Common name: American Toad
Synonyms and Other Names: Bufo americanus (see first paragraph of Remarks section)
available through www.itis.gov
Size: generally up to 9 cm
Native Range: The Mid-Atlantic states except for southeastern Virginia, southern New Jersey, Long Island, and the islands of Massachusetts.
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Puerto Rico &
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Anaxyrus americanus are found here.
Table last updated 5/25/2018
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: In 1976, the American toad was first documented on Cuttyhunk Island, Massachusetts and it was breeding there by 1979. It was stocked on the island after the native Fowlers Toad was exterminated due to pesticide spraying.
Impact of Introduction: Other than the intended shift in toad species, impacts have not been reported. Anaxyrus americanus eats insects (100 per night), slugs, and earthworms; and is preyed upon by raccoons, herons, snakes, and birds of prey.
References: (click for full references)
Collins, J.T. and T.W. Taggart. 2009. Standard common and current scientific names for North American amphibians, turtles, reptiles, and crocodilians. Sixth Edition. Publication of The Center for North American Herpetology, Lawrence. iv + 44p.
Crother, B.I. (chair). Committee on Standard and English and Scientific Names. 2008. Scientific and standard English names of amphibians and reptiles of North America north of Mexico, with comments regarding confidence in our understanding. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Herpetological Circular. No. 37. iii + 86p.
Frost, D. R., T. Grant, J. Faivovich, R. H. Bain, A. Haas, C. F. B. Haddad, R. O. De Sá, A. Channing, M. Wilkinson, S. C. Donnellan, C. J. Raxworthy, J. A. Campbell, B. L. Blotto, P. Moler, R. C. Drewes, R. A. Nussbaum, J. D. Lynch, D. M. Green, and W. C. Wheeler. 2006. The amphibian tree of life. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297:1-370 + Fig. 50 foldout.
Grossman, S. 2002. Bufo americanus American Toad [online]. University of Michigan. Available at URL: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/bufo/b._americanus
Revision Date: 9/14/2011
Gregoire, D.R., 2018, Anaxyrus americanus (Holbrook, 1836): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=44, Revision Date: 9/14/2011, Access Date: 6/22/2018
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.