The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Esox lucius × masquinongy
Esox lucius × masquinongy
(tiger muskellunge)
Native Hybrid

Copyright Info
Esox lucius × masquinongy

Common name: tiger muskellunge

Synonyms and Other Names: tiger musky

Identification: See the account for Esox lucius in Page and Burr (1991); characteristics and photographs of this hybrid were given in Crossman and Buss (1965) and in Buss and Miller (1967).

Size: 16.1 kg

Native Range: A natural and artificial hybrid. Hybridization occurs in nature where the two species' ranges overlap, in the northeastern and western Great Lakes regions (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.).

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Esox lucius × masquinongy are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AR198819973Cache; Spring; Upper Black
CO199320097Arkansas Headwaters; Big Thompson; Huerfano; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; South Platte; St. Vrain; Upper Arkansas
DE197619933Brandywine-Christina; Broadkill-Smyrna; Upper Chesapeake
ID1988200727Beaver-Camas; Big Wood; Clearwater; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Idaho Falls; Kootenai; Little Salmon; Lower Bear; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Kootenai; Lower North Fork Clearwater; Middle Bear; Middle Salmon-Chamberlain; North Fork Payette; Pacific Northwest Region; Pahsimeroi; Pend Oreille; Pend Oreille Lake; Priest; South Fork Clearwater; Spokane; Upper North Fork Clearwater; Upper Salmon; Upper Selway; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane; Weiser
IL1989201015Copperas-Duck; Des Plaines; Flint-Henderson; La Moine; Little Calumet-Galien; Little Wabash; Lower Illinois; Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua; Lower Rock; Salt; Shoal; Skillet; South Fork Sangamon; Sugar; Upper Illinois
IN199719971Silver-Little Kentucky
IA1978200122Copperas-Duck; Des Moines; Grand; Iowa; Lake Red Rock; Lower Des Moines; Lower Iowa; Middle Cedar; Middle Iowa; Missouri Region; Missouri-Little Sioux; Missouri-Nishnabotna; North Raccoon; North Skunk; Skunk; South Raccoon; South Skunk; Upper Chariton; Upper Mississippi Region; Upper Mississippi-Iowa-Skunk-Wapsipinicon; Upper Mississippi-Skunk-Wapsipinicon; West Nishnabotna
KY198119971Lower Levisa
MD198119937Cacapon-Town; Conococheague-Opequon; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Upper Chesapeake; Youghiogheny
MA1992199812Blackstone River; Cape Cod; Charles; Chicopee River; Concord River; Farmington River; Housatonic; Merrimack River; Narragansett; New England Region; Quinebaug River; Westfield River
MI191920153Keweenaw Peninsula; Lake St. Clair; Upper Wisconsin
MN198719871Leech Lake
MO197319731Upper Grand
MT1987201214Beaver; Fisher; Fort Peck Reservoir; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Middle Milk; O'Fallon; Peoples; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Musselshell; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin; Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar
NE198319955Lower Lodgepole; Lower North Platte; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Missouri Region; Red Willow
NH198219821Black River-Connecticut River
NJ199020172Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Raritan
NY1979201010Ausable River; Black; Chenango; Hudson-Hoosic; Lake Champlain; Lower Genesee; Lower Hudson; Middle Hudson; Raisin River-St. Lawrence River; Sacandaga
ND197519941Upper Pembina River
OR200020132Lower Willamette; Powder
PA197220074Brandywine-Christina; Lower Delaware; Lower Susquehanna-Penns; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna
SD199220014Fort Randall Reservoir; Lower Belle Fourche; Missouri Region; Upper Big Sioux
TX197619795Farmers-Mud; Lower Colorado-Cummins; Upper Sabine; West Fork San Jacinto; Yegua
UT199520171Lower Weber
VA198119943Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Powell; Upper New
WA1992200611Kettle; Lake Washington; Lewis; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Nooksack; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Puyallup; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Spokane
WI191919834Flambeau; Ontonagon; Upper Chippewa; Upper Wisconsin
WY199220012Lower Laramie; North Platte

Table last updated 5/27/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

* HUCs are not listed for states where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. state centroids or Canadian provinces).

