The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Cyprinus carpio
Cyprinus carpio
(Common Carp)

Copyright Info
Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758

Common name: Common Carp

Synonyms and Other Names: European carp, German carp, mirror carp, leather carp

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Wheeler (1978); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994); Balon (1995). In Eurasia there are two poorly defined subspecies C. c. carpio and C. c. haematopterus; unfortunately, feral common carp, descendants of earlier escapees or introductions, have greatly confused the picture (Balon 1995). Several genetic strains—some bred in aquaculture or used as ornamentals (e.g., leather carp, mirror carp, Israeli carp, koi)—are recognized by some as separate varieties (Robison and Buchanan 1988; Balon 1995).

Size: 122 cm

Native Range: Eurasia (Page and Burr 1991; Balon 1995). Balon (1995) found that Cyprinus carpio evolved in the Caspian Sea, then migrated naturally to the Black and Aral Seas, east to eastern mainland Asia and west as far as the Danube River.

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Cyprinus carpio are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AL1964202043Alabama-Coosa; Apalachicola Basin; Bear; Black Warrior-Tombigbee; Cahaba; Chipola; Choctawhatchee; Coosa-Tallapoosa; Guntersville Lake; Lower Alabama; Lower Black Warrior; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Choctawhatchee; Lower Conecuh; Lower Coosa; Lower Elk; Lower Tallapoosa; Lower Tombigbee; Luxapallila; Middle Alabama; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F; Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F George Reservoir; Middle Coosa; Middle Tallapoosa; Middle Tennessee-Elk; Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw; Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub; Mississippi Coastal; Mobile Bay; Mobile-Tensaw; Mulberry; Noxubee; Pickwick Lake; Sipsey; Sipsey Fork; Sucarnoochee; Upper Alabama; Upper Black Warrior; Upper Choctawhatchee; Upper Coosa; Upper Tallapoosa; Wheeler Lake
AZ1885202138Aqua Fria; Bill Williams; Burro; Canyon Diablo; Centennial Wash; Detrital Wash; Grand Canyon; Grand Wash; Hassayampa; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Colorado-Lake Mead; Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon; Lower Gila; Lower Gila; Lower Gila-Agua Fria; Lower Gila-Painted Rock Reservoir; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Little Colorado; Lower Salt; Lower San Pedro; Lower Santa Cruz; Lower Verde; Middle Gila; Middle Little Colorado; San Bernardino Valley; San Francisco; Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir; Upper Little Colorado; Upper Salt; Upper San Pedro; Upper Santa Cruz; Upper Verde; Whitewater Draw; Yuma Desert
AR1950201758Bayou Bartholomew; Bayou Macon; Bayou Meto; Beaver Reservoir; Big; Bodcau Bayou; Boeuf; Boeuf-Tensas; Buffalo; Bull Shoals Lake; Cache; Current; Dardanelle Reservoir; Fourche La Fave; Frog-Mulberry; Illinois; Lake Conway-Point Remove; L'Anguille; Little Missouri; Little Red; Little River Ditches; Lower Arkansas; Lower Arkansas-Maumelle; Lower Black; Lower Little Arkansas; Lower Mississippi; Lower Mississippi-Greenville; Lower Mississippi-Helena; Lower Mississippi-Memphis; Lower Ouachita; Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre; Lower Ouachita-Smackover; Lower Saline; Lower St. Francis; Lower Sulpher; Lower White; Lower White; Lower White-Bayou Des Arc; McKinney-Posten Bayous; Middle White; Neosho; North Fork White; Ouachita Headwaters; Pecan-Waterhole; Petit Jean; Poteau; Red-Little; Red-Saline; Robert S. Kerr Reservoir; Spring; St. Francis; Strawberry; Upper Black; Upper Ouachita; Upper Ouachita; Upper Saline; Upper White; Upper White-Village
CA1872202154Aliso-San Onofre; California Region; Cottonwood-Tijuana; Coyote; Crowley Lake; Los Angeles; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado; Lower Pit; Lower Sacramento; Lower Sacramento; Mad-Redwood; Middle Fork Feather; Middle San Joaquin-Lower Chowchilla; Mojave; Monterey Bay; Newport Bay; Owens Lake; Pajaro; Russian; Salinas; Salton Sea; San Antonio; San Diego; San Francisco Bay; San Francisco Bay; San Francisco Coastal South; San Jacinto; San Joaquin; San Joaquin Delta; San Pablo Bay; Santa Ana; Santa Ana; Santa Clara; Santa Margarita; Santa Ynez; South Fork Kern; Suisun Bay; Tomales-Drake Bays; Truckee; Tulare Lake Bed; Tulare-Buena Vista Lakes; Upper Cache; Upper Carson; Upper Coon-Upper Auburn; Upper Deer-Upper White; Upper Dry; Upper Putah; Upper Sacramento; Upper Tuolumne; Upper Yuba; Ventura-San Gabriel Coastal; West Walker; Whitewater River
