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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Anaxyrus americanus
Anaxyrus americanus
(American Toad)
Amphibians-Frogs
Native Transplant
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Anaxyrus americanus (Holbrook, 1836)

Common name: American Toad

Synonyms and Other Names: Bufo americanus (see first paragraph of Remarks section)

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Size: generally up to 9 cm

Native Range: The Mid-Atlantic states except for southeastern Virginia, southern New Jersey, Long Island, and the islands of Massachusetts.

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Anaxyrus americanus are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Massachusetts197619761Cape Cod

Table last updated 5/25/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Means of Introduction: In 1976, the American toad was first documented on Cuttyhunk Island, Massachusetts and it was breeding there by 1979. It was stocked on the island after the native Fowlers Toad was exterminated due to pesticide spraying.

Impact of Introduction: Other than the intended shift in toad species, impacts have not been reported. Anaxyrus americanus eats insects (100 per night), slugs, and earthworms; and is preyed upon by raccoons, herons, snakes, and birds of prey.

Remarks: Frost et al. (2006) divided New World bufoinds into a number of new or revised genera.  North American “Bufo” were placed into the new genus Anaxyrus (Frost et al., 2006; Crother, 2008; Collins and Taggart, 2009).  Scientific and standard English names follow Crother (2008).

Found in terrestrial areas associated with shallow ephemeral wetlands, eddies in streams or shallow pools used for breeding.  Up to 20,000 eggs are laid during March to July depending on local climate.  Sexual maturity is reached at two to three years of age.

References: (click for full references)

Collins, J.T. and T.W. Taggart. 2009. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians, turtles, reptiles, and crocodilians. Sixth Edition. Publication of The Center for North American Herpetology, Lawrence. iv + 44p.

Crother, B.I. (chair). Committee on Standard and English and Scientific Names. 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and  Reptiles Herpetological Circular. No. 37. iii + 86p.

Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green, and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297:1-370 + Fig. 50 foldout.

Grossman, S. 2002. Bufo americanus American Toad [online].  University of Michigan.  Available at URL: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/bufo/b._americanus

Author: Gregoire, D.R.

Revision Date: 9/14/2011

Citation Information:
Gregoire, D.R., 2018, Anaxyrus americanus (Holbrook, 1836): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=44, Revision Date: 9/14/2011, Access Date: 9/22/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Page Last Modified: Wednesday, September 19, 2018

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The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [9/22/2018].

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