The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Trichopsis vittata
Trichopsis vittata
(Croaking Gourami)

Copyright Info
Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831)

Common name: Croaking Gourami

Synonyms and Other Names: Osphromenus vittatus Cuvier, 1831.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: For distinguishing characteristics and figure, see Smith (1945) and Page and Burr (1991); distinguishing characteristics were also given by Kottelat et al. (1993). Color photographs provided in Axelrod et al. (1985) and Kottelat et al. (1993).

Size: 4-7 cm SL.

Native Range: Tropical Asia. Widely distributed in southeast Asia including Thailand, southern Vietnam, Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo (Sterba 1973; Axelrod et al. 1985; Rainboth 1996).

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: A population was established in a small area (canal system) on the south side of Lake Worth Drainage District canal L-36 in Delray Beach, Palm Beach County, Florida, since the late 1970s (Courtenay and Hensley 1979a; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Courtenay et al. 1986; Courtenay and Stauffer 1990; Page and Burr 1991; museum specimens). Additional collections were made in 1992 (museum specimens). Although considered extirpated (Shafland et al. 2008a, b), recent collections (2012) have been made on the east side of Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge (Schofield and Pecora 2013).

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Trichopsis vittata are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
FL197820121Florida Southeast Coast

Table last updated 10/3/2023

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: Found in shallow sluggish or standing-water habitats with a lot of vegetation. Feeds on zooplankton, crustaceans and insect larvae. 

Means of Introduction: Probable escape from a nearby aquarium fish farm (Courtenay et al. 1986; Courtenay and Stauffer 1990), or possible aquarium release (Courtenay and Hensley 1979; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.).

Status: Locally established in Palm Beach County, Florida, from at least the late 1970s (Lee et al. 1980 et seq., Courtenay and Stauffer 1990). Thought to be extirpated (Shafland et al. 2008a, b); however, recent collections (October 2012-July 2014) reveal it is in fact established (Schofield and Pecora 2013).

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: Voucher specimens: Florida (UF 90547, 97056, 97858, 184709, 185020, 185216, 185227, 236206, 236749).

References: (click for full references)

Axelrod, H.R., W.E. Burgess, N. Pronek, and J.G. Walls. 1985. Dr. Axelrod's atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and D.A. Hensley. 1979. Survey of introduced non-native fishes. Phase I Report. Introduced exotic fishes in North America: status 1979. Report Submitted to National Fishery Research Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, FL.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1990. The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21(3):145-159.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Hensley, J.N. Taylor, and J.A. McCann. 1986. Distribution of exotic fishes in North America. Pages 675-698 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari, and S. Wirjoatmodjo. 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Ltd., Republic of Indonesia.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Rainboth, W.J. 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. FAO Species Identification Field Guide for Fishery Purposes. FAO, Rome.

Schofield, P.J., and D.J. Pecora. 2013. Croaking gourami, Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier, 1831), in Florida, USA. BioInvasions Records 2:247-251.

Shafland, P.L., K.B. Gestring, and M.S. Sanford. 2008a. Categorizing introduced fishes collected from public waters. Southeastern Naturalist 7(4):627-636.

Shafland, P.L., K.B. Gestring, and M.S. Sanford. 2008b. Florida’s exotic freshwater fishes – 2007. Florida Scientist 71(3):220-245.

Smith, H. M. 1945. The fresh-water fishes of Siam, or Thailand. Bulletin of the U.S. National Museum (Smithsonian Institution) 188:1-622.

Sterba, G. 1973. Freshwater fishes of the world. English translation and revision from German. Two volumes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

FishBase Summary

Author: Leo Nico, Pam Fuller, and Pam Schofield

Revision Date: 4/30/2018

Peer Review Date: 4/8/2015

Citation Information:
Leo Nico, Pam Fuller, and Pam Schofield, 2023, Trichopsis vittata (Cuvier in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1831): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=333, Revision Date: 4/30/2018, Peer Review Date: 4/8/2015, Access Date: 10/4/2023

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2023]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [10/4/2023].

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