Disclaimer:

The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Perca flavescens
Perca flavescens
(Yellow Perch)
Fishes
Native Transplant
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Perca flavescens (Mitchill, 1814)

Common name: Yellow Perch

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Etnier and Starnes (1993); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).

Size: 40 cm.

Native Range: Atlantic, Arctic, Great Lakes, and Mississippi River basins from Nova Scotia and Quebec west to Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, and south to Ohio, Illinois, and Nebraska; south in Atlantic drainages to Santee River, South Carolina (Page and Burr 1991). Goode (1884) reported the species east of the Alleghany Mountains as far south as Georgia.

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Perca flavescens are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Alabama1964200812Apalachicola Basin; Guntersville Lake; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Elk; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F; Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw; Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub; Mobile-Tensaw; Pickwick Lake; Upper Choctawhatchee; Wheeler Lake
Alaska200020001Upper Kenai Peninsula
Arizona188020049Big Chino-Williamson Valley; Bill Williams; Canyon Diablo; Grand Canyon; Havasu Canyon; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Salt; Silver; Upper Verde
Arkansas190520164Buffalo; Bull Shoals Lake; Little Red; Lower Black
California1873200012California Region; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Lower Klamath; Lower Sacramento; Lower Sacramento; Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi-Grapevine; Sacramento Headwaters; San Diego; Tulare Lake Bed; Upper Cache; Upper Klamath; Upper Yuba
Colorado1880201030Alamosa-Trinchera; Animas; Big Thompson; Cache La Poudre; Clear; Colorado Headwaters; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Horse; Lower San Juan-Four Corners; McElmo; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; Middle South Platte-Sterling; Piedra; Purgatoire; Republican; Rio Grande Headwaters; Roaring Fork; Rush; San Luis; South Fork Republican; South Platte; St. Vrain; Uncompahgre; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Cimarron; Upper Dolores; Upper Gunnison; Upper San Juan; Upper South Platte
Florida195720021Apalachicola
Georgia1948201613Altamaha; Altamaha; Lower Savannah; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Savannah; South Atlantic-Gulf Region; Spring; Tugaloo; Upper Chattahoochee; Upper Ocmulgee; Upper Oconee
Idaho1895200929American Falls; Beaver-Camas; Big Wood; Boise-Mores; Brownlee Reservoir; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Camas; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Goose; Idaho Falls; Kootenai; Lake Walcott; Lower Bear; Lower Boise; Lower Kootenai; Middle Bear; Middle Snake-Succor; North Fork Payette; Pacific Northwest Region; Payette; Pend Oreille Lake; Priest; Salmon Falls; Spokane; St. Joe; Upper Middle Fork Salmon; Upper Snake; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane
Indiana185119681Blue-Sinking
Iowa191419141One Hundred and Two
Kansas188519956Delaware; Lower Kansas; Middle Kansas; Middle Neosho; Middle Verdigris; Upper Cimarron-Bluff
Kentucky198020094Kentucky Lake; Lower Cumberland; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Upper Cumberland
Maine199320114Big Black River-Saint John River; Maine Coastal; New England Region; Passamaquoddy Bay-Bay of Fundy
Maryland197619761Monocacy
Massachusetts199319931New England Region
Mississippi190520063Coldwater; Upper Chickasawhay; Upper Tombigbee
Missouri193519975Lower Chariton; Lower Gasconade; Lower Marais Des Cygnes; Lower Missouri-Moreau; Salt
Montana1902201469Battle; Beaver; Beaver; Big Dry; Big Horn Lake; Big Muddy; Big Sandy; Blackfoot; Box Elder; Boxelder; Brush Lake Closed Basin; Bullwhacker-Dog; Charlie-Little Muddy; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Fisher; Flathead Lake; Flatwillow; Fort Peck Reservoir; Frenchman; Gallatin; Judith; Little Dry; Lodge; Lower Bighorn; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Flathead; Lower Milk; Lower Musselshell; Lower Tongue; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Marias; Marias; Middle Clark Fork; Middle Kootenai; Middle Milk; Milk; Missouri Headwaters; Missouri-Poplar; Musselshell; North Fork Flathead; O'Fallon; Pend Oreille; Peoples; Poplar; Prairie Elk-Wolf; Redwater; Rosebud; Sage; Smith; South Fork Flathead; Stillwater; Sun; Swan; Teton; Tongue; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Milk; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri-Dearborn; Upper Tongue; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone; Upper Yellowstone-Lake Basin; Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar; Whitewater; Willow; Yaak
