiogheny
Massachusetts198020054Merrimack; Middle Connecticut; Narragansett; New England Region
Mississippi193619763Middle Pearl-Silver; Middle Pearl-Strong; Yocona
Missouri198819881Bull Shoals Lake
Montana1933201556Arrow; Battle; Beaver; Beaver; Beaverhead; Big Dry; Big Horn; Big Horn Lake; Big Muddy; Big Sandy; Bullwhacker-Dog; Charlie-Little Muddy; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Flathead Lake; Flatwillow; Fort Peck Reservoir; Frenchman; Judith; Lodge; Lower Bighorn; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Flathead; Lower Milk; Lower Musselshell; Lower Powder; Lower Tongue; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Marias; Middle Milk; Middle Musselshell; Milk; Musselshell; O'Fallon; Peoples; Poplar; Prairie Elk-Wolf; Redwater; Rosebud; Sage; Sun; Swan; Teton; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Milk; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri-Dearborn; Upper Musselshell; Upper Tongue; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin; Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar; West Fork Poplar; Willow
Nebraska188418841Missouri Region
Nevada198420017Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Lake Mead; Little Humboldt; Lower Humboldt; Middle Carson; Middle Humboldt; Truckee
New Hampshire1927200110Black-Ottauquechee; Contoocook; Merrimack River; Middle Connecticut; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Saco; Upper Connecticut; Upper Connecticut-Mascoma; Waits; West
New Jersey189020027Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Hudson; Mid-Atlantic Region; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Raritan
New Mexico1957200012Caballo; Conchas; Elephant Butte Reservoir; Pecos Headwaters; Rio Chama; Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Rio Grande-Santa Fe; Upper Beaver; Upper Canadian; Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir; Upper Pecos; Upper Pecos-Black
New York1815200510Chenango; East Branch Delaware; Lower Hudson; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Mohawk; Owego-Wappasening; Southern Long Island; Upper Delaware; Upper Hudson; Upper Susquehanna
North Carolina195019953Roanoke Rapids; Upper Catawba; Upper Neuse
North Dakota199420052Lake Sakakawea; Painted Woods-Square Butte
Ohio193920133Hocking; Licking; Paint
Oklahoma1950199916Black Bear-Red Rock; Coldwater; Deep Fork; Dirty-Greenleaf; Illinois; Kaw Lake; Lake O' The Cherokees; Lake Texoma; Lower Cimarron; Lower Cimarron-Skeleton; Lower Neosho; Lower Washita; Middle Beaver; Middle North Canadian; Middle Washita; Upper Cimarron
Oregon196720136Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Deschutes; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Upper Willamette
Pennsylvania1889199916Bald Eagle; Brandywine-Christina; Lackawaxen; Lehigh; Lower Juniata; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna-Swatara; Lower West Branch Susquehanna; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Schuylkill; Susquehanna; Upper Juniata; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock
South Carolina197120095Lower Savannah; Middle Savannah; Seneca; Tugaloo; Upper Savannah
South Dakota195020036Angostura Reservoir; Lower Belle Fourche; Lower Cheyenne; South Fork Grand; Upper Big Sioux; Vermillion
Tennessee199319931Upper Elk
Texas1953201658Amistad Reservoir; Atascosa; Austin-Travis Lakes; Blackwater Draw; Bosque; Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes; Cedar; Colorado Headwaters; Denton; East Fork Trinity; El Paso-Las Cruces; Elm Fork Trinity; Farmers-Mud; Hubbard; International Falcon Reservoir; Jim Ned; Lake Meredith; Lake O'the Pines; Lake Texoma; Lampasas; Leon; Lower Angelina; Lower Brazos; Lower Brazos-Little Brazos; Lower Devils; Lower Neches; Lower Nueces; Lower Sulpher; Lower West Fork Trinity; Medina; Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney; Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto; Middle Canadian; Middle Colorado; Middle Colorado-Elm; Middle Guadalupe; Middle Sabine; North Bosque; North Concho; North Fork Double Mountain Fork Brazos; Paint; Palo Duro; Pecan Bayou; San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel; San Gabriel; South Concho; Tule; Upper Clear Fork Brazos; Upper Guadalupe; Upper Neches; Upper Sabine; Upper Salt Fork Red; Upper Trinity; Upper West Fork Trinity; West Fork San Jacinto; White; Wichita; Yegua
Utah1880201719Duchesne; Jordan; Little Bear-Logan; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Green-Desolation Canyon; Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Lake Powell; Lower San Juan; Lower Sevier; Lower Weber; Middle Sevier; Provo; San Pitch; Strawberry; Upper Bear; Upper Colorado-Dirty Devil; Upper Colorado-Kane Springs; Upper Lake Powell; Utah Lake
Vermont1972200011Black-Ottauquechee; Lamoille River; Mettawee River; Missiquoi River; St. Francois; St. Francois River; Upper Connecticut; Upper Connecticut; Waits; West; Winooski River
Virginia1962199529Appomattox; Banister; Chowan; Hampton Roads; James; Kanawha; Lower Dan; Lower James; Lower Potomac; Lynnhaven-Poquoson; Mattaponi; Maury; Meherrin; Middle James-Willis; Middle New; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Middle Roanoke; Nottoway; Pamunkey; Potomac; Rivanna; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Dan; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; York
Washington1950201630Banks Lake; Chief Joseph; Dungeness-Elwha; Duwamish; Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Hood Canal; Lake Washington; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Lower Snake; Lower Snake-Asotin; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Lower Spokane; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Nisqually; Okanogan; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Pend Oreille; Puget Sound; Skykomish; Snohomish; Strait of Georgia; Upper Chehalis; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids; Upper Crab; Upper Spokane
West Virginia198419955Gauley; Lower New; Middle New; Potomac; Tygart Valley
Wyoming1970201816Belle Fourche; Big Horn; Big Horn Lake; Clear; Glendo Reservoir; Horse; Lower Laramie; Lower Wind; Middle North Platte-Casper; North Fork Shoshone; North Platte; Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs; South Platte; Upper Belle Fourche; Upper Bighorn; Upper Wind

