The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Bombina orientalis
Bombina orientalis
(Oriental Fire-bellied Toad)

Copyright Info
Bombina orientalis (Boulenger, 1890)

Common name: Oriental Fire-bellied Toad

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Native Range: Korea, northeastern China and adjacent parts of Russia (Krysko et al. 2011).

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Bombina orientalis are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
CA201520212San Francisco Coastal South; San Pablo Bay
FL200720131Florida Southeast Coast

Table last updated 6/15/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: Bombina orientalis is semi-aquatic. It spends most of its time on land. The species usually lives in mixed coniferous/broad-leaved forests; however, it often occurs in other habitats, including spruce, pine or leafed forests, open meadows, river valleys, swampy bushlands, etc. Bombina orientalis inhabits different types of bodies of water with stagnant (sometimes running) water: lakes, ponds, swamps, streams, springs, ditches, puddles, etc. At the end of summer, the species can be found on land at distances up to few hundred meters from water (Kuzmin et al. 2004; AmphibiaWeb, 2012).

This toad hibernates from late September/October to late April/May, usually on land in rotten trees, heaps of stones, leaves, and in groups of 1–6 individuals. Sometimes hibernation occurs in streams. Reproduction occurs from May to mid-August. The clutch contains 38–257 eggs deposited in portions of 3–45 eggs that the female attaches to plants near the water’s edge. The interval between depositing subsequent portions is 7–10 days. Females probably are capable of depositing multiple clutches. Embryonic and larval development takes about 2 months, and hatching takes place usually from early June to late July. Tadpoles complete metamorphosis usually by the end of August/late September. Maximum longevity is estimated as 20 years (Harkewicz, 2004; AmphibiaWeb, 2012).

Larvae consume detritus, various algae, fungi, higher plants, protozoans, and, in smaller amounts, aquatic invertebrates. Preying upon terrestrial invertebrates starts before the completion of metamorphosis. Adult food consists of terrestrial invertebrates including worms, mollusks, and insects.

The proportion of aquatic invertebrates consumed varies among populations (Harkewicz, 2004; AmphibiaWeb, 2012). Some predatory birds and mammals are known as natural enemies of this species. The defensive posture of adult individuals is similar to that of the European Fire-bellied Toad (B. bombina) (AmphibiaWeb, 2012).

Means of Introduction: Pet trade. They commonly are kept as pets in land and water vivariums and are readily available in large pet store chains.

Status: There is no evidence of reproduction (Krysko, et al. 2011).

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: The bright, ventral colors serve as a warning to predators of toxicity. When the frog is disturbed or frightened, the toxin is secreted through the skin, on the back, hind legs, and sometimes the belly, in a milk-like substance. Not only will they emit this toxin, they also will lie on their back to show the color of the belly (the unkenreflex), indicating its toxicity to any predators (Harkewicz, 2004).

This species commonly is sold in large pet store chains. Because of the increased interest in outdoor water gardens, it may be at high risk of being introduced. Reportedly, this species can be kept outside in temperate regions of the U.S. (Harkewicz, 2004), implying that it can survive.

References: (click for full references)

AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. 2012. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available from: http://amphibiaweb.org/. Accessed 1/1-13/2012.

Harkewicz, K.A. 2004. Maintenance of bombina species of frogs, Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 13(4):229—233.

Krysko, K.L. and 12 others. 2011. Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida from 1863 through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion pathways and stages. Zootaxa 3028:1-64.

Kuzmin, S., L. Pipeng, M. Matsui, V. Ishchenko, and I. Maslova.  2004. Bombina orientalis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Accessed 3/5/2013.

Author: Fuller, P.

Revision Date: 4/17/2019

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., 2024, Bombina orientalis (Boulenger, 1890): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=2864, Revision Date: 4/17/2019, Access Date: 6/16/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/16/2024].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.