Potamogeton crispus
Potamogeton crispus
(curly-leaf pondweed)
Translate this page with Google
Français Deutsch Español Português Russian Italiano Japanese

Copyright Info
Potamogeton crispus L.

Common name: curly-leaf pondweed

Synonyms and Other Names: [Curly, curly-leaved, crispy-leaved, crisped] pondweed

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Potamogeton crispus grows entirely as a submersed aquatic plant with no floating leaves.  Leaves are alternate, 4-10 cm in length and 5-10 mm wide.  Leaves are conspicuously toothed along leaf margins, sessile (attached directly to the stem), narrowly oblong, undulate (wavy like lasagna noodles) with a conspicuous mid-vein.  Leaf tips are obtuse (rounded or blunt), olive-green to reddish-brown, and somewhat translucent. Stems are flattened, channeled, with few branches.  Rhizomes are pale yellow or reddish, rooting at the nodes.  Small flowers (3 mm wide), with greenish-brown or greenish-red sepals form on a terminal spike above the waterline producing 3-4 achenes (fruits) per flower.

The unique seasonal phenology of P. crispus differentiates the species from other submersed aquatic plants found in North American waters.  In the colder regions of its range, turions (the primary reproductive propagule) break dormancy in the fall when water temperatures drop (Nichols and Shaw 1986). P. crispus survives the winter as whole, intact leafy plants (even under thick ice and snow cover) (Stuckey et al. 1978), then grow rapidly in early spring when water temperatures are still quite cool (10-15°C).  In early June plants flower, fruit, and form turions, and then plants senesce by mid-July (Tobiessen and Snow 1983) in most areas of its range.  The winter growth form of P. crispus is morphologically different from its spring or summer growth form, with leaves that are flattened, narrow, and blue-green in color with few stems and thin rhizomes (Tobiessen and Snow 1983).

Size: up to 5 meters in length (Holm et al. 1997)

Native Range: Eurasia, Africa, and Australia (Catling and Dobson 1985)

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Hawaii auto-generated map
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: Potamogeton crispus L. was introduced into the United States in the mid 1800’s (Stuckey 1979). The earliest collection of the plant was recorded in 1841-1842 in Philadelphia with distribution limited to the northeastern portion of the United States and a small portion of California prior to 1900. Curly leaf pondweed encompassed the United States and most of Canada by 1978.

State occurrences:

