The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Kuhlia rupestris
Kuhlia rupestris
(Rock flagtail)

Copyright Info
Kuhlia rupestris (Lacep├Ęde, 1802)

Common name: Rock flagtail

Synonyms and Other Names: Nato, jungle perch.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Distinguishing characteristics, identification key, and an illustration were given by Allen (1991).

Size: 40 cm SL.

Native Range: Tropical Indo-Pacific; widely distributed in coastal streams from East Africa to Melanesia and eastern Australia (Allen 1991).

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Kuhlia rupestris are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†

Table last updated 6/26/2022

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Intentionally stocked, most likely as a sport fish. According to Brock (1960), a shipment of 43 specimens was brought to Hawaii from Guam in 1957 and held in laboratory tanks; a second shipment, containing 170 fish, was received in 1958. Specimens from the second shipment were subsequently stocked.

Status: Did not survive; extirpated.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: This species is a popular angling fish in Australia (Allen 1991). It inhabits mainly fast-flowing clear coastal streams, but sometimes travels 200-300 km inland in large rivers (Allen 1991). A second species, K. sandvicensis, is endemic to marine and lower stream habitats of Hawaii (Devick 1991).

References: (click for full references)

Allen, G.R. 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Publication 9 of the Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea.

Brock, V. E. 1960. The introduction of aquatic animals into Hawaiian waters.  International Revue der Gesamten Hydrobiologie 45:463-480.

Devick, W.S. 1991. Patterns of introductions of aquatic organisms to Hawaiian freshwater habitats. 189-213 in New directions in research, management and conservation of Hawaiian freshwater stream ecosystems. Proceedings of the 1990 symposium on freshwater stream biology and fisheries management, Division of Aquatic Resources, Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources.

Maciolek, J.A. 1984. Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. 131-161 in W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Randall, J.E. 1987. Introductions of marine fishes to the Hawaiian Islands. Bulletin of Marine Science 41(2):490-502.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Nico, L.

Revision Date: 1/31/2012

Peer Review Date: 1/31/2012

Citation Information:
Nico, L., 2022, Kuhlia rupestris (Lacep├Ęde, 1802): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=751, Revision Date: 1/31/2012, Peer Review Date: 1/31/2012, Access Date: 6/29/2022

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2022]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/29/2022].

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