The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Coregonus clupeaformis
Coregonus clupeaformis
(Lake Whitefish)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill, 1818)

Common name: Lake Whitefish

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Scott and Crossman (1973); Trautman (1981); Becker (1983); Page and Burr (1991).

Size: 80 cm.

Native Range: Throughout Canada south into New England, the Great Lakes basin, and central Minnesota; Copper and Susitna River drainages, Alaska (Page and Burr 2011).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Coregonus clupeaformis are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
CA1873188310California Region; Coyote; Honey-Eagle Lakes; Lake Tahoe; Lower Sacramento; Russian; San Francisco Bay; Truckee; Tulare Lake Bed; Upper Cache
ID188920204Bear Lake; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Pend Oreille Lake; Upper Spokane
IN190119011Ohio Region
ME191420103Allagash River; Fish River; New England Region
MA186818681Cape Cod
MN187819742Clearwater-Elk; Crow
MT1900201414Beaver; Belly; Fisher; Flathead Lake; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Flathead; Lower Milk; Middle Fork Flathead; Middle Milk; Missouri-Poplar; Prairie Elk-Wolf; St. Marys; Stillwater; Upper Milk
NV187720011Lake Tahoe
NH194019734Pemigewasset River; Saco River; Waits River-Connecticut River; Winnipesaukee River
NY198519854Black; Chateaugay-English; Indian; Raquette
OR188919565Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Middle Columbia; Pacific Northwest; Upper Klamath Lake
SD197719942Lower Lake Oahe; Missouri Region
UT187319632Lower Weber; Utah Lake
WA188920009Banks Lake; Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Lake Washington; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Lower Spokane; Pacific Northwest Region; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids

Table last updated 7/13/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

* HUCs are not listed for states where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. state centroids or Canadian provinces).

Means of Introduction: The U.S. Fish Commission was active in stocking Lake Whitefish during the late 1800s and early 1900s (e.g., Smith 1896; Chapman 1942).

Status: Most early attempts to establish populations failed, for instance, all attempts in California, Nebraska, Nevada, Oregon, and Utah. However, populations became established locally in a few lakes in several states. Established in the Columbia River basin, Washington (Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife 2011); also established in the Missouri and Milk rivers, and Fort Peck and Flathead lakes, Montana (Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks 2012).

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: According to Miller and Alcorn (1946), in 1880 25,000 eggs of this species were sent to Eureka, Nevada, but no records of plantings could be found.

Voucher specimens: California (USNM 27198), Iowa (USNM 63643).

References: (click for full references)

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Madison Press, Madison, WI.

Brown, C.J.D. 1971. Fishes of Montana. Big Sky Books, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT.

Cardoza, J.E., G.S. Jones, T.W. French, and D.B. Halliwell. 1993. Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts. 2nd edition. Fauna of Massachusetts Series No. 6. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.

Chapman, W.M. 1942. Alien fishes in the waters of the Pacific northwest. California Fish and Game 28:9-15.

Cross, F.B., R.L. Mayden, and J.D. Stewart. 1986. Fishes in the western Mississippi basin (Missouri, Arkansas, and Red Rivers). 363-412 in C.H. Hocutt and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Deacon, J.E., and J.E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97:103-118.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. California Department of Fish and Game Fish Bulletin, volume 178.

Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley. 3rd edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Ford, H.C., H.C. Demuth, G.H. Welshons, S.B. Stillwel, L. Streuber, and W.L. Powell. 1892. Report of the Fish Commissioners for the years 1889-90-91. Pennsylvania Report of State Commissioners of Fisheries19:1-156.

Hartel, K. 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occassional Reports of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Fish Department 1992:1-9.

Holton, G.D. 1990. A field guide to Montana fishes. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Parks, Helena, MT.

Hubbs, C.L., W.I. Follett, and L.J. Dempster. 1979. List of the fishes of California. Occassional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 133:1-51

Idaho Fish and Game. 1996. Fisheries Management Plan 1996-2000. Idaho Fish and Game, Boise, ID.

Kendall, W.C. 1914. An annotated catalogue of the fishes of Maine. Proceedings of the Portland Society of Natural History 3:1-198.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Linder, A.D. 1963. Idaho's alien fishes. Tebiwa 6:12-15.

Miller, R.R., and J.R. Alcorn. 1946. The introduced fishes of Nevada, with a history of their introduction. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 73:173-193.

Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks. 2012. Montana Fisheries Information System. http://fwp.mt.gov/fishing/mFish/ accessed 6 March 2012.

Morris, J., L. Morris, and L. Witt. 1974. The fishes of Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks commission, Lincoln, NE.

North Dakota Game and Fish Department. 1994. Fishes of the Dakotas. North Dakota Game and Fish Department, Bismark, ND.

Page, L.M. and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Guide Series, vol. 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 2011. Field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Peterson Field Guides series. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, MA.

Scarola, J.F. 1973. Freshwater fishes of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, Division of Inland and Marine Fisheries.

Scott, W.B., and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. Ottawa.

Shebley, W.H. 1917. History of the introduction of food and game fishes into the waters of California. California Fish and Game 3:3-10.

Sigler, W.F., and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, UT.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1996. Fishes of Utah: a natural history. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT.

Simpson, J., and R. Wallace. 1978. Fishes of Idaho. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, ID.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland fishes of New York state. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.

Smith, H.M. 1896. A review of the history and results of the attempts to acclimitazie fish and other water animals in the Pacific states. Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission 15:379-472,

Sweeney, Z.T. 1902. Biennial report of the commissioner of fisheries and game for Indiana. Indianapolis, IN.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Todd, T.N. 1983. The feasibility of mass-culturing coregonines in the Great Lakes. Research completion report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ann Arbor, MI.

Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH.

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2011. Washington fishing prospects: where to catch fish in the evergreen state. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.

Wiltzius, W.J. 1985. Fish culture and stocking in Colorado, 1872-1978. Division Report 12, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.

Wydoski, R.S., and R.R. Whitney. 1979. Inland fishes of Washington. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 3/26/2012

Peer Review Date: 3/26/2012

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Coregonus clupeaformis (Mitchill, 1818): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=887, Revision Date: 3/26/2012, Peer Review Date: 3/26/2012, Access Date: 7/13/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/13/2024].

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