  • Alabama: Cahaba (University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics 2007), Guntersville Lake, Mobile-Tensaw (Stuckey 1979), and Middle Alabama (Zolczynski and Shearer 1997) drainages, and DeKalb County (Haynes 1980)
  • Arizona: Little Colorado (Stuckey 1979), Lower Colorado, San Pedro-Wilcox, Verde (Arizona State University 2003), Lower Colorado-Lake Mead, Lower Gila, and Santa Cruz (University of Arizona Herbarium 2008) drainages
  • Arkansas: Benton County (Smith 1988)
  • California: All drainages except Black Rock Desert, North Lahontan, Oregon Closed Basins, and Walker (Consortium of California Herbaria 2014; Stuckey 1979)
  • Colorado: Evergreen Lake in South Platte drainage (Stuckey 1979), and Dinosaur National Park in the Green River in Upper Green drainage (Utah State University 2007)
  • Connecticut: Connecticut Coastal, Lower Connecticut, and Lower Hudson (University of Connecticut 2011) drainages
  • Delaware: Wilmington in Brandywine-Christina drainage (Stuckey 1979)
  • District of Columbia: Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History 2015) drainage
  • Florida: Jackson Blue Spring in Chipola drainage (Stuckey 1979), and Lake Jesup in Upper St. Johns drainage (Wunderlin and Hansen 2007)
  • Georgia: Lake Seminole in Lower Flint (Stuckey 1979) and Spring (Gholson 1968) drainages, and Rock Eagle Lake in Upper Oconee drainage (University of Florida Herbarium 2016)
  • Idaho: Idaho Falls, St. Joe (Falter et al. 1974), Lower Bear (Tom Woolf, ID Dept. of Ag., pers. comm.), Middle Snake-Boise (New York Botanical Garden 2015), and Pend Oreille drainages, and Washington County (Rice 2008)
  • Illinois: All drainages (Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health 2015; Loyola University Chicago 2013; Stuckey 1979)
  • Indiana: All drainages (Aquatic Control, Inc. 2007; Aquatic Weed Control 2007; Central Hardwoods Invasive Plant Network 2010; IN DNR 1997; Miller 2016; Stuckey 1979)
  • Iowa: Apple-Plum (Loyola University Chicago 2013), Big Papillion-Mosquito, Upper Wapsipinicon (University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute 2008), Coon-Yellow (Beal and Monson 1954), Copperas-Duck (Stuckey 1979), and Little Sioux (Weisman 2016) drainages, and Monona County (McGregor and Barkley 1977)
  • Kansas: All drainages (Jason Goeckler and Jessica Howell, KS DWPT, pers. comm.; Stuckey 1979; University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute 2008)
  • Kentucky: Smokey Valley Lake of Carter Caves State Park in Little Scioto-Tygarts drainage, and Boone, Bracken, Gallatin, Henderson, and Madison Counties (Beal and Thieret 1986)
  • Louisiana: Eastern Louisiana Coastal, Lake Maurepas, Lower Mississippi-New Orleans drainages (Chabreck and Condrey 1979; Stuckey 1979)
  • Maine: West Pond in Saco drainage (Madsen et al. 2010)
  • Maryland: Lower Susquehanna (Mercurio et al. 1999), Potomac, and Upper Chesapeake (Stuckey 1979) drainages
  • Massachusetts: Connecticut Coastal (Hellquist 1972), Lower Connecticut, Massachusetts-Rhode Island Coastal (University of Connecticut 2011), and Merrimack (Acadia University 2012) drainages
  • Michigan: All drainages except Northeastern Lake Michigan and Southeastern Lake Superior (GLIFWC 2008; Michigan State University 2015; Stuckey 1979; University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics 2007; University of Connecticut 2011; Voss 1972)
  • Minnesota: Minnesota (Anderson 2016), Mississippi Headwaters, Rainy, Upper Red (Balgie et al. 2010), Northwestern Lake Superior, Upper Mississippi-Black-Root, Upper Mississippi-Crow-Rum (Stuckey 1979), St. Croix (GLIFWC 2008), and Upper Mississippi-Maquoketa-Plum (Utah State University 2007) drainages
  • Mississippi: Davis Lake of Tombigbee National Forest in Tibbee drainage (Dennis Riecke, MS DWFP, pers. comm.), and Trace State Park Lake in Town drainage (Madsen 2010)
  • Missouri: Big (Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health 2015), Current, Eleven Point, Lower Missouri, Upper Grand, Lower Missouri Blackwater (Missouri Botanical Garden 2007), Meramec, Spring (Stuckey 1979), and Peruque-Piasa (Loyola University Chicago 2013) drainages, and Pike County (Yatskievych 1999)
  • Montana: Marias, Upper Missouri (Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health 2015), Missouri Headwaters (Utah State University 2007), and Pend Oreille (Rice 2008) drainages, and Valley County (McGregor and Barkley 1977)
  • Nebraska: Hayes Center WMA lake shore of the Red Willow drainage (University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute 2008) and Bridgeport State Recreation Area in Middle North Platt-Scotts Bluff drainage, and Cass, Dodge, Pawnee, and Valley Counties (McGregor and Barkley 1977)
  • Nevada: Nevada - Carson Desert, Truckee (New York Botanical Garden 2015), Long-Ruby Valleys (Utah State University 2007), Potomac (Delwiche 2001), and Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes (Stuckey 1979) drainages
  • New Hampshire: Black-Ottauquechee, Nashua (NH DES 2015), Middle Connecticut (IPANE 2001), Piscataqua-Salmon Falls, Upper Connecticut-Mascoma (Padgett and Crow 1993), and West (Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health 2015) drainages
  • New Jersey: New Jersey - Lower Delaware, Raritan (Stuckey 1979), and Middle Delaware-Musconetcong (Schuyler 1989) drainages
  • New Mexico: Isleta of Tena Indian Reservation in Rio Grande-Albuquerque drainage (Stuckey 1979)
  • New York: All drainages (iMapInvasives 2015; Scott Kishbaugh, NY DEC, pers. comm.; Michigan State University 2015; Mills et al. 1993; Stuckey 1979; Titus 1994; University of Connecticut 2011)
  • North Carolina: small stream at state fish hatchery near Marion in Upper Catawba drainage (Stuckey 1979), and Hertford, Mcdowell, and Wilkes (Radford et al.l 1968) Counties
  • North Dakota: Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota Game and Fish Department 2015), Lower Sheyenne (Stuckey 1979), Painted Woods-Square Butte (Associated Press 2008), and Willow (Jason Lee, ND GFD, pers. comm.) drainages
  • Ohio: All drainages (Central Hardwoods Invasive Plant Network 2010; Stuckey 1979)
  • Oklahoma: Oklahoma - Blue (McGregor and Barkley 1977), Cache, Illinois, Lake Texoma, Little (Stuckey 1979), Lower Canadian-Deer, and Red-Washita (Nelson and Couch 1985) drainages, and Ottawa County (Correll and Correll 1975)
  • Oregon: Oregon - Deschutes, Lower Columbia (iMapInvasives 2012), Klamath, Middle Snake-Boise (Oregon State University 2013), Middle Columbia (Rice 2008), Northern Oregon Coastal (Carr 2009), Southern Oregon Coastal, and Willamette (Stuckey 1979) drainages
  • Pennsylvania: All drainages (Pennsylvania Flora Database. 2011; Stuckey 1979)
  • Rhode Island: North Smithfield in Blackstone drainage, and Silver Hook in Narragansett drainage (University of Connecticut 2011)
  • South Carolina: Cooper River and Goose Creek Reservoir in Cooper drainage (University of Connecticut 2011), and Lake Murray in Saluda drainage (Steve de Kozlowski, SC DNR, pers. comm.)
  • South Dakota: Burbank Lake (oxbow of Missouri River) in Lewis and Clark Lake drainage (Stuckey 1979), and Cold Brook Reservoir in Middle Cheyenne-Spring drainage (University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute 2008)
  • Tennessee: Lower Cumberland (Chester 1975), Lower Clinch, and Lower Cumberland-Sycamore drainages, and Anderson, Carter, Grundy, Hamilton, Hawkins, Knox, Lake, Marion, Obion, Roane, Stewart, and Sullivan Counties (Stuckey 1979)
  • Texas: Austin-Travis Lakes, Bois D'arc-Island (Stuckey 1979), Lower Colorado-Cummins (Utah State University 2007), Lower Frio, Lower Guadalupe (Rhandy Helton, TX PWD, pers. comm.), and San Marcos (Lemke 1989) drainages, and Dallas and Randall Counties (Odgen 1966)
  • Utah: Lower Bear-Malad (Utah State University 2007), Lower Weber (Bartodziej and Ludlow 1997), and Provo (New York Botanical Garden 2015) drainages
  • Vermont: Black-Ottauquechee (Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health 2015), Lake Champlain (Stuckey 1979), Mettawee River (Dritschilo 2010), West (University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics 2007), and Winooski River (University of Connecticut 2011) drainages
  • Virginia: Lower James (University of Florida Herbarium 2016), Lower Potomac (Orth et al. 1979), Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan (Stuckey 1979), and Upper Roanoke (Tarbell and Associates Inc 2007) drainages, and Gloucester, Surry, and Virginia Beach Counties (Harvill et al. 1977)
  • Washington: All drainages except Washington Coastal (Falter et al. 1974; McKern 1972; Parsons 1998; Parsons 2005; Rice 2008; Stuckey 1979; University of Washington Burke Museum 2007)
  • West Virginia: Greenbrier, Little Kanawha (Stuckey 1979), Upper Ohio-Shade, and Upper Ohio-Wheeling (Robynn Shannon, Fairmont State Univ., pers. comm.) drainages
  • Wisconsin: All drainages except Duck-Pensaukee, Lower Fox, and Trempealeau (GLIFWC 2008; Michigan State University 2015; Stuckey 1979;WI DNR 2008; WI DNR 2010)
  • Wyoming: Clear, New Fork, Pathfinder-Seminole Reservoirs (Bear 2012), Lower Wind, Upper Belle Fourche (Bear 2013), Shoshone (Bear 2014), and Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir (Lichvar and Dorn 1982) drainages

