The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Notropis procne
Notropis procne
(Swallowtail Shiner)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Notropis procne (Cope, 1865)

Common name: Swallowtail Shiner

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994). Two subspecies are recognized, N. p. procne and N. p. longiceps (Gilbert 1998; but see Jenkins and Burkhead 1994).

Size: 7.2 cm.

Native Range: Atlantic drainages, above and below Fall Line, from Delaware and Susquehanna rivers, New York, to Santee River, South Carolina (Page and Burr 1991); also Lake Ontario drainage, New York (Page and Burr 1991; but see Smith 1985).
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Notropis procne are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
NC199020164Lower Yadkin; Upper Catawba; Upper Pee Dee; Upper Yadkin
VA197119912Kanawha; Middle New

Table last updated 7/22/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Unknown; possible bait bucket releases in North Carolina and Virginia. Although, Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) speculated that it had been introduced into the New River drainage of Virginia during the 1960s, they noted that the first valid record of this species from that drainage was from 1971. The first record of this species in the Linville River of North Carolina was 1990 (Johnston et al. 1995). Johnston et al. (1995) discovered this species in the Linville River, North Carolina, in 1990. They stated that the new record perhaps indicates the "spread of this species or introduction by fishermen." This species was collected from Catherine Creek, New York in 1927; and from Lake Ontario in 1951 (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.). Smith (1985) speculated that the occurrence of the subspecies Notropis procne procne in Catherine Creek, the inlet to Seneca Lake in New York, may have resulted from dispersal via an artificial canal; however, Smith also hypothesized that it may have entered the area as a result of natural events during postglacial times. In their summary table on fishes of the Great Lakes basin, Bailey and Smith (1981) indicated that Notropis procne had colonized tributaries of Lake Ontario recently via canal or by natural dispersal following introduction.

Status: Established in North Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia. Reported in New York.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: There is some uncertainty concerning the native versus nonindigenous distribution of this species. Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) discussed its distribution in Virginia and speculated on its introduction. They concluded that the New drainage population was probably introduced, based on the fact that the first valid record was from 1971 and the confinement of the shiner to the reach bounded by Bluestone Reservoir and Claytor Dam. Stauffer et al. (1975) reported a single collection from the lower East River, a tributary of the New River below Claytor Dam. That site was from the Virginia portion of the East River, near the West Virginia border. In their summary table of Virginia fishes, Jenkins and Burkhead (1994) listed it as introduced (but possibly native) to the New River drainage. Hocutt et al. (1986) listed it as "introduced, possibly native" to the Kanawha River above the falls. Similarly, Stauffer et al. (1995) listed Notropis procne longiceps as present and probably introduced into the Kanawha River drainage above the falls; however, they noted that it had not been found yet in the West Virginia portion of that drainage. Gilbert (personal communication) believes it possible that Notropis procne is native to the Yadkin and Santee. Menhinick (1991) listed it as probably introduced to the Yadkin River drainage of North Carolina.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Leo Nico, and Pam Fuller

Revision Date: 7/6/2000

Peer Review Date: 7/6/2000

Citation Information:
Leo Nico, and Pam Fuller, 2024, Notropis procne (Cope, 1865): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=607, Revision Date: 7/6/2000, Peer Review Date: 7/6/2000, Access Date: 7/23/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/23/2024].

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