The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Micropogonias undulatus
Micropogonias undulatus
(Atlantic Croaker)
Marine Fishes
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus, 1766)

Common name: Atlantic Croaker

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Manooch (1984); Robins and Ray (1986); Hoese and Moore (1998).

Size: 67 cm.

Native Range: Marine. Atlantic Coast from Massachusetts and the northern Gulf of Mexico to northern Mexico, except for southern Florida. Also possibly from southern Brazil to Argentina (Robins and Ray 1986).

Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Micropogonias undulatus are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
TX195519752Austin-Travis Lakes; East Galveston Bay

Table last updated 12/7/2023

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: In 1975, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department stocked 250 croakers for sport fishing (Howells and Garrett 1992).

Status: Failed to establish a reproducing population.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

References: (click for full references)

Hoese, H.D. and R.H. Moore. 1998.  Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Texas, Louisiana, and Adjacent Waters. 2nd Edition. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, TX.

Howells, R.G., and G.P. Garrett. 1992. Status of some exotic sport fises in Texas waters. Texas Journal of Science 44(3):317-324.

Manooch, C.S. 1984. Fisherman's guide, fishes of the southwestern United States. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Robins, C.R., and G.C. Ray. 1986. A field guide to Atlantic coast fishes of North America. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 32. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Other Resources:
Texas Parks and Wildlife

FishBase Summary

Author: Fuller, P.

Revision Date: 5/24/2019

Peer Review Date: 12/5/2011

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., 2023, Micropogonias undulatus (Linnaeus, 1766): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=957, Revision Date: 5/24/2019, Peer Review Date: 12/5/2011, Access Date: 12/8/2023

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2023]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [12/8/2023].

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