CO1879202049Alamosa-Trinchera; Arkansas-White-Red Region; Beaver; Beaver; Big Thompson; Cache La Poudre; Clear; Colorado Headwaters; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Crow; Gunnison; Horse; Huerfano; Little Snake; Lone Tree-Owl; Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Gunnison; Lower San Juan; Lower South Platte; Lower White; Lower Yampa; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; Middle South Platte-Sterling; Missouri Region; Pawnee; Piedra; Purgatoire; Republican; Rio Grande; Rio Grande Headwaters; Rush; San Luis; South Fork Republican; South Platte; South Platte Headwaters; St. Vrain; Two Butte; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith; Upper Cimarron; Upper Colorado; Upper Dolores; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Gunnison; Upper San Juan; Upper South Platte; Upper White; White - Yampa
CT194020197Connecticut Coastal; Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; New England Region; Quinnipiac; Saugatuck; Thames
DE187920207Brandywine-Christina; Broadkill-Smyrna; Chincoteague; Choptank; Delaware Bay; Lower Delaware; Upper Chesapeake
DC199920201Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan
FL1890202022Apalachee Bay-St. Marks; Apalachicola; Apalachicola Bay; Chipola; Choctawhatchee Bay; Escambia; Everglades; Florida Southeast Coast; Lake Okeechobee; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Choctawhatchee; Lower Ochlockonee; Northern Okeechobee Inflow; Oklawaha; Pensacola Bay; Perdido Bay; Santa Fe; Sarasota Bay; South Atlantic-Gulf Region; St. Marys; Upper St. Johns; Western Okeechobee Inflow
GA1923202033Altamaha; Altamaha; Apalachicola Basin; Broad; Conasauga; Coosawattee; Etowah; Hiwassee; Little; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Flint; Lower Ocmulgee; Lower Oconee; Lower Savannah; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F; Middle Flint; Middle Savannah; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Ocoee; Ogeechee Coastal; Oostanaula; Satilla; Savannah; Spring; Tugaloo; Upper Chattahoochee; Upper Coosa; Upper Flint; Upper Ocmulgee; Upper Oconee; Upper Savannah; Upper Tallapoosa
HI187020056Hawaii; Kauai; Lanai; Maui; Molokai; Oahu
ID1882202111American Falls; Bear Lake; Brownlee Reservoir; Bruneau; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Lower Bear; Middle Snake-Payette; Middle Snake-Succor; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Upper Snake-Rock
IL1894202159Apple-Plum; Bear-Wyaconda; Big Muddy; Cache; Cahokia-Joachim; Chicago; Copperas-Duck; Des Plaines; Embarras; Flint-Henderson; Green; Iroquois; Kankakee; Kaskaskia; Kishwaukee; La Moine; Lake Michigan; Little Calumet-Galien; Little Wabash; Lower Fox; Lower Illinois; Lower Illinois; Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua; Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake; Lower Kaskaskia; Lower Ohio; Lower Ohio; Lower Ohio-Bay; Lower Rock; Lower Sangamon; Lower Wabash; Mackinaw; Macoupin; Middle Kaskaskia; Middle Rock; Middle Wabash-Busseron; Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion; Pecatonica; Peruque-Piasa; Pike-Root; Rock; Saline; Salt; Shoal; Skillet; South Fork Sangamon; Spoon; The Sny; Upper Fox; Upper Illinois; Upper Kaskaskia; Upper Mississippi Region; Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau; Upper Mississippi-Meramec; Upper Mississippi-Skunk-Wapsipinicon; Upper Sangamon; Vermilion; Vermilion; Wabash
IN1894202023Blue-Sinking; Driftwood; Eel; Kankakee; Little Calumet-Galien; Lower East Fork White; Lower Wabash; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion; Mississinewa; Muscatatuck; Ohio Region; Patoka; Salamonie; St. Joseph; St. Joseph; Sugar; Tippecanoe; Upper Wabash; Upper White; Vermilion; Wabash; Whitewater
IA1900202049Apple-Plum; Big Papillion-Mosquito; Blackbird-Soldier; Boone; Boyer; Coon-Yellow; Copperas-Duck; Des Moines; East Fork Des Moines; East Nishnabotna; Flint-Henderson; Floyd; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Iowa; Keg-Weeping Water; Lake Red Rock; Little Sioux; Lower Big Sioux; Lower Cedar; Lower Des Moines; Lower Iowa; Lower Wapsipinicon; Maple; Maquoketa; Middle Cedar; Middle Des Moines; Middle Iowa; Missouri-Little Sioux; Monona-Harrison Ditch; Nishnabotna; North Raccoon; North Skunk; One Hundred and Two; Rock; Skunk; South Raccoon; South Skunk; Thompson; Turkey; Upper Cedar; Upper Chariton; Upper Des Moines; Upper Grand; Upper Iowa; Upper Wapsipinicon; West Fork Cedar; West Nishnabotna; West Nodaway; Winnebago
KS1880201937Arkansas-Keystone; Big Blue; Big Nemaha; Chikaskia; Gar-Peace; Independence-Sugar; Kansas; Lower Big Blue; Lower Cottonwood; Lower Kansas; Lower Marais Des Cygnes; Lower Republican; Lower Sappa; Medicine Lodge; Middle Arkansas; Middle Arkansas-Slate; Middle Kansas; Middle Republican; Middle Smoky Hill; Missouri-Nishnabotna; Neosho; Osage; Pawnee; Prairie Dog; Republican; Smoky Hill; South Fork Republican; Spring; Tarkio-Wolf; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Cimarron; Upper Cimarron; Upper Cimarron-Bluff; Upper Cimarron-Liberal; Upper Kansas; Upper Walnut River; Verdigris