Canada: Alta., B.C., Ont., Que., Sask.; No specimens have been seen from New Brunswick, but the species is to be expected there.

Ecology: Potamogeton crispus can survive and grow at very low light levels (less than 1% of the surface irradiance) and low water temperatures (1-4°C) (Stuckey et al. 1978; Tobiessen and Snow 1983).  As such, the plant thrives in “polluted waters” with low light penetration.  P. crispus is often found growing in the deepest vascular plant zone and, in waters with higher light penetration, can be found in 5-7 meter depth contours (Tobiessen and Snow 1983).  P. crispus survives under the ice throughout the winter, then exhibits rapid growth in the spring when water temperatures rise above 10°C at a growth rate of 8-10 cm/day (Tobiessen and Snow 1983), allows P. crispus to exploit the warming waters before other aquatic plants begin to grow.

Germination of seeds is not well understood, but not considered to be the primary means of reproduction (Catling and Dobson 1985; Godfrey and Wooten 1981; Nichols and Shaw 1986).

Although examination for P. crispus hybridization has been limited, two hybrids exist globally, and one hybrid is known to exist in North America.  The hybrid Potamogeton crispus x P. praelongus (= P. x undulatus Wolfgang ex Schultes & Schultes f.) has been confirmed from a northeastern Indiana lake (Alix and Scribailo 2006).  Potamogeton x cooperi (Fryer) Fryer, a hybrid between P. crispus and P. perfoliatus, was found in Europe (Kaplan and Fehrer 2004). Both P. crispus and P. perfoliatus are found in the Great Lakes, but P. x cooperi has yet to be discovered in North America.

In waters too turbid to support other submersed macrophytes, P. crispus may provide ecosystem benefits for fish and wildlife habitat and a source of macroinvertebrate food organisms.  Several species of dabbling ducks are known to eat P. crispus seeds and turions (Hunt and Lutz 1959).

Means of Introduction: The species has spread across much of the United States, presumably by migrating waterfowl, intentional planting for waterfowl and wildlife habitat, and possibly even as a contaminant in water used to transport fishes and fish eggs to hatcheries (Stuckey 1979). According to Balgie et al. (2010), P. crispus can also spread by plant fragments attached to boats and equipment that are not properly cleaned.