Table last updated 10/18/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.

* HUCs are not listed for states where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. state centroids or Canadian provinces).


Means of Introduction: Intentionally stocked as a food fish and for sportfishing. One of the earliest introductions occurred in 1874 when Livingston Stone gathered a small number of adult Walleye captured in Vermont and transported them to California where the fish were released into the Sacramento River (Smith 1896). According to Dill and Cordone (1997), in the 1890s the California Fish Commission applied to the U.S. Fish Commission for shipments of Walleye for use in controlling carp in Clear and Blue lakes; however, no Walleye were imported at the time. These same authors also noted that the state received Walleye eggs from Minnesota in 1959 and that these fish were to be used to control bluegill and support other sport fish in southern California reservoirs. In Idaho, Walleye may have been stocked accidentally with yellow perch Perca flavescens (Linder 1963). McMahon and Bennett (1996) state the first introduction into southern Idaho reservoirs was in 1974. The person or agency responsible for introducing the species into Washington is uncertain. The federal government may have introduced them in the early 1960s (Dentler 1993). A sport fishery had developed in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, by the 1960s (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Walleye was first reported in Wyoming in 1961 from Seminoe Reservoir in the upper North Platte River. The fish were swept downstream and are now established in a 450-km stretch of river (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Herke (1969) performed experimental stocking into private ponds to examine the survivability of this species in peninsular Florida. The Walleye was stocked illegally in Canyon Ferry Reservoir, Montana, and was found first circa 1991 (White, personal communication). More recently, the species also was illegally stocked in Noxon Reservoir on the Clark Fork of the Columbia River, Montana (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Illegal introductions seem to be a growing problem in western states (McMahon and Bennett 1996).

Status: Many states have had some success in establishing reproducing populations. Other states have maintained populations with annual stocking. Occurrences in Delaware are due to strays from Pennsylvania stockings (Raasch, personal communication). Extirpated in California (Hubbs et al. 1979; Dill and Cordone 1997). Dentler (1993) indicated that Walleye populations were spreading throughout the Columbia River basin. Walleye abundance in the Clark Fork and Pend Oreille rivers, and Lake Pend Oreille, doubled between 2011 and 2014 (Anonymous 2014).

