Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Etheostoma edwini are found here.
Table last updated 2/27/2023
† Populations may not be currently present.
Means of Introduction: Exactly how Brown Darters arrived to Swift Creek is not clear. It is possible that the Brown Darter spread by natural dispersal through estuaries into new tributaries of Rocky Bayou. They may have been a result of discarded bait, or they may have been present but overlooked in previous collections (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1998).
Introduction at Boggy Bayou was probably via bait bucket, at least in the headwaters. Multiple bait bucket introductions may have occurred in this area (Burkhead et al. 1992; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1998). Another possible means of introduction is stock contamination. In the 1950s and 1960s, certain sections of the Rocky Creek watershed were stocked with rainbow trout, largemouth bass, and smallmouth bass from the federal fish hatchery in Welaka, FL. The hatchery is located within the native range of the Brown Darter, and it is possible that Brown Darters were accidentally included in the shipment (Burkhead et al. 1992). Lastly, this may represent a natural dispersal through estuaries. Burkhead et al. (1994) demonstrated that this species can tolerate up to 14 ppt salinity with high survivorship. Salinities in the bayou are in this range.
The single individual collected in Juniper Creek, a Boggy Bayou tributary, may have been the result of a bait release (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1998).
References: (click for full references)
Burkhead, N.M., H.L. Jelks, F. Jordan, D.C. Weaver, and J.D. Williams. 1994. The comparative ecology of Okaloosa (Etheostoma okaloosae
) and brown darters (E. edwini
) in Boggy and Rocky Bayou stream systems, Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida. Final Report to Eglin Air Force Base. 90p.
Burkhead, N.M., J.D. Williams, and R.W. Yerger. 1992. Okaloosa darter (Etheostoma okaloosae). P 21-30 in C.R. Gilbert (ed.). Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida. Volume III. Fishes. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville.
Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.
Mettee, M.F., P.E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile basin. Oxmoor House, Inc. Birmingham, AL.
Page, L.M. 1983. Handbook of darters. T.F.H., Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Okaloosa Darter (Etheostoma okaloosae) Recovery Plan (Revised). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA. 42 pp.. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/recovery_plan/970407.pdf
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.