KY1942202125Barren; Bayou De Chien-Mayfield; Big Sandy; Kentucky Lake; Licking; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Kentucky; Lower Ohio; Lower Ohio-Bay; Lower Tennessee; Middle Green; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Pond; Red; Rockcastle; Rolling Fork; Rough; Salt; Silver-Little Kentucky; South Fork Licking; Tradewater; Upper Cumberland; Upper Green; Upper Levisa
LA1955201920Atchafalaya; Bayou Sara-Thompson; Bayou Teche; Bodcau Bayou; Boeuf; Calcasieu-Mermentau; East Central Louisiana Coastal; Lake Maurepas; Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta; Lower Grand; Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge; Lower Mississippi-New Orleans; Lower Ouachita; Lower Ouachita; Mermentau; Mermentau Headwaters; Sabine; Tensas; West Central Louisiana Coastal; West Fork Calcasieu
ME188020033Lower Kennebec; New England Region; St. George-Sheepscot
MD1874202022Chester-Sassafras; Chincoteague; Choptank; Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Potomac; Lower Susquehanna; Mid Atlantic Region; Mid-Atlantic; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Monocacy; Nanticoke; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva; Potomac; Severn; Tangier; Upper Chesapeake; Upper Chesapeake Bay; Youghiogheny
MA198020208Blackstone; Charles; Chicopee; Concord; Gulf of Maine/Bay of Fundy; Merrimack; Middle Connecticut; New England Region
MI1880202146Au Gres-Rifle; Au Sable; Betsie-Platte; Birch-Willow; Black-Macatawa; Boardman-Charlevoix; Brevoort-Millecoquins; Cass; Cheboygan; Clinton; Detroit; Fishdam-Sturgeon; Flint; Great Lakes Region; Huron; Kalamazoo; Kawkawlin-Pine; Keweenaw Peninsula; Lake Erie; Lake Huron; Lake Michigan; Lake St. Clair; Lone Lake-Ocqueoc; Lower Grand; Manistee; Maple; Menominee; Muskegon; Ottawa-Stony; Pere Marquette-White; Pigeon-Wiscoggin; Pine; Raisin; Saginaw; Shiawassee; St. Clair; St. Joseph; St. Joseph; St. Marys; Sturgeon; Tacoosh-Whitefish; Thornapple; Thunder Bay; Tiffin; Tittabawassee; Upper Grand
MN1833202175Blue Earth; Bois De Sioux; Buffalo; Buffalo-Whitewater; Cannon; Chippewa; Clearwater; Clearwater-Elk; Coon-Yellow; Cottonwood; Crow; Crow Wing; Des Moines Headwaters; East Fork Des Moines; Eastern Wild Rice; Elk-Nokasippi; Hawk-Yellow Medicine; Kettle; La Crosse-Pine; Lac Qui Parle; Lake of the Woods; Lake Superior; Le Sueur; Leech Lake; Little Fork; Little Sioux; Long Prairie; Lower Big Sioux; Lower Minnesota; Lower Rainy; Lower Red; Lower St. Croix; Middle Minnesota; Minnesota; Mississippi Headwaters; Mustinka; Otter Tail; Pine; Platte-Spunk; Pomme De Terre; Prairie-Willow; Rainy Headwaters; Rainy Lake; Rapid; Red; Red Lake; Redeye; Redwood; Rock; Root; Roseau; Rum; Rush-Vermillion; Sandhill-Wilson; Sauk; Shell Rock; Snake; Snake; South Fork Crow; St. Croix; St. Louis; Thief; Twin Cities; Two Rivers; Upper Cedar; Upper Iowa; Upper Minnesota; Upper Mississippi-Black-Root; Upper Mississippi-Crow-Rum; Upper Red; Upper St. Croix; Vermilion; Watonwan; Winnebago; Zumbro
MS1902202033Bayou Pierre; Bear; Big Sunflower; BigBlack - Homochitto; Black Warrior-Tombigbee; Bogue Chitto; Chunky-Okatibbee; Coldwater; Coles Creek; Deer-Steele; Little Tallahatchie; Lower Big Black; Lower Chickasawhay; Lower Mississippi-Greenville; Lower Mississippi-Helena; Lower Mississippi-Memphis; Lower Mississippi-Natchez; Lower Pearl; Lower Yazoo; Middle Pearl-Strong; Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub; Noxubee; Pickwick Lake; Tallahatchie; Town; Upper Big Black; Upper Hatchie; Upper Leaf; Upper Pearl; Upper Tombigbee; Upper Yazoo; Yalobusha; Yazoo
MO1879202161Bear-Wyaconda; Big; Big Piney; Blackwater; Bourbeuse; Bull Shoals Lake; Cahokia-Joachim; Cuivre; Current; Eleven Point; Elk; Gasconade; Grand; Harry S. Truman Reservoir; Independence-Sugar; James; Keg-Weeping Water; Lake of the Ozarks; Lamine; Little Chariton; Little Osage; Little River Ditches; Lower Chariton; Lower Des Moines; Lower Gasconade; Lower Grand; Lower Marais Des Cygnes; Lower Missouri; Lower Missouri-Blackwater; Lower Missouri-Crooked; Lower Missouri-Moreau; Lower Osage; Lower St. Francis; Marmaton; Meramec; Missouri-Nishnabotna; New Madrid-St. Johns; Niangua; Nodaway; North Fabius; North Fork White; Peruque-Piasa; Platte; Sac; Salt; South Fabius; South Fork Salt; South Grand; Spring; St. Francis; Tarkio-Wolf; The Sny; Thompson; Upper Black; Upper Chariton; Upper Gasconade; Upper Grand; Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau; Upper Mississippi-Salt; Upper St. Francis; Whitewater