Impact of Introduction: McMahon and Bennett (1996) recently reviewed the literature and presented a summary of impacts of Walleye in the Northwest. Overall, the effects of its introduction were considered complex and varied. The Walleye has been shown to prey on smolts of Pacific salmon, and therefore pose a threat to these already declining species in the Columbia River (Dentler 1993; McMahon and Bennett 1996). For instance, it is estimated that Walleye consume two million smolts annually in the Columbia River, about one third of total predation loss (McMahon and Bennett 1996). A study in Seminoe Reservoir, Wyoming, found Walleye stocking to result in a sharp decline in native minnows Hybognathus spp., darters Etheostoma spp., suckers Catostomus spp., rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, and crayfish Orconectes obscurus. For instance, most of the 500,000 trout fingerlings stocked annually were eaten within a few weeks. Consequently, there was a need to stock larger rainbow trout to avoid predation, an action that increased hatchery operation costs (McMahon and Bennett 1996). In their native eastern habitat, Walleye and salmonids are able to limit interaction by living at different water temperatures (depths) and in different habitats (McLean and Magnuson 1977). However, in western reservoirs the lack of a strong thermocline and a small littoral area does not permit this separation (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Numbers and health of brown trout Salmo trutta were found to decrease after introduced Walleyes consumed a large portion of the crayfish population, the brown trout's favorite food (McMahon and Bennett 1996). When the Walleye initially was introduced into Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, Idaho, yellow perch Perca flavescens comprised 80% of the sport fish. However, 12 years later, Walleye made up 80% and perch only 1% of the fish in the reservoir (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Similar perch collapses also have happened at two other reservoirs in Wyoming (McMahon and Bennett 1996). A crash in the yellow perch population in Canyon Ferry Reservoir may be related to past Walleye introduction; studies are being conducted to look at the problem; in addition, it has been predicted that Walleye will have a large impact on the trout fishery in the reservoir (White, personal communication). In many cases introduced Walleye deplete the forage base. As a consequence, the surviving Walleye population consists of stunted individuals and the species no longer serves as a valuable fishery (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Some states now prohibit the introduction of Walleye into certain waters. For instance, Walleye introductions are banned in the Snake River drainage in Idaho because of concern about predation on anadromous salmonids (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Further introductions in Oregon also are forbidden due to concern about predation on salmonid smolts in the Columbia River (McMahon and Bennett 1996). Although 40 million Walleye are stocked annually to maintain an important sport fishery in eastern Montana, the species has been banned from waters west of the Continental Divide in that state due to concern for important native and nonindigenous salmonid stocks (McMahon and Bennett 1996).

Remarks: The Walleye is a desirable sport and food fish. Although the species was thought to be native to a few drainages flowing into the Atlantic, Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) reviewed and evaluated the literature on the distribution of eastern populations and concluded that the populations on the Atlantic slope south of the St. Lawrence probably are introduced. As with many of the Virginia species, Jenkins and Burkhead provided extensive detail on the introduction history of Walleye in waters of Virginia and surrounding states. McMahon and Bennett (1996) provided a map and a table of Walleye introductions in the northwest. The species' distribution in Alabama south of the Tennessee drainage was discussed by Brown (1962), who speculated that they are native to that region. Lee et al. (1980 et seq.) reported them as introduced. Billington and Maceina (1997) investigated the genetic status of Walleyes in Alabama, where the southern Walleyes are native but northern Walleyes from Ohio and Pennsylvania have been stocked. They concluded that transplanted female northern Walleyes did not survive to reproduce. However, because of the type of analysis done (mtDNA) they could not tell if any of the transplanted males survived.

One especially problematic record comes from the Escambia drainage in Alabama (Brown 1962; Mettee et al. 1996). Only a single individual has ever been collected from the drainage. None have been taken downstream in the Florida portion of the drainage. Swift et al. (1986) reported it as introduced into the drainage. In discussions with Gilbert (personal communication), he believes the species was introduced to the Escambia based on the fact that only one specimen has been collected, the apparent lack of suitable habitat, and the fact that this sport-fish is more likely to be introduced than less desirable species. He also pointed out that Bailey et al. (1954) failed to include this species in their paper on the Escambia and that Mettee et al. (1996) did not find it in their survey work. He also believes that if the Walleye were native to the Escambia, it would be present in the lowermost (Florida) section because that is the stretch with the most suitable habitat. He likens the Walleye to Crystallaria asprella, which is found only in the lower section of the drainage (Gilbert 1992). However, JDW (author) believes it is native to the drainage because of the presence of several other native large-river fish and mussel species; the collection was before the state began stocking this species, the drainage has never been extensively sampled, and some sections do contain suitable habitat. Much habitat was lost when two dams were constructed on the river in the 1940s. Many large-river mussels suffered from these impoundments (JDW, personal observation) and Walleye could have done the same.