Nebraska1997200018Calamus; Cedar; Lower Lodgepole; Lower North Loup; Lower North Platte; Lower South Platte; Middle Niobrara; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Niobrara Headwaters; Snake; South Fork Big Nemaha; Upper Elkhorn; Upper Middle Loup; Upper Niobrara; Upper North Loup; Upper Republican; Upper White
Nevada193020019Carson Desert; Central Lahontan; Lower Humboldt; Middle Carson; Spring-Steptoe Valleys; Thousand-Virgin; Truckee; Upper Carson; Walker Lake
New Mexico191419907Pecos Headwaters; Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Tularosa Valley; Upper Canadian; Upper Pecos; Upper San Juan; Zuni
New York1975199411Ausable River; Black; Grass; Mohawk; Oswegatchie; Raquette; Sacandaga; Salmon; Saranac River; St. Regis; Upper Hudson
North Carolina1955201618Cape Fear; Chowan; Hiwassee; Lower Catawba; Lower Pee Dee; Lower Tar; Lower Yadkin; Lumber; Neuse; Roanoke; Rocky; South Yadkin; Upper Broad; Upper Catawba; Upper Little Tennessee; Upper New; Upper Pee Dee; Upper Yadkin
Oklahoma195219733Bird; Black Bear-Red Rock; Middle Washita
Oregon1905201339Alsea; Brownlee Reservoir; Bully; Coos; Goose Lake; Klamath; Lost; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Deschutes; Lower John Day; Lower Malheur; Lower Owyhee; Lower Willamette; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Middle Willamette; Necanicum; Nehalem; Pacific Northwest; Powder; Siletz-Yaquina; Siltcoos; Silver; Siuslaw; Sixes; Sprague; Tualatin; Umatilla; Umpqua; Upper Grande Ronde; Upper Klamath Lake; Upper Malheur; Upper Rogue; Upper Willamette; Willamette; Willow; Yamhill
South Carolina195320099Lower Savannah; Middle Savannah; North Fork Edisto; Salkehatchie; Seneca; South Fork Edisto; Stevens; Tugaloo; Upper Savannah
South Dakota195019936Angostura Reservoir; Little White; Lower Belle Fourche; Middle Cheyenne-Elk; Middle Cheyenne-Spring; Rapid
Tennessee196819997Emory; Hiwassee; Kentucky Lake; Lower Clinch; Lower Little Tennessee; Pickwick Lake; Watts Bar Lake
Texas195419939Cedar; El Paso-Las Cruces; Lake Meredith; Middle Canadian-Spring; Pease; Rio Grande-Fort Quitman; Upper Neches; Upper Prairie Dog Town Fork Red; Upper Salt Fork Red
Utah1880200113Fremont; Little Bear-Logan; Lower Sevier; Lower Weber; Middle Bear; Middle Sevier; Montezuma; Price; Provo; San Pitch; Strawberry; Upper Colorado-Dirty Devil; Utah Lake
Virginia198619942Kanawha; Middle New
Washington1890200552Banks Lake; Colville; Deschutes; Dungeness-Elwha; Duwamish; Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Grays Harbor; Hangman; Hoh-Quillayute; Hood Canal; Lake Washington; Lewis; Little Spokane; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Lower Skagit; Lower Snake; Lower Snake; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Lower Spokane; Lower Yakima; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Moses Coulee; Nisqually; Nooksack; Okanogan; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Pend Oreille; Puget Sound; Puyallup; Rock; San Juan Islands; Similkameen; Skykomish; Snohomish; Snoqualmie; Stillaguamish; Strait of Georgia; Upper Chehalis; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids; Upper Crab; Upper Spokane; Upper Yakima; Walla Walla; Wenatchee; Willapa Bay
West Virginia199319933Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Middle New; Upper Kanawha
Wyoming1880199911Big Horn; Big Horn Lake; Blacks Fork; Clear; Glendo Reservoir; Lower Wind; North Platte; Powder; Salt; South Platte; Upper Laramie

Table last updated 5/25/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Means of Introduction: Primarily introduced through stocking, either intentional release by fisheries agencies or bait-bucket transers by anglers.

Status: Established in most areas where introduced. Extirpated in Arkansas.

Impact of Introduction: Yellow Perch compete with trout for food and likely prey on young trout (Coots 1966). Nonnative predators, including Yellow Perch, have been shown to reduce the abundance and diversity of native prey species in several Pacific Northwest rivers (Hughes and Herlihy 2012).