MT1876201066Arrow; Battle; Beaver; Beaver; Beaverhead; Big Dry; Big Muddy; Bitterroot; Box Elder; Boxelder; Bullwhacker-Dog; Charlie-Little Muddy; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Fisher; Flatwillow; Fort Peck Reservoir; Frenchman; Judith; Little Bighorn; Little Dry; Little Powder; Lodge; Lower Bighorn; Lower Milk; Lower Musselshell; Lower Powder; Lower Tongue; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Marias; Marias; Middle Clark Fork; Middle Milk; Middle Musselshell; Middle Powder; Milk; Missouri-Poplar; Mizpah; Musselshell; O'Fallon; Peoples; Poplar; Porcupine; Powder; Prairie Elk-Wolf; Pryor; Redwater; Rock; Rosebud; Sun; Teton; Tongue; Upper Clark Fork; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri-Dearborn; Upper Musselshell; Upper Tongue; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin; Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar; West Fork Poplar; Whitewater; Willow
NE1901202065Beaver; Big Nemaha; Big Papillion-Mosquito; Blackbird-Soldier; Calamus; Cedar; Dismal; Elkhorn; Frenchman; Harlan County Reservoir; Horse; Keg-Weeping Water; Keya Paha; Lewis and Clark Lake; Little Nemaha; Logan; Loup; Loup; Lower Big Blue; Lower Elkhorn; Lower Little Blue; Lower Lodgepole; Lower Middle Loup; Lower Niobrara; Lower North Loup; Lower North Platte; Lower Platte; Lower Platte-Shell; Lower Sappa; Lower South Platte; Medicine; Middle Big Blue; Middle Niobrara; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Middle Platte-Prairie; Middle Republican; Missouri Region; Mud; Nishnabotna; North Fork Elkhorn; North Fork Republican; Ponca; Prairie Dog; Pumpkin; Red Willow; Republican; Salt; Snake; South Fork Big Nemaha; South Fork Republican; South Loup; Stinking Water; Tarkio-Wolf; Turkey; Upper Big Blue; Upper Elkhorn; Upper Little Blue; Upper Middle Loup; Upper Niobrara; Upper North Loup; Upper Republican; Upper White; West Fork Big Blue; Wood
NV1833202125Black Rock Desert-Humboldt; Carson Desert; Central Lahontan; Diamond-Monitor Valleys; Great Basin Region; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys; Imperial Reservoir; Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys; Lake Mead; Las Vegas Wash; Lower Humboldt; Lower Virgin; Meadow Valley Wash; Middle Humboldt; Muddy; North Fork Humboldt; Pacific Northwest; Pilot-Thousand Springs; Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes; Truckee; Upper Carson; Walker Lake; West Walker; White
NH188020073Black-Ottauquechee; Merrimack River; West
NJ1890202013Cohansey-Maurice; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Great Egg Harbor; Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Delaware; Lower Hudson; Mid-Atlantic Region; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Mullica-Toms; Raritan; Rondout; Sandy Hook-Staten Island
NM1964202029Animas; Caballo; Chaco; Conchas; El Paso-Las Cruces; Elephant Butte Reservoir; Landreth-Monument Draws; Lower Pecos; Middle San Juan; Pecos Headwaters; Revuelto; Rio Chama; Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Rio Grande-Santa Fe; Rio San Jose; San Francisco; Upper Canadian; Upper Canadian; Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir; Upper Gila; Upper Gila-Mangas; Upper Pecos; Upper Pecos; Upper Pecos-Black; Upper Pecos-Long Arroyo; Upper Rio Grande; Upper San Juan; Upper San Juan; Ute
NY1830202048Black; Bronx; Buffalo-Eighteenmile; Chateaugay-English; Chaumont-Perch; Chemung; Chenango; Conewango; Eastern Lake Erie; Grass; Hackensack-Passaic; Headwaters St. Lawrence River; Hudson-Hoosic; Hudson-Wappinger; Indian; Irondequoit-Ninemile; Lake Champlain; Lake Erie; Lake Ontario; Lower Genesee; Lower Hudson; Mettawee River; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Hudson; Mohawk; Niagara; Northern Long Island; Oak Orchard-Twelvemile; Oneida; Oswegatchie; Oswego; Owego-Wappasening; Raisin River-St. Lawrence River; Raquette; Rondout; Salmon; Salmon-Sandy; Sandy Hook-Staten Island; Schoharie; Seneca; Southern Long Island; Southwestern Lake Ontario; St. Regis; Tioga; Upper Allegheny; Upper Delaware; Upper Genesee; Upper Susquehanna
NC1940202030Albemarle; Contentnea; Deep; Haw; Hiwassee; Lower Neuse; Lower Tar; Lower Yadkin; Lumber; Middle Neuse; Pamlico; Pamlico; Pamlico Sound; Pigeon; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; Santee; Seneca; South Fork Catawba; South Yadkin; Upper Broad; Upper Catawba; Upper Dan; Upper French Broad; Upper Little Tennessee; Upper Neuse; Upper New; Upper Yadkin; Waccamaw; Watauga
ND1929200519Cedar; Elm-Marsh; Forest; Goose; Grand Marais-Red; James Headwaters; Knife; Lake Sakakawea; Lower Pembina River; Lower Sheyenne; Maple; Painted Woods-Square Butte; Park; Red; Sandhill-Wilson; Turtle; Upper Heart; Upper Lake Oahe; Western Wild Rice
OH1879202138Ashtabula-Chagrin; Auglaize; Blanchard; Cedar-Portage; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Cuyahoga; Hocking; Lake Erie; Licking; Little Miami; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Great Miami; Lower Maumee; Lower Scioto; Mohican; Muskingum; Muskingum; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Ottawa-Stony; Paint; Raccoon-Symmes; Sandusky; Shenango; Southern Lake Erie; St. Joseph; Tuscarawas; Upper Great Miami; Upper Maumee; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Beaver; Upper Ohio-Little Kanawha; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; Upper Scioto; Wabash; Walhonding; Western Lake Erie; Whitewater