Although Walleye have been introduced widely into the region, Starnes et al. (2011) discuss zooarcheological evidence suggesting that this species may actually be native to some mid-Atlantic Slope drainages (south to Albemarle Sound and Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac River).

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous. 1994. Fish Stocking Report. Texas Parks & Wildlife News. February 25, 1994. 18 pp.

Anonymous. 2001. Oregon's Warm Water Fishing with Public Access. http://www.dfw.state.or.us/warm_water_fishing/index.asp.

Anonymous. 2014. Non-native walleye numbers double in Clark Fork Delta in three years, elimination not possible. The Columbia Basin Bulletin. Bend, OR. http://www.cbbulletin.com/432721.aspx. Created on 12/05/2014. Accessed on 01/08/2015.

Brown, B. E. 1962. Occurrence of the Walleye, Stizostedion vitreum, in Alabama South of the Tennessee Valley. Copeia, 2: 469-471.

DeLorme. 1992a. Idaho Atlas and Gazatteer.DeLorme, Freeport, ME. 63 pp.

DeLorme. 1992b. Washington Atlas & Gazatteer. DeLorme, Yarmouth, ME.

DeLorme. 1992c. Wyoming Atlas and Gazatteer. DeLorme, Freeport, ME. 72 pp.

DeLorme. 1993. Maryland and Delaware Atlas and Gazatteer. DeLorme, Freeport, ME. 80 pp.

DeLorme. 1995. Virginia Atlas and Gazatteer. DeLorme, Yamouth, ME.

DeLorme. 1996a. Arizona Atlas and Gazetteer. DeLorme, Freeport, Maine. 76 pp.

DeLorme. 1996b. Nevada Atlas and Gazetteer. DeLorme, Freeport, Maine. 72 pp.

DeLorme. 1996c. Vermont Atlas & Gazatteer. DeLorme, Yarmouth, ME.

DeLorme. 1997. Colorado Atlas and Gazatteer. DeLorme, Yarmouth, ME. 102 pp.

DeLorme. 1998a. Georgia Atlas & Gazatteer. DeLorme, Yarmouth, ME.

DeLorme. 1998b. New Mexico Atlas and Gazatteer. DeLorme, Yarmouth, ME.

DeLorme. 1998c. Utah Atlas and Gazetteer. DeLorme, Freeport, Maine. 64 pp.

DeLorme. 1999. Connecticut/Rhode Island Atlas & Gazatteer. DeLorme, Yarmouth, ME.

Dentler, J.L. 1993. Noah's farce: the regulation and control of exotic fish and wildlife. University of Puget Sound Law Review 17:191-242.

Halliwell, D.B. 2003. Introduced Fish in Maine. MABP series: Focus on Freshwater Biodiversity. Available online at URL http://mainebiodiversity.org/introduced.fish.pdf

Herke, H.W. 1969. Florida Walleye? Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 23:648-650.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986 . Zoogeography of the Fishes of the Central Appalachians and Central Atlantic Coastal Plain. 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Holton, G.D. 1990. A Field Guide to Montana Fishes. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Helena, MT. 104 pp.

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records – Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh. 12: 1-854.

Linder, A. D. 1963. Idaho's Alien Fishes. TEBIWA, 6(2), 12-15.

Loyacano, H. A. Jr. 1975. A List of the Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. Bulletin of the South Carolina Experimental Station. Bulletin 580, 9 pp.

Madison, D. 2003. Outlaw Introductions. Montana Outdoors. July/August 2003: 26-35.

McLean, J., and J.J. Magnuson. 1977. Species interactions in percid communities. Journal ofthe Fisheries Research Board of Canada 34:1941-1951.

McMahon, T.E., and D.H. Bennett. 1996. Walleye and northern pike: boost or bane to northwest fisheries? Fisheries 21(8):6-13.

Nico, L.G. 2005. Changes in the fish fauna of the Kissimmee River Basin, peninsular Florida: nonnative additions. Pages 523-556 in Rinne, J.N., R.M. Hughes, and B. Calamusso, eds. Historical changes in large river fish assemblages of the Americas. American Fisheries Society Symposium 45. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Rohde, F. C., R. G. Arndt, J. W. Foltz, and J. M. Quattro. 2009. Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC. 430 pp.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

State of Oregon. 2000. Warm Water Game Fish Records. 7 pp.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 5/26/2015

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2018, Sander vitreus (Mitchill, 1818): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=831, Revision Date: 5/26/2015, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 10/23/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [10/23/2018].

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