† Populations may not be currently present.
References: (click for full references)
Barlow, G.W., and J.W. Munsey. 1976. The red devil-midas-arrow cichlid species complex in Nicaragua. 359-369 in
T.B. Thorson, ed. Investigations of the ichthyofauna of Nicaraguan Lakes. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.
Barluenga, M., and A. Meyer. 2010. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) in the Nicaraguan crater lakes. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10:326.
Conkel, D. 1993. Cichlids of North and Central America. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and D.A. Hensley. 1979. Survey of introduced non-native fishes. Phase I Report. Introduced exotic fishes in North America: status 1979. Report Submitted to National Fishery Research Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, FL.
Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1990. The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21(3):145-159.
Devick, W.S. 1991. Disturbances and fluctuations in the Wahiawa Reservoir ecosystem. Project F-14-R-15, Job 4, Study I. Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources.
Froese, R. and D. Pauly (eds). 2012. FishBase. World Wide Web electronic publication. Available from: http://www.fishbase.org. Version (08/2012).
Grana, F. 2006. Personal communication. Puerto Rico Department of Natural & Environmental Resources. San Juan, PR.
Konings, A. 1989. Cichlids from Central America. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Lintermans, M. 2004. Human-assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38:481-501.
Loiselle, P.V. 1980. The Cichlasoma labiatum species complex. Freshwater and Marine Aquarium 3(4)(April):30-35, 67.
Mundy, B.C. 2005. Checklist of fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Zoology, Number 6.
Smith-Vaniz, W. - Ichthyologist (retired), U.S. Geological Survey, Gainesville, FL.
Villa, J. 1976. Systematic status of the cichlid fishes Cichlasoma dorsatum, C. granadense and C. nigritum Meek. Pages 375-383 in T.B. Thorson, ed. Investigations of the ichthyofauna of Nicaraguan Lakes. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE.
Yamamoto, M.N. and A.W. Tagawa. 2000. Hawai'i's native and exotic freshwater animals. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu, Hawaii. 200 p.
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.