OK1882202155Arkansas-White-Red Region; Bird; Black Bear-Red Rock; Blue-China; Bois D'arc-Island; Caney; Chikaskia; Cimarron Headwaters; Coldwater; Deep Fork; Dirty-Greenleaf; Elk; Elm Fork Red; Farmers-Mud; Groesbeck-Sandy; Illinois; Kiamichi; Lake O' The Cherokees; Lake Texoma; Little; Lower Beaver; Lower Canadian; Lower Canadian-Deer; Lower Canadian-Walnut; Lower Cimarron; Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief; Lower Cimarron-Skeleton; Lower Neosho; Lower North Canadian; Lower North Canadian; Lower North Fork Red; Lower Salt Fork Arkansas; Lower Salt Fork Red; Lower Verdigris; Lower Washita; Lower Wolf; Medicine Lodge; Middle Beaver; Middle North Canadian; Middle North Fork Red; Middle Verdigris; Middle Washita; Palo Duro; Pecan-Waterhole; Polecat-Snake; Poteau; Robert S. Kerr Reservoir; Spring; Upper Cimarron; Upper Cimarron; Upper Cimarron-Bluff; Upper Cimarron-Liberal; Upper Salt Fork Arkansas; Upper Washita; Washita
OR1880201825Brownlee Reservoir; Clackamas; Donner und Blitzen; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Malheur; Lower Owyhee; Lower Willamette; Middle Columbia; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Middle Snake-Payette; Middle Snake-Succor; Middle Willamette; Oregon closed basins; Pacific Northwest; Pacific Northwest Region; Powder; South Santiam; Umatilla; Upper Grande Ronde; Upper Malheur; Upper Willamette; Willamette
PA1958202155Bald Eagle; Beaver; Brandywine-Christina; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Cheat; Chemung; Chenango; Chester-Sassafras; Clarion; Conemaugh; Conewango; Connoquenessing; Conococheague-Opequon; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; French; Kiskiminetas; Lackawaxen; Lake Erie; Lehigh; Lower Allegheny; Lower Delaware; Lower Juniata; Lower Monongahela; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna-Penns; Lower Susquehanna-Swatara; Lower West Branch Susquehanna; Mahoning; Middle Allegheny-Redbank; Middle Allegheny-Tionesta; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Middle West Branch Susquehanna; North Branch Potomac; Owego-Wappasening; Pine; Raystown; Schuylkill; Shenango; Sinnemahoning; Susquehanna; Tioga; Upper Allegheny; Upper Delaware; Upper Juniata; Upper Monongahela; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock; Upper West Branch Susquehanna; West Branch Susquehanna; Youghiogheny
PR200520073Cibuco-Guajataca; Eastern Puerto Rico; Southern Puerto Rico
RI198020163Massachusetts-Rhode Island Coastal; Narragansett; New England Region
SC1923201930Black; Broad-St. Helena; Calibogue Sound-Wright River; Carolina Coastal-Sampit; Coastal Carolina; Congaree; Cooper; Edisto River; Enoree; Lake Marion; Lower Broad; Lower Catawba; Lower Pee Dee; Lower Savannah; Lumber; Lynches; Middle Savannah; Salkehatchie; Saluda; Santee; Santee; Seneca; South Fork Edisto; Tugaloo; Tyger; Upper Broad; Upper Catawba; Upper Savannah; Waccamaw; Wateree
SD1909202029Big Sioux; Bois De Sioux; Boxelder; Cheyenne; Crow; Fort Randall Reservoir; Keya Paha; Lac Qui Parle; Lake Thompson; Lewis and Clark Lake; Little White; Lower Belle Fourche; Lower Big Sioux; Lower James; Medicine Knoll; Middle Big Sioux; Middle James; Missouri Region; North Fork Snake; Ponca; Redwater; Snake; Turtle; Upper Big Sioux; Upper James; Upper Lake Oahe; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Minnesota; Vermillion
TN1939202148Buffalo; Caney; Conasauga; Emory; Forked Deer; French Broad-Holston; Harpeth; Hiwassee; Holston; Horn Lake-Nonconnah; Kentucky Lake; Loosahatchie; Lower Clinch; Lower Cumberland; Lower Cumberland; Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake; Lower Cumberland-Sycamore; Lower Duck; Lower French Broad; Lower Hatchie; Lower Little Tennessee; Lower Mississippi-Memphis; Lower Tennessee-Beech; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee; Nolichucky; North Fork Holston; Obey; Obion; Pickwick Lake; Pigeon; Powell; Red; South Fork Cumberland; South Fork Forked Deer; South Fork Holston; South Fork Obion; Stones; Upper Clinch; Upper Cumberland; Upper Duck; Upper Elk; Upper French Broad; Upper Hatchie; Upper Tennessee; Watauga; Watts Bar Lake; Wolf
