Common name: Atlantic Croaker
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Manooch (1984); Robins and Ray (1986); Hoese and Moore (1998).
Size: 67 cm.
Native Range: Marine. Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts and the northern Gulf of Mexico to northern Mexico, except for southern Florida. Also possibly from southern Brazil to Argentina (Robins and Ray 1986).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Micropogonias undulatus are found here.
Table last updated 4/20/2021
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: In 1975, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department stocked 250 croakers for sport fishing (Howells and Garrett 1992).
Status: Failed to establish a reproducing population.
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Hoese, H.D. and R.H. Moore. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. 2nd Edition. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, TX.
Howells, R.G., and G.P. Garrett. 1992. Status of some exotic sport fises in Texas waters. Texas Journal of Science 44(3):317-324.
Manooch, C.S. 1984. Fisherman's guide, fishes of the southwestern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.
Robins, C.R., and G.C. Ray. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 32. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.
Revision Date: 5/24/2019
Peer Review Date: 12/5/2011
Fuller, P., 2021, Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus, 1766): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=957, Revision Date: 5/24/2019, Peer Review Date: 12/5/2011, Access Date: 4/20/2021
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.