Means of Introduction: Intentionally stocked for sport fishing in most locations. In some areas the hybrid occurs "naturally" after stocking northern pike in native muskellunge waters (Becker 1983). Although the male tiger muskellunge are sterile, females are often fertile and are capable of backcrossing (Becker 1983). Hartel et al. (1996) suggested individuals collected in Massachusetts were a result of stock contamination.

Status: Maintained by stocking in most cases. In some areas, such as many lakes in Wisconsin, the population is maintained by natural hybridization when northern pike are stocked in native muskellunge waters (Becker 1983). Hartel et al. (1996) report only one or two individuals collected in Massachusetts.

Impact of Introduction: This hybrid probably affects smaller fish species through predation. It also is capable of backcrossing. Male tiger muskellunge are always sterile, but females are often fertile (Becker 1983).

Remarks: Tiger muskellunge have not been stocked in Oklahoma (Pigg, personal communication) or Tennessee (T. Churchill, personal communication). Koenig et al. (2015) examined the ability of stocked Tiger Muskellunge to reduce or eradicate Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations in high alpine lakes in Idaho, finding >90% reduction in brook trout catch per unit effort in tiger muskellunge-stocked lakes with 0-1 inlets or outlets.

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous. 1994b. Fishes of the Dakotas. Brochure. American Fisheries Society Dakota Chapter, and North Dakota Game and Fish Department.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press Madison, WI. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/EcoNatRes.FishesWI.

Bouc, K. 1987. The fish book. Nebraskaland Magazine 65(1):1-130.

Buss, K., and J. Miller. 1967. Interspecific hybridization of esocids: hatching success, pattern development, and fertility of some F1 hybrids. Technical Papers of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife 14:1-30.

Carter, A. - Fisheries Division, Arkansas Game and Fish Comission, Little Rock, AR. Response to NBS-G nonindigenous questionaire. 1992.

Crossman, E. J., and K. Buss. 1965. Hybridization in the family Esocidae. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 22(5):1261-1292.

Fletcher, D. - Warmwater Fisheries Resource Manager, Washington Department of Wildlife, Olympia, WA. Response to NBS-G nonindigenous questionaire and other reports. 1992.

Hanten, R.L. - Department. of Game, Fish, and Parks, Pierre, SD. Response to NBS-G nonindigenous questionaire.

Harlan, J. R., E. B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA. 323 pp.

Hartel, K. E. 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Fish Department, Cambridge, MA. 2. September. pp. 1-9.

Hartman, B. - Kansas Department of Wildlife and Parks, Pratt, KS.

Holton, G. D. 1990. A field guide to Montana fishes. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. 104 pp.

Horak, D. - Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO. 1995.

Idaho Fish and Game. 1990. Fisheries Management Plan 1991-1995. Appendix I: A list of Idaho fishes and their distribution by drainage. Idaho Fish and Game.

International Game Fish Association. 1994. World record game fishes. International Game Fish Association, Pompano Beach, FL.

Jenkins, R. E., and N. M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Koenig, M.K., K.A. Meyer, J.R. Kozfkay, J.M. DuPont, and E.B. Schriever. 2015. Evaluating the ability of Tiger Muskellunge to eradicate Brook Trout in Idaho alpine lakes. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 35(4):659-670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02755947.2015.1035467

Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Luebke, R. W. 1978. Evaluation of a multi-predator introduction. Federal Aid Project F-31-R-4.

Martin, C. Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Conservation. Dover, DE. Response to NBS-G mailing on non-indigenous species. 1992.

Pflieger, W. L. 1975. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.

Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Raasch, M. S., and V. L. Altemus, Sr. 1991. Delaware's freshwater and brackish water fishes - a popular account. Delaware State College for the Study of Del-Mar-Va Habitats and the Society of Natural History of Delaware. 166 pp. 

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2001. Fish Records: Water Body - All Tackle. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. April 24, 2001

Walker, P. - Colorado Division of Wildlife, Brush, CO.

Whittier, T. R., D. B. Halliwell and R. A. Daniels. 2000. Distributions of lake fishes in the Northeast - II. The Minnows (Cyprinidae). Northeastern Naturalist. 7(2): 3- 131-156.

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 7/31/2019

Peer Review Date: 9/30/2015

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Esox lucius × masquinongy: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=677, Revision Date: 7/31/2019, Peer Review Date: 9/30/2015, Access Date: 5/27/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [5/27/2024].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.