TX1880202197Amistad Reservoir; Austin-Oyster; Austin-Travis Lakes; Big Cypress-Sulphur; Blue-China; Bois D'arc-Island; Brady; Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes; Buffalo-San Jacinto; Cedar; Colorado Headwaters; Denton; East Fork Trinity; East Galveston Bay; East Matagorda Bay; East San Antonio Bay; El Paso-Las Cruces; Elm Fork Trinity; Elm-Sycamore; Farmers-Mud; Groesbeck-Sandy; Guadalupe; Hubbard; Jim Ned; Lake Fork; Lake Meredith; Lake O' the Pines; Lake O'the Pines; Lake Texoma; Leon; Little Wichita; Llano; Lower Angelina; Lower Brazos-Little Brazos; Lower Colorado-Cummins; Lower Devils; Lower Frio; Lower Nueces; Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir; Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red; Lower Rio Grande; Lower Sulpher; Lower Trinity; Lower Trinity-Kickapoo; Lower Trinity-Tehuacana; Lower West Fork Trinity; Medina; Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney; Middle Brazos-Millers; Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto; Middle Colorado; Middle Colorado-Concho; Middle Colorado-Elm; Middle Guadalupe; Middle Nueces; Middle Sabine; Navasota; North Concho; North Fork Double Mountain Fork Brazos; North Fork Red; North Llano; Nueces; Paint; Palo Duro; Pecan-Waterhole; Pedernales; Richland; Rio Grande-Amistad; Rio Grande-Falcon; Rio Grande-Fort Quitman; Sabine; San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel; San Antonio; San Bernard; San Gabriel; San Marcos; San Saba; South Concho; South Corpus Christi Bay; South Laguna Madre; Spring; Toyah; Tule; Upper Clear Fork Brazos; Upper Colorado; Upper Guadalupe; Upper Neches; Upper Salt Fork Red; Upper Trinity; Upper West Fork Trinity; West Fork San Jacinto; West Galveston Bay; White; White Oak Bayou; Wichita; Yegua; Yellow House Draw
UT1881202124Bear Lake; Dirty Devil; Duchesne; Great Salt Lake; Great Salt Lake; Jordan; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Green; Lower Green-Desolation Canyon; Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Lake Powell; Lower San Juan; Lower Weber; Lower White; McElmo; Price; Provo; San Rafael; Spanish Fork; Strawberry; Upper Colorado-Kane Springs; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Lake Powell; Utah Lake
VT183320205Lake Champlain; Missiquoi River; Otter Creek; Richelieu; Richelieu River
VA1974202041Albemarle; Appomattox; Banister; Big Sandy; Blackwater; Chowan; Conococheague-Opequon; Hampton Roads; James; Lower Chesapeake Bay; Lower Dan; Lower James; Lower Potomac; Lynnhaven-Poquoson; Maury; Meherrin; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle James-Willis; Middle New; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Middle Roanoke; North Fork Holston; North Fork Shenandoah; Pamunkey; Potomac; Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock; Rivanna; Roanoke; Roanoke Rapids; Shenandoah; South Fork Holston; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Clinch; Upper Dan; Upper James; Upper Levisa; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; Upper Tennessee; York
WA1881201924Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Lake Washington; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Crab; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Lower Spokane; Lower Yakima; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Pend Oreille; Puget Sound; Puget Sound; Similkameen; Strait of Georgia; Upper Chehalis; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids; Upper Crab; Upper Spokane; Walla Walla; Yakima
WV1933202020Big Sandy; Cacapon-Town; Conococheague-Opequon; Kanawha; Little Kanawha; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Lower Guyandotte; Middle New; Monongahela; Potomac; Shenandoah; South Branch Potomac; Tug; Upper Guyandotte; Upper Kanawha; Upper Monongahela; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; West Fork
WI1900201647Apple-Plum; Baraboo; Beartrap-Nemadji; Black; Black-Presque Isle; Brule; Buffalo-Whitewater; Castle Rock; Coon-Yellow; Des Plaines; Door-Kewaunee; Duck-Pensaukee; Eau Claire; Flambeau; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Jump; Kickapoo; La Crosse-Pine; Lake Dubay; Lake Michigan; Lake Superior; Lake Winnebago; Lower Chippewa; Lower Fox; Lower St. Croix; Lower Wisconsin; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Menominee; Middle Rock; Milwaukee; Namekagon; Oconto; Pecatonica; Peshtigo; Pike-Root; Red Cedar; Rush-Vermillion; St. Louis; Sugar; Trempealeau; Upper Chippewa; Upper Fox; Upper Fox; Upper Rock; Upper St. Croix; Upper Wisconsin; Wolf
WY1970201340Big Horn; Big Horn Lake; Bitter; Cheyenne; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Clear; Crazy Woman; Crow; Dry; Glendo Reservoir; Great Divide Closed Basin; Greybull; Horse; Little Powder; Little Wind; Lower Laramie; Lower Wind; Medicine Bow; Middle North Platte-Casper; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Middle Powder; North Fork Shoshone; North Platte; Nowood; Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs; Shoshone; South Fork Shoshone; South Platte; Upper Bear; Upper Belle Fourche; Upper Bighorn; Upper Green; Upper Green; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Green-Slate; Upper Laramie; Upper Powder; Upper Tongue; Upper Wind; White - Yampa

