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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Symphysodon discus
Symphysodon discus
(red discus)
Fishes
Exotic
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Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840

Common name: red discus

Synonyms and Other Names: pompadour fish, Heckel discus

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: For a recent review of the genus, refer to Kullander (1986). The only other species in the genus recognized as being valid is S. aequifasciatus. Photographs of live fish were given in Axelrod et al. (1985) and Axelrod (1993). Several subspecies and color variants are found in the aquarium trade (Burgess 1981).

Size: 20 cm (Petrovicky 1988).

Native Range: Tropical America. Amazon basin of South America including lower Negro, Trombetas, and Abacaxis rivers (Kullander 1986).

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Symphysodon discus are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Colorado198619861San Luis

Table last updated 9/30/2019

† Populations may not be currently present.


Means of Introduction: Probable escape from local fish farm (Zuckerman and Behnke 1986).

Status: Reported from Colorado.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: There are no known voucher specimens.

References: (click for full references)

Axelrod, H. R. 1993. The most complete colored lexicon of cichlids. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Axelrod, H. R., W. E. Burgess, N. Pronek, and J. G. Walls. 1985. Dr. Axelrod's atlas of freshwater aquarium fishes. Tropical Fish Hobbyist Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.

Burgess, W. E. 1981. Studies on the family Cichlidae: 10. New information on the species of the genus Symphysodon with the description of a new subspecies of S. discus Heckel. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 29(7):32-42.

Kullander, S. O. 1986. Cichlid fishes of the Amazon River drainage of Peru. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden. 431 pp.

Petrovicky, I. 1988. Aquarium fish of the world. Hamlyn, London, England.

Zuckerman, L. D., and R. J. Behnke. 1986. Introduced fishes in the San Luis Valley, Colorado. Pages 435-452 in R. H. Stroud, editor. Fish culture in fisheries management. Proceedings of a symposium on the role of fish culture in fisheries management at Lake Ozark, MO, March 31-April 3, 1985. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

FishBase Summary

Author: Nico, L.

Revision Date: 12/6/1999

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Nico, L., 2019, Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=478, Revision Date: 12/6/1999, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 12/10/2019

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2019]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [12/10/2019].

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