† Populations may not be currently present.
Impact of Introduction: Pumpkinseeds will hybridize with most other Lepomis, especially with bluegill and green sunfish. The result is usually fast-growing, sterile male hybrids (Moyle 1976).
Casal (2006) listed the Pumpkinseed among the top ten introduced fish species with adverse ecological effects. It has been reported to be responsible for the decline of other fish species (Welcomme 1988) as well as gastropods (Osenberg et al. 1992). Van Kleef et al. (2008) found that macroinvertebrate abundance was 83% lower in areas invaded by Pumpkinseeds in the Netherlands. Kynard (1979) found that decline in abundance of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) was related to an increased abundance of Pumpkinseeds in Wapato Lake, WA.
References: (click for full references)
Anonymous 2001. Oregon
's Warm Water Fishing with Public Access. [online]. URL at http://www.dfw.state.or.us/ODFwhtml/FishText/WWFishing/WWFishAL.html
Casal, C.M.V. 2006. Global documentation of fish introductions: the growing crisis and recommendations for action. Biol Invasions 8:3–11.
Kynard, B.E. 1979. Population decline and change in frequencies of lateral plates in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Copeia 1979(4):635-638. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/1443870.pdf.
Madison, D. 2003. Outlaw Introductions. Montana Outdoors. July/August: 26-35.
Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Osenberg C.W., G.G. Mittelbach, and P.C. Wainwright. 1992. Two-stage life histories in fish: the interaction between juvenile competition and adult performance. Ecology 73:
Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.
van Kleef, H., G. van der Velde, R.S.E. Leuven, and H. Esselink. 2008. Pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) invasions facilitated by introductions and nature management strongly reduce macroinvertebrate abundance in isolated water bodies. Biological Invasions. 10:1481-1490.
Welcomme, R.L. 1988. International introductions of inland aquatic species. FAO fisheries technical paper no. 294. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.