Table last updated 1/25/2022

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: The species generally inhabits lakes, ponds, and the lower sections of rivers (usually with moderately flowing or standing water), but is also known from brackish-water estuaries, backwaters, and bays (Barus et al. 2001). In its native range, the species occurs in coastal areas of the Caspian and Aral Seas (Berg 1964; Barus et al., 2001) as well as the estuaries of large Ukrainian and Russian rivers. Crivelli (1981) reported that the common carp occurred in brackish-water marshes with salinities up to 14 ppt in southern France. In North America, the common carp inhabits brackish and saline coastal waters of several states bordering the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and Gulf of Mexico (Schwartz 1964; Moyle 2002) as well as the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Canada (McCrimmon 1968). It has been captured in U.S. waters with salinities as high as 17.6 ppt (Schwartz 1964). In the U.S., the common carp is more abundant in manmade impoundments, lakes, and turbid sluggish streams receiving sewage or agricultural runoff, and less abundant in clear waters or streams with a high gradient (Pflieger 1975; Trautman 1981; Ross 2001; Boschung and Mayden 2004). Pflieger (1975) noted that the common carp tends to concentrate in large numbers where cannery or slaughter-house wastes are emptied into streams.

Larval common carp feeds primarily on zooplankton. In its native range, juveniles and adults feed on benthic organisms (e.g., chironomids, gastropods and other larval insects), vegetation, detritus and plankton (e.g., cladocerans, copepods, amphipods, mysids). Feeding habits are similar in the U.S., where the diet is composed of organic detritus (primarily of plant origin), chironomids, small crustaceans, and gastropods (Summerfelt et al. 1971; Eder and Carlson 1977; Panek 1987). The common carp have shown to be an important seed dispersal vector for aquatic plants (VonBank 2018). The common carp is very active when feeding and its movements often disturb sediments and increase turbidity, causing serious problems in some regions especially where the species is abundant. The species also retards the growth of submerged aquatic vegetation by feeding on and uprooting plants (King and Hunt 1967). Silt resuspension and uprooting of aquatic plants caused by feeding activities can disturb spawning and nursery areas of native fishes (Ross 2001) as well as disrupt feeding of sight-oriented predators, such as bass and sunfish (Panek 1987).

Means of Introduction: There is some question as to when and where common carp was first introduced into the United States. DeKay (1842) reported that the species was first brought into the United States from France by Henry Robinson of Orange County, New York in 1831 and 1832. In a letter to DeKay, Robinson detailed that he kept the fish in ponds and for several years released one to two dozen carp during the spring in the Hudson River near his residence, thereby creating a commercial fishery for the species. S. F. Baird of the U.S. Fish Commission examined fish taken from the Hudson River, as well as area fish then being sold on the New York markets, and reported that they were goldfish or goldfish hybrids and not true common carp (Redding 1884; Cole 1905). Whitworth (1996) cited early literature indicating common carp had been introduced into Connecticut as early as the 1840s; however, we question the positive identity of the species. Smith (1896) reported that common carp first appeared in the United States in 1872 when J. A. Poppe of Sonoma, California, imported five specimens from Germany and propagated them in private ponds for commercial purposes, mainly distributing them to applicants as a food fish (Smith 1896; Lampman 1946). In 1877, the U.S. Fish Commission imported common carp from Germany and for the next two decades the agency began stocking and distributing the species as food fish throughout much of the United States and its territories (Smiley 1886; Smith 1896; Cole 1905). State fish commissions also were commonly involved in distributing the species (e.g., Johnson and Becker 1980). Records from the early 1880s indicate that common carp stocked in farm ponds frequently escaped into open waters as a result of dam breaks or flood events (Smiley 1886). By 1885, the U.S. Fish Commission was actively stocking lakes and rivers throughout the country, often the fish were released from railroad tank cars at bridge crossing directly into streams (e.g., McDonald 1886). As a result of subsequent population growth and dispersal, common carp spread even further. More recently introductions of common carp have resulted because of the use of juvenile carp as bait fish (e.g., Swift et al. 1977). Various unusual genetic strains of common carp have been introduced into open waters the United States. In addition to the normal scaled carp, the U.S. Fish Commission distributed both mirror carp and leather carp varieties in the late 1800s (Smiley 1886; Cole 1905). Colorful varieties of common carp (i.e., nishikigoi or koi) are kept as pets in garden ponds and some have been introduced to ponds and public water bodies (Balon 1995). However, only a small percentage of common carp records in U.S. open waters are based on koi. Another cultured variety occasionally found in open waters is the Israeli carp (Robison and Buchanan 1988). Their presence in South Florida is believed to be the result of released bait with this species as a contaminant.

Status: Recorded from all states except Alaska. In their summary table, Bailey and Smith (1981) indicated that Cyprinus carpio is widely distributed in the Great Lakes basin.

Carp is only established in the Florida panhandle.  It does not appear to be established in South Florida.

Impact of Introduction:
Summary of species impacts derived from literature review. Click on an icon to find out more...

