Common name: Swamp Darter
Synonyms and Other Names: Bolesoma fusiforme
available through www.itis.gov
Identification: Page (1983); Smith (1985); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).
Size: 5.9 cm.
Native Range: Seaboard lowlands, Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains from southern Maine to Louisiana (Sabine River) and southeastern Oklahoma (Red River); Former Mississippi Embayment north to Kentucky and southeastern Missouri (Page and Burr 1991). Collette (1962) gave a dot distribution map.
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Etheostoma fusiforme are found here.
Table last updated 2/27/2023
† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: Primarily occurs in slow moving or stagnant waters such as ponds, swamps, and small backwaters (Collette 1962).
Means of Introduction: Unknown.
Status: Established in North Carolina (Page and Burr 1991).
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
Bailey, J.R. 1950. A new subspecies of the darter Hololepis barratti
from western North Carolina. Copeia 1950(4):311-316.
Bailey, R.M., H.E. Winn, and C.L. Smith. 1954. Fishes from the Escambia River, Alabama and Florida, with ecologic and taxonomc notes. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 61:109-164.
Collette, B.B. 1962. The swamp darters of the subgenus Hololepis (Pisces, Percidae). Tulane Studies in Zoology 9(4):115-211.
Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tenneessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.
Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.
Menhinick, E. F. 1991. The freshwater fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.
Page, L.M. 1983. Handbook of darters. T.F.H., Inc., Neptune City, NJ.
Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
Schmidt, R.E. 1986. Zoogeography of the northen Appalachians. 137-160 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Smith, C.L. The inland fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
Texas Freshwater Fishes
(University of Texas San Marcos)
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson
Revision Date: 8/1/2011
Peer Review Date: 8/1/2011
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2023, Etheostoma fusiforme (Girard, 1854): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=813, Revision Date: 8/1/2011, Peer Review Date: 8/1/2011, Access Date: 3/26/2023
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.