Common name: Florida Sand Darter
Synonyms and Other Names: Etheostoma bifascia
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Williams (1975); Page (1983); Page and Burr (1991; as Etheostoma bifascia); Mettee et al. (1996).
Size: 7.7 cm TL
Native Range: Gulf Slope drainages from Choctawhatchee River west to Perdido River, southern Alabama and Florida panhandle (Williams 1975).
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Ammocrypta bifascia are found here.
Table last updated 9/30/2019
† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: Inhabits streams with sandy bottoms and moderate to swift currents (Williams 1975). Spawning occurs from April-August, with maturity reached by 38 (females) to 43 (males) mm SL (Williams 1975; Heins 1985). Maximum life span of approximately 3 years (Heins 1985).
Means of Introduction: The introduction of the Florida Sand Darter was most likely via a bait bucket (Gilbert and J. D. Williams, unpublished data). While this highly translucent darter may not be used for bait, it easily may have been taken as by-catch by anglers seining for bait. It is common in streams of the Choctawhatchee River drainage, just west of the Apalachicola River, and anyone seining for bait minnows in streams with sandy bottom pools may have captured Florida Sand Darters.
Status: Established in Florida. Many more collections of Florida Sand Darter have been reported since the original two reports. The species is now thought to be fairly common in the Apalachicola River (Gilbert and J. D. Williams, personal communication).
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Heins, D.C. 1985. Life history traits of the Florida sand darter Ammocrypta bifascia
, and comparisons with the naked sand darter Ammocrypta beani
. American Midland Naturalist 113(2):209-216.
Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.
Mettee, M.F., P.E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc., Birmingham, AL.
Page, L.M. 1983. Handbook of darters. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to the freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
Starnes, W.C., and L.B. Starnes. 1979. Discovery of the percid genus Ammocrypta (Pisces) in the Apalachicola drainage, Florida. Florida Scientist 42(1):61-62.
Swift, C.C., C.R. Gilbert, S.A. Bortone, G.H. Burgess, and R.W. Yerger. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the southeastern United States: Savannah River to Lake Pontchartrain. 213-266 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Williams, J.D. 1975. Systematics of the percid fishes of the subgenus Ammocrypta, genus Ammocrypta, with descriptions of two new species. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 1:1-56.
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson
Revision Date: 4/16/2013
Peer Review Date: 2/10/2016
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2019, Ammocrypta bifascia Williams, 1975: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=805, Revision Date: 4/16/2013, Peer Review Date: 2/10/2016, Access Date: 11/14/2019
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.