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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Melanochromis johannii
Melanochromis johannii
(bluegray mbuna)
Fishes
Exotic
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Melanochromis johannii (Eccles, 1973)

Common name: bluegray mbuna

Synonyms and Other Names: M. johanni and Pseudotropheus johanni.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Another commonly used name is Pseudotropheus johanni. According to Eccles and Trewavas (1989), Melanochromis and the related genus Pseudotropheus are in need of revision and critical appraisal. Based on Trewavas (1983b), Bowers and Stauffer (1993) listed the defining characteristics of the genus Melanochromis. Detailed color descriptions of M. johanni were given by Ribbink et al. (1983). In general, males are black with royal blue bands, and females are yellow-orange or orange, with faint bands (Ribbink et al. 1983). Photographs of live fish appeared in Axelrod et al. (1985), Lewis et al. (1986), and Axelrod (1993); the male was illustrated in Petrovicky (1988).

Size: 10 cm (Petrovicky 1988).

Native Range: Tropical Africa. Lake Malawi (Lewis et al. 1986).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Melanochromis johannii are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Hawaii199220051Oahu
Nevada198319841Lake Mead

Table last updated 10/4/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Means of Introduction: Probable aquarium release.

Status: Established, or possibly established, in Hawaii. Reported from Nevada.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: There is some uncertainty concerning the reproductive status of this species in Hawaii. Several years ago it was indicated to us that this cichlid had become established in Oahu by 1994 (Yamamoto, personal communication). In the aquarium trade, this species has the reputation of being highly aggressive (Petrovicky 1988).

References: (click for full references)

Axelrod, H. R. 1993. The most complete colored lexicon of cichlids. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Axelrod, H. R., W. E. Burgess, N. Pronek, and J. G. Walls. 1985. Dr. Axelrod's atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Bowers, N. J., and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1993. New species of rock-dwelling cichlid (Pisces: Cichlidae) from Lake Malawi, Africa, with comments on Melanochromis vermivorus Trewavas. Copeia 1993(3):715-722.

Courtenay, W. - Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

Courtenay, W. R., Jr., and J. R. Stauffer, Jr.. 1990. The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21(3):145-159.

Courtenay, W. R., Jr., D. P. Jennings, and J. D. Williams. 1991. Appendix 2: exotic fishes. Pages 97-107 in Robins, C. R., R. M. Bailey, C. E. Bond, J. R. Brooker, E. A. Lachner, R. N. Lea, and W. B. Scott. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada, 5th edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 20. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Courtenay, W. R., Jr., D. A. Hensley, J. N. Taylor, and J. A. McCann. 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States. Pages 41-77 in W. R. Courtenay, Jr., and J. R. Stauffer, Jr., editors. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Courtenay, W. R., Jr., D. A. Hensley, J. N. Taylor, and J. A. McCann. 1986. Distribution of exotic fishes in North America. Pages 675-698 in C. H. Hocutt, and E. O. Wiley, editors. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Deacon, J. E., and J. E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

Eccles, D. H., and E. Trewavas. 1989. Malawian cichlid fishes: the classification of some haplochromine genera. Lake Fish Movies, Herten, Germany.

Lewis, D., P. Reinthal, and J. Trendall. 1986. A guide to the fishes of Lake Malawi National Park. World Wildlife Fund, Gland, Switzerland. 71 pp.

Petrovicky, I. 1988. Aquarium fish of the world. Hamlyn, London, England.

Ribbink, A. J., B. A. Marsh, A. C. Marsh, A. C. Ribbink, and B. J. Sharp. 1983. A preliminary survey of the cichlid fishes of rocky habitats in Lake Malawi. South African Journal of Zoology (Zoology Dierkunde) 18(3):149-310.

Trewavas, E. 1983b. Nouvel examen des genres et sous-genres du complexe Pseudotropheus-Melanochromis du lac Malawi (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae). Revue Francaise d'Aquariologie 10:97-106.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Nico, L.

Revision Date: 6/7/1999

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Nico, L., 2019, Melanochromis johannii (Eccles, 1973): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=461, Revision Date: 6/7/1999, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 8/17/2019

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2019]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [8/17/2019].

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