Status: Established in all of the continental United States and Ontario in Canada.

Impact of Introduction: Potamogeton crispus can outcompete native species for light and space early in the growing season; often reducing plant diversity and altering predator/prey relationship (ENSR International 2005; WI DNR 2012). P. crispus can provide habitat for aquatic life in the winter and early spring when native plants are not present (IL DNR 2005). Populations provide habitat for macroinvertbrates and fish, including spawning substrate (Catling and Dobson 1985; ENSR International 2005; GLC 2006; Lembi 2003). Aqueous extracts of P. crispus demonstrated antimicrobial activity against 17 different microorganisms including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (Fareed et al. 2008).

Large infestations of P. crispus can impede water flow and cause stagnant water conditions (Catling and Dobson 1985; ENSR International 2005; Lui et al. 2010). A large amount of phosphorus is released during decomposition, which can lead to eutrophication and algal blooms (Benson et al. 2004; WI DNR 2012), and oxygen concentration in the water can drop significantly, impacting fish (IPANE 2013; Lui et al. 2010). P. crispus has been shown to remove organic contaminants such as dibutyl phthalate and phthalic acid esters (Chi and Cai 2012; Chi and Yang 2012), and inorganics such as cerium, cobalt, cesium, cadmium, and their isotopes (Hafez et al. 1992; Sivaci et al. 2008).

Surface mats of P. crispus can inhibit aquatic recreation, such as boating, fishing, and swimming, and reduce the aesthetic value of waterfront property (IL DNR 2009; Jensen 2009; WI DNR 2012). Expensive control programs are often needed to reduce the impacts on recreational activities and to maintain waterfront property values (IL DNR 2005). Waterfront property owners in Michigan spend an estimated $20 million annually to control aquatic invasive plants—primarily Eurasian watermilfoil and curlyleaf pondweed (MSGCP 2007).

References: (click for full references)

Acadia University. 2012. E. C. Smith Herbarium (ACAD). Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia, Canada. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/e8a25a42-f125-476c-8554-3ec21cd51a84. Created on 02/14/2012. Accessed on 12/16/2015.

Albee, B.J., L.M. Shultz, and S. Goodrich. 1988. Atlas of the Vascular Plants of Utah. University of Utah.

Alix, M.S., and R.W. Scribailo. 2006. First report of Potamogeton × undulatus (P. crispus × P. praelongus, Potamogetonaceae) in North America, with notes on morphology and stem anatomy. Rhodora 108(936):329-346.

Anderson, R. 2016. Land mgmt. trying to control present invasive species and prevent others. St. James Plaindealer. St. James, MN. http://www.stjamesnews.com/article/20160226/NEWS/160229735/?Start=1. Created on 02/26/2016. Accessed on 02/29/2016.

Aquatic Control, Inc. 2007. Griffy Lake aquatic vegetation management plan update. Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Indianapolis, IN. http://www.in.gov/dnr/fishwild/lare/pdf/Griffy_Lake_AVMP_2006_Update_Monroe_Feb_2007.pdf.

Aquatic Weed Control. 2015. Crooked Lake aquatic vegetation management plan. Crooked Lake Association, Angola, IN.

Arizona State University. 2003. Herbarium Specimen Voucher, Arizona State University (ASU) Vascular Plant Herbarium, Collections Database. http://seinetasuedu/collections/selectionjsp?cat=plantae.

Associated Press. 2008. Nuisance weed found in McClusky Canal. Bismark News. Bismark, ND. 2008 (August 11). http://www.kxmb.com/News/263551.asp. Accessed on 09/08/2008.

Balgie, S., W. Crowell, S. Enger, D. Hoverson, J. Hunt, G. Montz, A. Pierce, J. Rendall, R. Rezanka, L. Skinner D. Swanson, C. Welling, and H. Wolf. 2010. Invasive species of aquatic plants and wild animals in Minnesota: annual report for 2009. Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, MN.

Bartodziej, W., and J. Ludlow. 1997. Aquatic vegetation monitoring by natural resources agencies in the United States. Journal of Lake and Reservoir Management 13(2):109-117.

Beal, E.O., and P.H. Monson. 1954. Marsh and aquatic angiosperms of Iowa. State University of Iowa, Ames, IA.

Beal, E.O., and J.W. Thieret. 1986. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Kentucky. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.

Bear, B. 2012. 2012 aquatic invasive species monitoring results. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY.

Bear, B. 2013. 2013 aquatic invasive species monitoring results. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY.

Bear, B. 2014. 2014 aquatic invasive species monitoring and results. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY.

Benson, A. J., C.C. Jacono, P.L. Fuller, E. R. McKercher., and M. M. Richerson. 2004. Summary Report of Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Region 5. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, Va. 145 pp.

Bugbee, G. J. 2009. Control of Potamogeton crispus and Myriophyllum spicatum in Crystal Lake, Middletown, CT 2006 - 2008. The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT. 26 pp.

