The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Cyprinella analostana
Cyprinella analostana
(Satinfin Shiner)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Cyprinella analostana Girard, 1859

Common name: Satinfin Shiner

Synonyms and Other Names: Notropis analostanus (Girard 1859)

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Cyprinella analostana has a deep body with a straight or slightly convex dorsal fin edge. It has a somewhat rounded snout with a terminal mouth and tiny tubercles that are present on its head (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Males may exhibit breeding coloration characterized by a milky-white border surrounding all fins, a silver-blue color on their dorsal surface that grades into a milky-white ventral surface, and well-developed tubercles (Stout 1975). Cyprinella analostana is very similar in appearance to the closely related Steelcolor Shiner C. whipplei, but C. analostana has 13–14 pectoral rays and 33–38 lateral scales, whereas C. whipplei has 15 pectoral rays and 36–40 (usually 37–38) lateral scales (Page and Burr 2011).

Size: 4.5-7 cm in length (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994), maximum length is 11 cm (Page and Burr 2011)

Native Range: Atlantic Slope from Hudson River drainage, New York, to Pee Dee River drainage, North Carolina; Lake Ontario drainage, New York (Page and Burr 2011; Roth et al. 2013).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Cyprinella analostana are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
NY198520114Black; Lake Ontario; Oneida; Seneca

Table last updated 7/14/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: Cyprinella analostana shows a preference for warm, large- and moderate-sized streams although it is occasionally found in small creeks, pools, backwaters, and runs of shallow to moderate depth. It is often in the tidal freshwaters of coastal rivers (Smith 1985; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). Cincotta and Stauffer (1982) determined that C. analostana preferred a temperature of about 27°C but the species has been recorded at temperatures of 36.7°C (Trembley 1961).

Cyprinella analostana feeds on drifting items in the water column including larval fishes and eggs (Johnson and Dropkin 1992), algae (Jenkins and Burkhead 1994), and insects, particularly dipterans and ephemeropterans (Smith 1985).

In early April, C. analostana begins to migrate from their deeper winter habitat (1–1.3 m) to shallower spawning grounds where submerged materials are present (Stout 1975). Cyprinella analostana is believed to reach reproductive age by their first year of life (Stone 1940). Spawning begins in late May and extends into August when water temperatures are 20–30°C (Winn and Stout 1960; Stout 1975). In May, males set up territories around a suitable nest site that typically include rocks, logs, sticks and other debris (Stout 1975). Females deposit their eggs into the crevices of these submerged structures (Gale and Buynak 1978). During the spawning period, males tend to exhibit aggressive behavior towards other males by producing various “knocking” sounds and creating a lateral threat display where all fins are erect. Aggressive motions and attacks such as circling and nipping or beating their caudal fins toward each other have been observed in field and lab observations as well. Eventually one male will discontinue fighting and the dominant male will retain the territory. A male will then court a female with acoustic cues (knocks and purrs) when she enters his territory. If the female is successfully courted she will swim to the egg site and await fertilization (Stout 1975). Cyprinella analostana is a fractional spawner that can spawn several times during a season. Stout (1975) observed significant variation in spawning frequency among spawning pairs in his field observations. One pair was observed to spawn only twice while another pair spawned 20 times. However, the author did not mention the timespan of his observations and only observed five pairs of fish. Gayle and Buynak (1978) observed that pairs of fish spawned 3 to 11 times from June through August, releasing 6 to 634 eggs per event for a total of 381 to 3,268 eggs in a season. This study also noted two spawning peaks where events with large numbers of eggs released were separated by intervals of 3 to 31 days where relatively few eggs were released. The authors noted that eggs took 6–8 days to hatch in water ranging from 20–25°C and larvae started feeding 6 days after hatching when they were 5.9 mm in total length.

Means of Introduction: Assuming the above records represent introductions, the species may have gained access to the sites by way of bait bucket release or by canal. Gibbs (1963) suggested that the presence of this species in the Black River, New York, might have been the result of dispersal through the Black River Canal.

Status: Established, possibly introduced, in several localities in New York (Smith 1985).

