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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Parachromis managuensis
Parachromis managuensis
(Jaguar Guapote)
Fishes
Exotic
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Parachromis managuensis (Günther, 1867)

Common name: Jaguar Guapote

Synonyms and Other Names: Cichlasoma managuense; managuense, tiger guapote, Aztec cichlid, jaguar cichlid, guapote tigre

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: In general, cichlids (Cichlidae) are superficially similar to sunfishes and black basses (Lepomis and Micropterus; family Centrarchidae). Cichlids may be distinguished from centrarchids by a single nostril opening on each side of the head (vs. two in centrarchids) and the presence of a discontinuous or two-part lateral line (vs. continuous in centrarchids).

For distinguishing characteristics see Page and Burr (1991) and Kullander and Hartel (1997). Color photographs appeared in Bussing (1987), Konings (1989), and Conkel (1993).

Size: 22 cm SL (Kullander 2003)

Native Range: Tropical America. Atlantic Slope drainages in Central America from Río Ulúa in Honduras to Río Matina in Costa Rica (Bussing 1987). Distribution maps in Bussing (1987) and Conkel (1993).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Parachromis managuensis are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Florida199220183Big Cypress Swamp; Everglades; Florida Southeast Coast
Hawaii199220051Oahu
Louisiana200420042Amite; Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta
Nevada200420041Smoke Creek Desert
Puerto Rico200720093Eastern Puerto Rico; Greater Antilles; Southern Puerto Rico
Utah198819881Upper Virgin

Table last updated 2/4/2019

† Populations may not be currently present.


Ecology: Parachromis managuensis, as with other guapotes, is highly piscivorous, consuming a variety of fishes. Aquatic invertebrates comprise an important portion of the juvenile diet (Bussing 1987; Gestring and Shafland 1997).

Means of Introduction: Introductions are presumably from aquarium releases, although escapes from fish farms cannot be ruled out in southern Florida. The specimens in Lacombe, Louisiana were collected near a tropical fish farm and are probably escapees.

Status: Established in Florida and Puerto Rico; formerly established in Utah, presumably eradicated; locally established in Hawaii and Nevada; reported from southern Louisiana.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: On 14 September 1988, Utah Division of Wildlife personnel killed several hundred P. managuensis at Boiler Spring with rotenone and explosives, but they were unsuccessful in eradicating the fish (Marsh et al. 1989); however, the most recent report indicates the species has been eradicated throughout the state (B. Schmidt, personal communication). Boiler Spring flows into the Virgin River via Mill Creek and irrigation systems. This aggressive cichlid was considered a potential threat as a predator of native fish fauna of the Virgin River (Marsh et al. 1989).

Cold temperatures limit its northern range expansion in Florida. Fish in southern Florida are periodically killed during cold winters (W.F. Loftus, personal communication) which allows them only to temporarily inhabit interior wetlands away from the canals that serve as thermal refuges (Kline et al. 2013).

Voucher specimens: Florida (NCSM 29060, 29072, 29668; UF 100484, 100492, 147059, 147060, 174352, 174354, 174357, 174359, 174363, 174375, 174394, 174397, 175760; UMMZ 233233); Hawaii (UF 98933); Utah (ASU 11861).

References: (click for full references)

Agasen, E.V., J.P. Clemente, M.R. Rosana, and N.S. Kawit. 2006. Biological investigation of jaguar guapote Parachromis managuensis (Gunther) in Taal Lake, Philippines. Journal of Environmental Science and Management 9(2):20-30.

Bussing, W.A. 1987. Peces de las aguas continentales de Costa Rica. Editorial la Universidad de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica.

Conkel, D. 1993. Cichlids of North and Central America. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1990. The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21(3):145-159.

Gestring, K.B., and P.L. Shafland. 1997. Status and selected life history attributes of the exotic jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense) in Florida. Florida Scientist 60(3):137-142.

Grana, F. 2009. Personal Communication. Puerto Rico Department of Natural & Environmental Resources. San Juan, PR.

Kline, J.L., W.F. Loftus, K. Kotun, J.C. Trexler, J.S. Rehage, J.J. Lorenz, and M. Robinson. 2013. Recent fish introductions into Everglades National Park: an unforeseen consequence of water-management? Wetlands. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13157-012-0362-0

Konings, A. 1989. Cichlids from Central America. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Neptune City, NJ.

Kullander, S.O. 2003. Family Cichlidae (Cichlids). Pages 605-654 in Reis, R.E., S.O. Kullander, and C.J. Ferraris, Jr, eds. Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. EDIPUCRS. Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Kullander, S.O., and K.E. Hartel. 1997. The systematic status of cichlid genera described by Louis Agassiz in 1859: Amphilophus, Baiodon, Hypsophrys and Parachromis (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 7(3):193-202.

Loftus, W.F. 2013. Personal Communication. Aquatic Research & Communication, LLC, Vero Beach, FL.

Marsh, P.C., T.A. Burke, B.D. DeMarais, and M.E. Douglas. 1989. First North American record of Cichlasoma managuense (Pisces: Cichlidae). Great Basin Naturalist 49(3):387-389.

McMahan, C.D., W.A. Matamoros, F.S. Álvarez Calderón, W.Y. Henríquez, H.M. Recinos, P. Chakrabarty, E. Barraza, and N. Herrera. 2013. Checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador. Zootaxa 3608(3):440-456. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3608.6.2

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Piller, K. - Southeastern Louisiana University.

Schmidt, B. - Chief Fisheries Mangement, Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, UT. Response to NBS-G non-indigenous questionaire. 1992.

Shafland, P.L. 1996. Exotic fishes of Florida – 1994. Reviews in Fisheries Science 4(2):101-122.

Shafland, P.L., K.B. Gestring, and M.S. Stanford. 2008. Florida's exotic freshwater fishes - 2007. Florida Scientist 71(3):220-245.

Yamamoto, M. - Biologist, Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources, Honolulu, HI.

FishBase Summary

Author: Leo Nico, Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 6/20/2019

Peer Review Date: 2/10/2016

Citation Information:
Leo Nico, Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2019, Parachromis managuensis (Günther, 1867): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=445, Revision Date: 6/20/2019, Peer Review Date: 2/10/2016, Access Date: 6/25/2019

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2019]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/25/2019].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Matthew Neilson. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.