Remarks: Although Yerger (1977) and Lee et al. (1980 et seq.) considered this species to be introduced into the Apalachicola River in Florida, it may actually be native. Because the Apalachicola drainage was not adequately sampled in early years, introduced status may be incorrectly assumed for some species. Yellow Perch was first collected in the Mobile basin circa 1850, long before any stocking took place, indicating the species was native to this region. This record was overlooked by Lee et al. (1980 et seq.). Hence, Perca flavescens may be native to eastern Gulf drainages in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia, not introduced. Populations in Atlantic coastal drainages of Georgia, such as the Altamaha and Savannah, have been reported (Dahlberg and Scott 1971b) to be introduced. In fact we believe these populations are more likely native. Dill and Cordone (1997) gave a detailed history of this species and its introduction into California.

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous 2004. Idaho warm water fish. http://www.idfishnhunt.com/warmwatermenu2.html.

Bailey, R.M. and M.O. Allum. 1962. Fishes of South Dakota. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 119:1-131.

Baxter, G.T., and J.R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming Fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Cheyenne, WY.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Beckman, W.C. Guide to the fishes of Colorado. Colorado Department of Game and Fish, Boulder, CO.

Behnke, R.J., and D.E. Benson. 1980. Endangered and threatened fishes of the upper Colorado River basin. Cooperative Extension Service Bulletin 503A, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO.

Boschung, H.T. 1992. Catalog of freshwater and marine fishes of Alabama. Bulletin of the Alabama Museum of Natural History 14:1-266.

Bond, C.E. 1994. Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. Oregon State University Bookstores, Corvallis, OR.

Bowers, G.A. 1905. Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries to the Secretary of Commerce and Labor for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1904. Government Printing office, Washington, DC.

Bowers, G.A. 1906. The distribution of food fishes during the fiscal year 1906. Report of the Commissioner of Fisheries for the Fiscal Year 1906 and Special Papers, Bureau of Fisheries Document 613, Government Printing office, Washington, DC.

Brown, C.J.D. 1971. Fishes of Montana. Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.

Burr, B.M., and M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.

Burr, B.M., and L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. 287-324 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Chapman, W.M. 1942. Alien fishes in the waters of the Pacific northwest. California Fish and Game 28:9-15.

Coots, M. 1966. Yellow perch. 426-430 in A. Calhoun, ed. Inland Fisheries Management. California Department of Fish and Game.

Cross, F.B. 1967. Handbook of fishes of Kansas. State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Meuseum of Natural History, Topeka, KS.

Cross, F.B., R.L. Mayden, and J.D. Stewart. 1986. Fishes in the western Mississippi basin (Missouri, Arkansas, and Red Rivers). 363-412 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

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Dahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott. 1971. The freshwater fishes of Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:1-64.

Dahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott. 1971. Introductions of freshwater fishes in Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:245-252.

Deacon, J.E., and J.E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, volume 178.

Ellis, M.M. 1974. Fishes of Colorado. University of Colorado Studies 11(1):1-136.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Goode, G.B. 1884. The Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the United States. Section I: natural history of useful aquatic animals. Government Printing Office, Washington.

Gray, R.H., and D.D. Dauble. 1977. Checklist and relative abundance of fish species from the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. Northwest Science 51(3):208-215.

Hall, G.E. 1956. Additions to the fish fauna of Oklahoma with a summary of introduced species. Southwestern Naturalist 1(1):16-26.

Halliwell, D.B. 2003. Introduced fish in Maine. MAPB series: Focus on Freshwater Biodiversity.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

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Hubert, W. 1994. Exotic fish. 158-174 in T.L. Parrish, and S.H. Anderson, eds. Exotic species manual. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

Hughes, R.M. and A.T. Herlihy. 2012. Patterns in catch per unit effort of native prey fish and alien piscivorous fish in 7 Pacific Northwest USA rivers. Fisheries 37(5):201-211.

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Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Lee, D.S., A. Norden, C.R. Gilbert, and R. Franz. 1976. A list of the freshwater fishes of Maryland and Delaware. Chesapeake Science 17(3):205-211.

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Other Resources:
Distribution in Illinois - Illinois Natural History Survey

Global Invasive Species Database Factsheet

FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 5/29/2012

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2018, Perca flavescens (Mitchill, 1814): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=820, Revision Date: 5/29/2012, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 6/19/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/19/2018].

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