Great Lakes: Self-sustaining populations overwintering in Lake Ontario basin.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: The status of C. analostana in the Lake Ontario drainage basin has long been disputed. Gibbs (1963) considered the record of this species from a Lake Ontario tributary to be a relict population and not the result of introduction. Gilbert (1993) also concluded that Cyprinella analostana could well be native to Lake Ontario and tributaries considering there is an abundance of evidence that two-way post-glacial transfers occurred in areas such as the upper Susquehanna River and glacial overflow streams in the Finger Lakes region of New York (see Gilbert 1980) where Cyprinella analostana has been found (recorded in the southern end of Cayuga Lake). On the other hand, the many canals constructed in New York during the early 1800's (in addition to bait bucket transfer) make it very possible that species with basically Atlantic Slope affinities and restricted distributions in Lake Ontario and its tributaries (e.g., C. analostana, Notropis procne, N. bifrenatus) did not reach there naturally (Fuller et al. 1999). However, Gilbert (pers. comm. in Fuller et al. 1999) argues that Atlantic Slope species with broad distributions in the St. Lawrence basin (e.g., Semotilus corporalis, Exoglossum maxillingua, Etheostoma olmstedi) clearly did reach there by natural post-glacial dispersal. Furthermore, the fact that this species is a known bait fish (Cooper 1983) implies that bait bucket introduction is a plausible explanation for its occurrence. Current consensus is that this species is probably non-native in the Lake Ontario and St. Lawrence River watersheds. The population in the Black River watershed (a subbasin of the Lake Ontario watershed) is among the most certain to be non-native and it is a source from which some of the other modern populations have spread (D. Carlson, pers. comm.). Cyprinella analostana was the only species of Cyprinella reported in a survey of Oneida Lake’s major tributary, Fish Creek, in 1995. It is likely that it is not native to Fish Creek based on the species’ absence during the earliest survey and on plausible dispersal routes provided by canals (Carlson et al. 2016).

References: (click for full references)

Boogaard, M.A., T.D. Bills, J.H. Selgeby, and D.A. Johnson. 1996. Evaluation of piscicides for control of ruffe. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16(3):600-607.

Carlson, D.M., R.A. Daniels, and J.J. Wright. 2016. Atlas of inland fishes of New York. New York State Museum Record 7. New York State Education Department, Albany, NY.

Carlson, D. – New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC), Watertown, NY.

Cincotta, D.A., and J.R. Stauffer Jr. 1984. Temperature preference and avoidance studies of six North American freshwater fish species. Hydrobiologia 109(2):173-177. dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00011576.

Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania and the Northeastern United States. Pennsylvania State University Press University Park, PA.

Corush, J.B., B.M. Fitzpatrick, E.L. Wolfe, and B.P. Keck. 2021. Breeding behaviour predicts patterns of natural hybridization in North American minnows (Cyprinidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 34:486-500. https://doi.org/10.1111/jeb.13751.

Crail, T.D., R.A. Krebs, and D.T. Zanatta. 2011. Unionid mussels from nearshore zones of Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37(1):199-202.

Fuller, P.L., L.G. Nico, and J.D. Williams. 1999. Nonindigenous fishes introduced into inland waters of the United States. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 27. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Gale, W.F., G.L. Buynak. 1978. Spawning frequency and fecundity of satinfin shiner (Notropis analostanus)— a fractional, crevice spawner. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(3):460-463. dx.doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1978)107<460:SFAFOS>2.0.CO;2.

Gibbs, R.H., Jr. 1963. Cyprinid fishes of the subgenus Cyprinella of Notropis. The Notropis whipplei-analostanus-chloristius complex. Copeia 1963(3):511-528. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1441471.

Gilbert, C.R. 1980. Zoogeographic factors in relation to biological monitoring of fish. Pages 309-355 in Hocutt, C.H., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr, eds. Biological monitoring of fish. Lexington Books, DC Heath and Company. Lexington, MA.

Gilbert, C.R. 1993. Geographic distribution of the striped mullet in the Atlantic and eastern Pacific oceans. Florida Scientist 56(4):204-210.

GLMRIS. 2012. Appendix C: Inventory of available controls for aquatic nuisance species of concern, Chicago Area Waterway System. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. http://glmris.anl.gov/documents/docs/anscontrol/All27ANSControlFactSheets.pdf.