Carr, G.D. 2009. Oregon flora image project. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/ofp/ofp_index.htm. Accessed on 02/09/2016.

Catling, P.M. and I. Dobson. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 69. Potamogeton crispus L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 65:655-668.

Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. 2015. EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system. The University of Georgia, Tifton, GA. http://www.eddmaps.org.

Central Hardwoods Invasive Plant Network. 2010. Joint Aquatic Invasive Species Survey, 2010. University of Georgia, Athens, GA. http://www.rtrcwma.org/chip-n/.

Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH). 2004. Information Sheet 12: Curled Pondweed. Natural Environment Research Council, Centre for Aquatic Plant Management. 2 pp.

Chabreck, R.H., and R.E. Condrey. 1979. Common Vascular Plants of the Louisiana Marsh. Louisiana State University Center for Wetland Resources, Baton Rouge, LA.

Chester, E.W. 1975. Range Extensions and First reports for some Tennessee Vascular Plants. Castanea 40(1):56-63.

Chester, E.W., B.E. Wofford, R. Kral, H.R. DeSelm, A.M. Evans. 1993. Atlas of Tennessee Vascular Plants Volume 1. Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms: Monocots. Volume 1. Center for Field Biology, Austin University, Clarksville, TN.

Chester, E.W., B.E. Wofford, and R. Kral. 1997. Atlas of Tennessee Vascular Plants Volume 2. Angiosperms: Dicots. Volume 2. Center for Field Biology, Austin University, Clarksville, TN.

Chi, J. and X. Cai. 2012. Effects of nitrogen on the removal of dibutyl phthalate from surface water in the presence of Potamogeton crispus L. Ecological Engineering 41:70—73.

Chi, J. and Q. Yang. 2012. Effects of Potamogeton crispus L. on the fate of phthalic acid esters in an aquatic microcosm. Water Research 46(8): 2570—2578.

Connecticut Aquatic Nuisance Species Working Group (CANSWG). 2006. Connecticut Aquatic Nuisance Species Management Plan. State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. 117 pp.

Consortium of California Herbaria. 2014. Consortium of California Herbaria. Consortium of California Herbaria, Berkeley, CA. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/4fa894f4-b6c6-4ec0-b816-9bb03b3ca106. Created on 01/10/2014. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

Correll, D.S., and H.B. Correll. 1975. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southwestern United States. Volume 1 and 2. Stanford University Press, California.

Delwiche, C.F. (curator). 2001. Herbarium Specimen Voucher Data, Norton Brown Herbarium (MARY). University of Maryland, College Park, MD. http://www.nbh.psla.umd.edu/.

Draheim, R., M. Sytsma, R. Miller, and J. Cordell. 2007. Middle Columbia River Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Survey. Portland State University. http://www.clr.pdx.edu/docs/MCRANS_Final_Rprt.pdf.

Dritschilo, G. 2010. Lake Bomoseen Association drafts boat screening plan to stop invasives. Rutland Herald. http://www.rutlandherald.com/article/20100719/NEWS03/707199870/1002/NEWS01 robber.

Eichler, L.W. 2002. Annual Report - 2001, Darrin Fresh Water Institute Report #2002-1. Darrin Fresh Water Institute, Aquatic Plant Identification Program, Bolton Landing, New York.

ENSR International. 2005. Rapid Response Plan for Curlyleaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus) in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. Westford, MA. 25 pp.

Falck, M., W. Gilane, and R. Parisien. 2012. Invasive Species Program 2011. Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission, Odanah, WI. 27 pp.

Falter, C.M., R. Naskali, J. Leonard, F. Rabe, and H. Bobisud. 1974. Aquatic macrophytes of the Columbia and Snake River drainages (United States). US Army Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla District, Contract No: DACW68-72-C-0269, Walla Walla, WA.

Fareed, M. F., A.M. Haroon, and S. A. Rabeh. 2008. Antimicrobial activity of some macrophytes from Lake Manzalah (Egypt). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 11(21): 2454—2463.

Getsinger, K. D., J.D. Madsen, T.J.Koschnick, M.D. Netherland, R.M. Stewart, D. R. Honnell, A.G. Staddon, and C. S. Owens. 2001. Whole-Lake Applications of SonarTM for Selective Control of Eurasian Watermilfoil. US Army Corps of Engineers; Engineer Research and Development Center; Aquatic Plant Control Research Program. 58 pp.

Gholson, A.K. 1968. Aquatic weeds of Lake Seminole, Jim Woodruff Reservoir. Hyacinth Control Journal 7:18-20.

Great Lakes Commission (GLC). 2006. Lake St. Clair Coastal Habitat Assessment: with recommendations for conservation and restoration planning. 231 pp.

Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC). 2006. Curly-leaved Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus). Available http://invasives.glifwc.org/Potamogeton_crispus/control.html. Accessed 29 April 2013.

Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC). 2008. Exotic Species Information Center. Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission. http://maps.glifwc.org/.

Great Lakes Panel of Aquatic Nuisance Species (GLPANS). 2008. Prohibitied Species in the Great Lakes Region. 14 pp.

Guard, B.J. 1995. Wetland plants of Oregon and Washington. Lone Pine Publishing, Auburn, WA.

Hafez, M. B., N. Hafez, and Y. S. Ramadan. 1992. Uptake of cerium, cobalt and cesium by Potamogeton crispus. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 54(4): 377—340.

Harvill, A.M., C.E. Stevens, and D.M.E. Ware. 1977. Atlas of the Virginia flora, Part I. Pteridophytes through monocotyledons. Virginia Botanical Associates, Farmville.

Haynes, R.R. 1980. Aquatic and marsh plants of Alabama. I. Alismatidae. Castanea 45(1):31-51.

Hellquist, C.B. 1972. Range extensions of vascular aquatic plants in New England. Rhodora 74(797):131-140.

Holm, L., J. Doll, E. Holm, J. Pancho, and J. Herberger. 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distributions. John Wiley and Sons, Inc, New York, NY.

Hunt, G.S., and R.W. Lutz. 1959. Seed production by curly-leaved pondweed and its significance to waterfowl. Journal of Wildlife Management 23(4):405-408.

The Idaho Invasive Species Council Technical Committee. 2007. Idaho aquatic nuisance species plan. http://anstaskforce.gov/State%20Plans/Idaho_ANS_Plan_2007.pdf.

Illinois Department of Natural Resources (IL DNR). 2009. Aquatic Invasive Speices: Curlyleaf Pondweed. 4 pp. Available http://www.in.gov/dnr/files/CURLYLEAF_PONDWEED.pdf.

iMapInvasives. 2012. iMapInvasives Oregon. The Nature Conservancy. http://www.imapinvasives.org/. Accessed on 04/09/2015.

iMapInvasives. 2015. iMapInvasives New York. iMapInvasives. www.nyimapinvasives.org. Created on 07/08/2015. Accessed on 07/08/2015.

Indiana Department of Natural Resources (IN DNR). 1997. Exotic Plant Species. Page 10 p in Indiana Lakes. Division of Soil Conservation, Indiana Department of Natural Resources. Indianapolis, IN.

Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE). 2013. Curly-leaved pondweed: Potamogeton crispus L. Available http://www.eddmaps.org/ipane/ipanespecies/aquatics/potamogeton_crispus.htm. Accessed 29 April 2013.

IPANE. 2001. Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE) at the University of Connecticut online database. http://invasives.eeb.uconn.edu/ipane/.

Jensen, D. 2009. Curlyleaf Pondweed (Potamogeton crispus). Available http://www.seagrant.umn.edu/ais/fieldguide#curlyleaf. Accessed 29 April 2013.

Kaplan, Z. and J. Fehrer. 2004. Evidence for the hybrid origin of Potamogeton x cooperi (Potamogetonaceae): Traditional morphology-based taxonomy and molecular techniques in concert. Folia Geobotanica 39(4): 431—453.

Lembi, C. A. 2003. Aquatic Plant Management. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service. 20 pp.

Lemke, D.E. 1989. Aquatic macrophytes of the Upper San Marcos River, Hays Co., Tesas. Southwestern Naturalist 34(2):289-291.

Lichvar, R.W., and R.D. Dorn. 1982. Additions to the vascular flora of Montana and Wyoming. Great Basin Naturalist 42(3):413-414.

Loyola University Chicago. 2013. Illinois Database of Aquatic Non-native Species. GISIN, Fort Collins, CO. http://gisin.org/cwis438/websites/GISINDirectory/Occurrence_Result.php?ProjectID=391&WebSiteID=4. Created on 05/13/2015. Accessed on 05/13/2015.

Lui, K., M. Butler, M. Allen, E. Snyder, J. da Silva, B. Brownson, and A. Ecclestone. 2010. Field Guide to Aqautic Invasive Species: Identification, collection and reporting of aquatic invasive in Ontario waters. Minstry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada. 201 pp.

Madsen, J.D. 2010. Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. Geosystems Research Institute, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS. http://www.gri.msstate.edu/ipams/.

Madsen, J.D., G. Ervin, V. Maddox, & C. Abbott. 2010. Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. Mississippi State University. http://www.gri.msstate.edu/research/ipams/contactinfo.php.

McGregor, R.L., and T.M. Barkley. 1977. Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains. The Iowa State University Press/Ames.

McKern, J.L. 1972. Reservoir Pondweeds: Ice Harbor and Lower Monumental Reservoirs, rooted aquatic vascular development. US Army Engineer Corps of Engineers, Walla Walla, WA.

Mercurio, G., J.C. Chaillou, N.E. Roth. 1999. Guide to using 1995-1997 Maryland biological stream survey data. Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis, MD.

Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MI DEQ). 2015. State of Michigan’s status and strategy for curly-leafed pondweed (Potamogeton crispus L.). http://www.michigan.gov/documents/deq/wrd-ais-potamogeton-crispus_499886_7.pdf.

Michigan State University. 2015. Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (MISIN). Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. http://www.misin.msu.edu/browse/. Accessed on 12/04/2015.

Michigan Sea Grant Coastal Program (MSGCP). 2007. Upwellings. 8 pp.

Miller, A. 2016. Morton Arboretum Data Collection. The Morton Arboretum, Lisle, IL.

Mills, E.L., J.H. Leach, J.T. Carlton, and C.L. Secor. 1993. Exotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19(1):1-54.

Missouri Botanical Garden. 2007. Missouri Botanical Garden. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/7bd65a7a-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 04/02/2007. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

Nelson, E.N., and R.W. Couch. 1985. Aquatic Plants of Oklahoma I: Submersed, Floating-leaved, and selected emergent macrophytes. Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, OK.

New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NH DES). 2015. Exotic Aquatic Plant Infestations in New Hampshire. http://des.nh.gov/organization/divisions/water/wmb/exoticspecies/exotic_plant_map.htm. Created on 07/01/2015. Accessed on 02/03/2016.

New York Botanical Garden. 2015. The New York Botanical Garden Herbarium (NY) - Vascular Plant Collection. The New York Botanical Garden, New York, NY. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/d415c253-4d61-4459-9d25-4015b9084fb0. Created on 06/18/2015. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

New York Invasive Species Council. 2010. Final report: a regulatory system for non-native species. Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY. 131 pp.

Nichols, S.A., and B.H. Shaw. 1986. Ecological life histories of the three aquatic nuisance plants, Myriophyllum spicatum, Potamogeton crispus, and Elodea canadensis. Hydrobiologia 131(1):3-21.

North Dakota Game and Fish Department. 2015. Infested waters in North Dakota. http://gf.nd.gov/ans. Accessed on 02/03/2016.

Ogden, E.C. 1966. Potamogetonaceae in Flora of Texas. Texas Research Foundation 1(3).

Oregon State University. 2013. Oregon State University vascular plant collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal, http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/622/. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. http://data.gbif.org/datasets/resource/622/. Created on 04/03/2007. Accessed on 08/27/2013.

Orth, R.J., K.A. Moore, and H.H. Gordon. 1979. Distribution and abundance of submerged aquatic vegetation in the Lower Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA.

Padgett, D.J., and G.E. Crow. 1993. Some unwelcome additions to the flora of New Hampshire. Rhodora 95(883/884):348-351.

Parsons, J. 1998. List of aquatic plants introduced to Washington, from database at Aquatic Plant Technical Assistance Program, Washington State Department Ecology, Olympia, Washington. Washington State Department Ecology, Olympia, WA.

Parsons, J. 2005. Annual Washington State Aquatic Plant Survey Database. Washington Department of Ecology . http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/eap/lakes/aquaticplants/index.html#annualsurvey.

Pennsylvania Flora Database. 2011. Pennsylvania Flora Project. Morris Arboretum at the University of Pennsylvania (MOAR), Philadelphia, PA. http://www.paflora.org.

Radford, A.E., H.E. Ahles, and C.R. Bell. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas. Univ North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Reed, P.B. 1988. National list of plants species that occur in wetlands: intermountain (region 8). US Fish and Wildlife Service.

Ren, W. J., X.B. Hu, x. Liu, G.H. Ning, Z.F. Tian, and J. Z. Xie. 2011. [Total phosphorus removal from eutrophic water in Baiyangdian Lake by Potamogeton crispus]. [Article in Chinese]. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao.The Journal of Applied Ecology. 22(4): 1053—1058.

Rice, P.M. 2008. INVADERS Database System. Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812-4824. http://invader.dbs.umt.edu (accessed 28 April 2008).

Robinson, F.D., and R.E. Shanks. 1959. Checklist of Vascular Aquatic Plants of Tennessee. Journal of the Tennessee Academy of Science 34(1):58-65.

Schuyler, A.E. 1989. Submerged vascular plants in the Delaware River from the Delaware Water Gap to Trenton. Bartonia 55:53-58.

Sivaci, A., E. Elmas, F. Gümüs, and E. R. Sivaci. 2008. Removal of cadmium by Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. and Potamogeton crispus L. and its effect on pigments and total phenolic compounds. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 54(4): 612-618.

Smith, E.B. 1988. An atlas and annotated list of the vascular plants of Arkansas. 2nd edition. University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR. www.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/arkansas.

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 2015. Botany Collections. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. http://collections.nmnh.si.edu/search/botany/. Accessed on 07/09/2015.

Strausbaugh, P.D., and E.L. Core. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. Volume 1-4. 2nd edition. West Virginia Bulletin, Morgantown, WV.

Stuckey, R.L. 1979. Distrubutional history of Potamogeton crispus (curly pondweed) in North America. Bartonia 46:22-42.