EcologicalEconomicHuman HealthOther

The common carp is regarded as a pest fish because of its widespread abundance and because of its tendency to destroy vegetation and increase water turbidity by dislodging plants and rooting around in the substrate, causing a deterioration of habitat for species requiring vegetation and clean water (Cole 1905; Cahoon 1953; Bellrichard 1996; Laird and Page 1996). Available literature indicates common carp may destroy aquatic macrophytes directly by uprooting or consuming the plants, or indirectly by increasing turbidity and thereby reducing light for photosynthesis. Bellrichard (1996) found that alterations in macrophyte biomass are due more to direct effects of common carp. In their review of the literature, Richardson et al. (1995) concluded that common carp has had noted adverse effects on biological systems including destruction of vegetated breeding habitats used by both fish and birds, and an increase in turbidity. It stirs up the bottom during feeding, resulting in increased siltation and turbidity (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.). This feeding behavior also destroys rooted aquatic plants that provide habitat for native fish species and food for waterfowl (Dentler 1993). Bonneau and Scarnecchia (2015) found that carp eradication and exclusion from reservoir tributaries allowed for increased benthic invertebrate community diversity and abundance, and the return of submerged aquatic vegetation.

There is also evidence that common carp prey on the eggs of other fish species (Moyle 1976; Taylor et al. 1984; Miller and Beckman 1996). For this reason, it may be responsible for the decline of the razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin (Taylor et al. 1984). In another case, Miller and Beckman (1996) documented white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus eggs in the stomachs of common carp in the Columbia River. In California, carp have been implicated in the decrease in water clarity in Clear Lake, Lake County, and in the gradual disappearance of native fishes (Moyle 1976). McCarraher and Gregory (1970) wrote that in 1894 there was documentation that Sacramento perch Archoplites interruptus were becoming more scarce because carp was destroying their spawning grounds. Laird and Page (1996) stated that common carp may compete with ecologically similar species such as carpsuckers and buffalos. Because this species has been present in many areas since the first surveys, its impacts on many of the native fishes are difficult to determine. Once established in a water body, common carp is difficult and expensive to eliminate (e.g., Cahoon 1953).

Remarks: Balon (1995) reviewed the origin and history of domestication of common carp in Europe and elsewhere. Several agents of the U.S. Fish Commission documented the early years of common carp propagation and stocking in the United States (e.g., Smiley 1886; Smith 1896; Cole 1905). Although this species was popular in the early 1870s as a food fish, common carp fell into wide disfavor soon after and is now considered a nuisance fish because of its abundance and detrimental effects on aquatic habitats. Trautman (1981) found common carp most abundant in streams enriched with sewage or with substantial runoff from agricultural land, but he reported it to be rare or absent in clear, cold waters, and streams of high gradient. Pflieger (1997) reported that the total weight and value of common carp taken by commercial fishermen in Missouri exceeded that of any other fish. Hartel et al. (1996) noted that more than 20,000 common carp were killed by a bacterial disease over a short period of time in the Merrimack River in the late 1970s. Because common carp have a higher salinity tolerance than most freshwater fishes, Swift et al. (1977) hypothesized that it may be spreading from one coastal stream to another through fresh or nearly fresh coastal waters in the Gulf area during periods of heavy rainfall and run-off, periods when salinities are greatly reduced.

DeVaney et al. (2009) performed ecological niche modeling to examine the invasion potential for common carp and three other invasive cyprinids (grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, black carp Mylopharyngodon piceus, and tench Tinca tinca). The majority of the areas where common carp have been collected, stocked, or have become established had a high predicted ecological suitability for this species.

Voucher specimens: Alabama (UMMZ 103508, 115003, TU 48856, 51966, 130781), Arizona (TU 74792, 78489, 79742), Arkansas (TU 2194, 2204, 44759), Colorado (TU 47337), Florida (TU 22858, 22879, 23654, 34833), Georgia (UGAMNH), Illinois (TU 9944, 125802, 125825), Indiana (TU 19372, 101143), Kansas (TU 42664, 42681), Kentucky (TU 66289), Louisiana (TU 6281, 9202, 15805, 16781), Michigan (TU 15007), Mississippi (TU 32974, 57121, 69483, 85130), Missouri (TU 53843, 54574, 74298), Nevada (TU 47257, 47266), New Jersey (TU 36738), New Mexico (TCWC 0059.01, TU 35686, 38871, 42637, 42656), New York (TCWC 0077.01, TU 36674), North Carolina (TU 29401), North Dakota (UMMZ 94756, 94757), Ohio (TU 3299), Oklahoma (TU 12021, 13790, 141667, 141686), Oregon (TU 121816), South Carolina (TU 145144), South Dakota (TU 58222), Tennessee (TU 33470), Texas (TCWC 1074.01, 07780.03, TU 15777, 21969, 21995, 35583, 35634), Utah (TU 43659, 99064, 99122, 99150), Wisconsin (TU 15748, 173824), many others.

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FishBase Summary

Author: Nico, L., E. Maynard, P.J. Schofield, M. Cannister, J. Larson, A. Fusaro, and M. Neilson

Revision Date: 9/12/2019

Peer Review Date: 7/15/2015

Citation Information:
Nico, L., E. Maynard, P.J. Schofield, M. Cannister, J. Larson, A. Fusaro, and M. Neilson, 2022, Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=4, Revision Date: 9/12/2019, Peer Review Date: 7/15/2015, Access Date: 1/25/2022

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2022]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [1/25/2022].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.