The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Hybognathus hankinsoni
Hybognathus hankinsoni
(Brassy Minnow)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Hybognathus hankinsoni Hubbs in Jordan, 1929

Common name: Brassy Minnow

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Becker (1983); Holton (1990); Page and Burr (1991); Pflieger (1997).

Size: to 9.7 cm TL

Native Range: Upper St. Lawrence River and Lake Champlain drainages, Quebec and New York, across Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, and Missouri--upper Mississippi River basins of southern Canada and northern United States south to Kansas; Fraser River system (Pacific Slope), Alberta and British Columbia (Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Hybognathus hankinsoni are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
CO198219932Colorado Headwaters; Lower Gunnison
NY197919791Upper Susquehanna
UT198619992Upper Colorado-Kane Springs; Upper Lake Powell

Table last updated 4/15/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Smith (1985) suggested that its presence in the Susquehanna River drainage, New York, may have been by way of dispersal through the Chenango Canal. However, this species was not reported from the Susquehanna drainage in a review of the species' distribution by Bailey (1954), and the Chenango Canal has been inactive since the late 1800s. Thus it is more likely due to a bait bucket introduction; Smith (1985) reports that the Brassy Minnow is frequently used as a baitfish. According to Etnier and Starnes (1993), the Tennessee record was based on a single specimen taken in 1973; they considered it a bait bucket introduction. Records in Colorado also may be the result of bait bucket releases. There is no information for means of its introduction into Utah.

Status: Reported from Colorado, New York, Tennessee, and Utah.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: Pflieger (1997) noted that small populations of this species found in two tributaries of the upper Mississippi River in Missouri may be the result of recent bait bucket releases.

References: (click for full references)

Bailey, R.M. 1954. Distribution of the American cyprinid fish Hybognathus hankinsoni with comments on its original description. Copeia 1954(4):289-291.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tenneessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Holton, G.D. 1990. A field guide to Montana fishes. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks Helena, MT.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Pflieger, W. 1997. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Environmental Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic species in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 9/26/2012

Peer Review Date: 9/26/2012

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Hybognathus hankinsoni Hubbs in Jordan, 1929: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=544, Revision Date: 9/26/2012, Peer Review Date: 9/26/2012, Access Date: 4/16/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [4/16/2024].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.