Hove, M.C., and R.J. Neves. 1994. Life history of the endangered James spinymussel Pleurobema collina (Conrad, 1837) (Mollusca: Unionidae). American Malacological Bulletin 11(1):29-40. http://www.fishwild.vt.edu/mussel/PDFfiles/life_history_spinymussel.pdf.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Johnson, J.H., and D.S. Dropkin. 1992. Predation on recently released larval American shad in the Susquehanna River Basin. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12(3):504-508. dx.doi.org/10.1577/1548-8675(1992)012<0504:PORRLA>2.3.CO;2.

Nichols, S.J., and D. Wilcox. 1997. Burrowing saves Lake Erie clams. Nature 389:921. https://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v389/n6654/full/389921a0.html.

Nalepa, T.F. 1994. Decline of native unionid bivalves in Lake St. Clair after infestation by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:2227-2233.

Marking, L.L., T.D. Bills, J.J. Rach, and S.J. Grabowski. 1983. Chemical control of fish and fish eggs in the Garrison Diversion Unit, North Dakota. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 3(4):410-418.

Meronek, T.G., P.M. Bouchard, E.R. Buckner, T.M. Burri, K.K. Demmerly, D.C. Hatleli, R.A. Klumb, S.H. Schmidt, and D.W. Coble. 1996. A Review of Fish Control Projects. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16:63-74.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. 2nd edition. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA.

Patrick, P.H., A.E. Christie, D. Sager, C. Hocutt, and J. Stauffer, Jr. 1985. Responses of fish to a strobe light/air-bubble barrier. Fisheries Research 3:157-172.

Roth, B.M., N.E. Mandrak, R.R. Hrabik, G.G. Sass, and J. Peters. 2013. Fishes and decapod crustaceans of the Great Lakes basin in W.W. Taylor, A.J. Lynch, and N.J. Leonard, eds. Great Lakes fisheries policy and management: a binational perspective. Second edition. Michigan State University Press. East Lansing, MI.

Schloesser, D.W., and T.F. Nalepa. 1994. Dramatic decline of unionid bivalves in offshore waters of western Lake Erie after infestation by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:2234-2242.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Stout, J.F. 1975. Sound communication during the reproductive behavior of Notropis analostanus (Pisces: Cyprinidae). The American Midland Naturalist 94(2):296-325. http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/2424428.pdf.

Stone, U.B. 1940. Studies on the Biology of the Satinfin Minnows, Notropis analostanus and Notropis spilopterus. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

Taeubert, J., M. Denic, B. Gum, M. Lange, and J. Geist. 2010. Suitability of different salmonid strains as hosts for the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera L.). Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20(7):728-734. dx.doi.org/10.1002/aqc.1147.

Trembley, F.J. 1961. Research project on effects of condenser discharge water on aquatic life, progress report 1960. Institute of Research, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

Tyus, H.M., and J.F. Saunders, III. 2000. Nonnative fish control and endangered fish recovery: Lessons from the Colorado River. Fisheries 25(9):17-24. dx.doi.org/10.1577/1548-8446(2000)025<0017:NFCAEF>2.0.CO;2.

Winn, H.E., and J.F. Stout. 1960. Sound production by the Satinfin shiner, Notropis analostanus, and related fishes. Science 132(3421):222-223. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1705159.

Zanatta, D.T., G.L. Mackie, J.L. Metcalfe-Smith, and D.A. Woolnough. 2002. A refuge for native freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) from impacts of the exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in Lake St. Clair. Journal of Great Lakes Research 28(3):479-489.

Zieritz, A., B. Gum, R. Kuehn, and J. Geist. 2012. Identifying freshwater mussels (Unionoida) and parasitic glochidia larvae from host fish gills: A molecular key to the North and Central European species. Ecology and Evolution 2(4):740-750. dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.220.

FishBase Summary

Author: Nico, L., P. Fuller, and P. Alsip

Revision Date: 10/12/2022

Peer Review Date: 10/11/2022

Citation Information:
Nico, L., P. Fuller, and P. Alsip, 2024, Cyprinella analostana Girard, 1859: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=516, Revision Date: 10/12/2022, Peer Review Date: 10/11/2022, Access Date: 7/15/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/15/2024].

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