Stuckey, R.L., J.R. Wehrmeister, and R.J. Bartolotta. 1978. Submersed aquatic vascular plants in ice-covered ponds of central Ohio. Rhodora 80:575-580.

Tarbell, D., and Associates, Inc. 2007. Native and exotic submerged aquatic vegetation study. Appalachian Power Company, Roanoke, VA. http://www.smithmtn.com/project%20relicensing/studies/vegatationstudy/docs/SAVFinalReport_12032007.pdf (accessed 9 June 2008).

Titus, J.E. 1994. Submersed plant invasions and declines in New York. Lake and Reservoir Management 10(1):25-28.

Tobiessen, P., and P.D. Snow. 1984. Temperature and light effects on the growth of Potamogeton crispus in Collins Lake, New York State. Canadian Journal of Botany 62:2822-2826.

University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics. 2007. Herbarium (UNA). University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/84f9770e-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 04/03/2007. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

University of Arizona Herbarium. 2008. UA Herbarium. University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/95b97882-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 09/10/2008. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

University of Connecticut. 2011. CONN. University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5288946d-5fcf-4b53-8fd3-74f4cc6b53fc. Created on 09/08/2011. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

University of Florida Herbarium. 2016. Florida Museum of Natural History. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. http://www.flmnh.ufl.edu/herbarium/.

University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute. 2008. R. L. McGregor Herbarium Vascular Plants Collection. University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/95c938a8-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 09/23/2008. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

University of Washington Burke Museum. 2007. Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium (WTU). University of Washington, Seattle, WA. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/8310f570-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 04/03/2007. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). 2011. Inventory of Available Controls for Aquatic Nuisance Species of Concern – Chicago Area Waterway System: Appendix C - ANS Control Fact Sheets. Chicago District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago, IL. http://glmris.anl.gov/controls/.

Utah State University. 2007. USU-UTC Specimen Database. Utah State University, Logan, UT. http://www.gbif.org/dataset/85ac3c18-f762-11e1-a439-00145eb45e9a. Created on 03/29/2007. Accessed on 11/20/2015.

van Wijk, R.J. 1988. Ecological studies on Potamogeton pectinatus L. I. general characteristics, biomass production and life cycles under field conditions. Aquatic Botany 31:211-258.

Voss, E.G. 1972. Michigan Flora: A guide to the identification and occurrence of the native and naturalized seed-plants of the state. Part I Gymnosperms and Monocots. Volume I. Cranbrook Insitute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium.

Wang, J. Q., Y.F. Zheng, and G. X. Wang. 2011. [Influences of Potamogeton crispus population on the lake water quality distribution]. [Article in Chinese]. Huan Jing Ke Xue. Chinese Journal of Environmental Science. 32(2): 416—422.

Weber, W.A. 1990. Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope. University Press of Colorado.

Weisman, S. 2016. Curlyleaf pondweed: What's next? Dickinson County News. Spirit Lake, IA. http://www.dickinsoncountynews.com/story/2280457.html. Created on 02/24/2016. Accessed on 02/25/2016.

Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources (WI DNR). 2008. Aquatic Invasive Species Lists and Maps. WI DNR. http://dnr.wi.gov/lakes/ais/.

Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources (WI DNR). 2010. Aquatic Invasives Data and Maps. Wisconsin Dept of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin. http://dnr.wi.gov/lakes/invasives/BySpecies.aspx.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WI DNR). 2012. Curly-leaf pondweed (Potamogeton crispus). Available http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/invasives/fact/curlyleafpondweed.html. Accessed 29 April 2013.

Wunderlin, R., and B. Hansen. 2007. USF Herbarium Specimen Database. University of South Florida, Institute for Systemic Botany. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/herbarium/Default.aspx.

Yatskievych, G. 1999. Steyermark's Flora of Missouri, Vol 1. The Missouri Dept of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO in cooperation with the Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St Louis, MO.

Zolczynski, J., and M.J. Eubanks. 1990. Mobile Delta submersed aquatic vegetation survey 1987. Game and Fish Division, Alabama Department of conservation and Natural Resouces and US Army Corps of Engineers, Mobile District, Mobile, AL.

Zolczynski, J., and R. Shearer. 1997. Mobile Delta Submersed Aquatic Vegetation Survey, 1994. Fisheries Section, Game and Fish Division, Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Spanish Fort, AL.

Author: Thayer, D.D., I.A. Pfingsten, L. Cao, and L. Berent.

Revision Date: 3/18/2016

Peer Review Date: 2/9/2016

Citation Information:
Thayer, D.D., I.A. Pfingsten, L. Cao, and L. Berent., 2018, Potamogeton crispus L.: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=1134, Revision Date: 3/18/2016, Peer Review Date: 2/9/2016, Access Date: 2/24/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logoU.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://nas.er.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Pam Fuller - NAS Program (pfuller@usgs.gov)
Page Last Modified: Tuesday, January 30, 2018


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [2/24/2018].

Additional information for authors