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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Oncorhynchus kisutch
Oncorhynchus kisutch
(Coho Salmon)
Fishes
Native Transplant
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Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792)

Common name: Coho Salmon

Synonyms and Other Names: silver salmon

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976a); Scott and Crossman (1973); Wydoski and Whitney (1979); Morrow (1980); Eschmeyer et al. (1983); Page and Burr (1991). Dark dorsal side, bluish to greenish. Sides grayish or whitish with dark spots towards dorsal side. Faint horizontal darker stripe near where spots end. Spawning males and females take on a pinkish to reddish tone along their usually bland sides.

Size: 98 cm

Native Range: Arctic and Pacific drainages from Point Hope, Alaska, to Monterey Bay, California, infrequently as far south as Chamalu Bay, Baja California. Also in northeastern Asia (Page and Burr 1991).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Oncorhynchus kisutch are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Alaska198019801Alaska Region
Arizona196719734Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Lake Mead; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado Region
California193419807California Region; Lower Pit; Sacramento Headwaters; Salton Sea; Upper Pit; Upper Putah; Upper Yuba
Colorado190519823Colorado Headwaters; Upper Gunnison; Upper San Juan
Connecticut196819963Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; Thames
Delaware198519851Broadkill-Smyrna
Idaho1968201123Big Lost; Big Wood; Blackfoot; Boise-Mores; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Camas; Clearwater; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Goose; Little Wood; Lower North Fork Clearwater; North Fork Payette; Palisades; Portneuf; Raft; Salmon Falls; South Fork Boise; South Fork Clearwater; South Fork Payette; Upper Henrys; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane; Willow
Illinois196719791Lake Michigan
Indiana196819992Lake Michigan; Little Calumet-Galien
Iowa198719871Little Sioux
Kentucky198119862Middle Ohio-Laughery; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak
Maine1905198610Aroostook; Lower Kennebec; Lower Penobscot; Maine Coastal; New England Region; Passamaquoddy Bay-Bay of Fundy; Piscataquis; Saco; St. Croix; St. George-Sheepscot
Maryland198019801Chincoteague
Massachusetts198619922Charles; Merrimack
Michigan1965200114Au Gres-Rifle; Betsie-Platte; Betsy-Chocolay; Fishdam-Sturgeon; Huron; Lake Huron; Lake Michigan; Lake St. Clair; Lake Superior; Manistee; Muskegon; Ontonagon; Pere Marquette-White; St. Clair
Minnesota196520013Baptism-Brule; Beaver-Lester; Lake Superior
Montana191719857Blackfoot; Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Flathead Lake; Flint-Rock; Fort Peck Reservoir; Red Rock; Upper Missouri-Dearborn
Nebraska197119743Lower North Platte; Missouri Region; Snake
Nevada197420012Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Lake Mead
New Hampshire196919841Piscataqua-Salmon Falls
New Mexico199019906Canadian Headwaters; Cimarron; Rio Chama; Rio San Jose; Upper Canadian; Upper San Juan
New York196819864Cattaraugus; Lake Ontario; Salmon-Sandy; Upper Susquehanna
North Dakota197819941Painted Woods-Square Butte
Ohio187619864Black-Rocky; Lake Erie; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Upper Scioto
Oregon197319801Pacific Northwest Region
Pennsylvania196720003Allegheny; Lake Erie; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna
South Dakota197419942Fort Randall Reservoir; Missouri Region
Tennessee196419702Caney; Watauga
Texas197419921Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes
Utah192519271Utah Lake
Virginia196919942Upper Dan; Upper Roanoke
Washington197019974Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Lewis; Lower Cowlitz; Pacific Northwest Region
West Virginia193519351Potomac
Wisconsin1968201318Bad-Montreal; Beartrap-Nemadji; Door-Kewaunee; Duck-Pensaukee; Flambeau; Lake Michigan; Lake Superior; Lower Fox; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Menominee; Middle Rock; Milwaukee; Namekagon; Oconto; Peshtigo; Pike-Root; Upper Chippewa; Upper Wisconsin
Wyoming195019703Clarks Fork Yellowstone; Middle North Platte-Casper; Popo Agie

Table last updated 12/4/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Means of Introduction: Introductions of coho salmon as sport fish began as early as the 1920s. The coho was introduced into the Great Lakes to control the alewife population (Eddy and Underhill 1974). The first stocking in the Great Lakes was in Lake Erie in 1933 by the Ohio Division of Conservation (Parsons 1973). The first large planting in the Great Lakes occurred in 1966 in Lakes Michigan and Superior. The species had been stocked in all the Great Lakes by 1970 (Parsons 1973). A total of 16 million fish had been stocked in the Great Lakes between 1966 and 1970 (Parsons 1973). Fish intentionally stocked into coastal New Hampshire in the late 1960s dispersed to Maine and Massachusetts (Stolte 1974). It was introduced into the Colorado River in 1967 (Rinne 1995). Colorado first began stocking cohos in the early 1900s (Everhart and Seaman 1971). Originally, the stock used for Colorado came from Oregon; more recently stock from Lake Michigan has been used (Everhart and Seaman 1971). Introduced into Connecticut since the late 1800s (Whitworth 1996). Most attempts to establish populations failed; therefore, stocking was discontinued.

Status: Some reproduction reported in Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, Lake Superior, Manistee River in Michigan, coastal waters of New Hampshire, Maine, and Massachusetts, Salmon River in New York, and Colorado River in Arizona. Stockings in Tennessee failed. Rinne (1994) lists coho salmon as not established in the Colorado River in Arizona. The first evidence of reproduction in the Great Lakes came in 1968 from tributaries of Lakes Michigan and Superior (Parsons 1973). Natural reproduction in Lake Michigan and Lake Superior have resulted in localized self-sustaining populations (Downs et al. 2002). There are no known established populations in Connecticut (Whitworth 1996) or Delaware (Raasch and Altemus 1991). Coho salmon are no longer stocked in Lake Erie, although strays from the other Great Lakes can still be caught occasionally (ODNR 2007).

Impact of Introduction: Coho salmon compete with native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush (Page and Laird 1993). Fausch and White (1986) found that coho salmon may compete with brook trout S. fontinalis and brown trout Salmo trutta for food and space in the Great Lakes if resources become scarce. Coho have an advantage over brook and brown trout because of an earlier emergence and a larger size at emergence (Fausch and White 1986).

Remarks: Coho salmon has not been stocked in Oklahoma (Pigg, personal communication). Parsons (1973) gave detailed stocking information for the Great Lakes.

Voucher specimens: Montana (USNM 104701).

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous. 2000. Northwestern PA. waters. James's Northeastern Fishing Guide.

Baxter, G.T., and J.R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department Bulletin 4, Cheyenne, WY. 168 pp.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.

Bence, J.R., and K.D. Smith. 1999. An overview of recreational fisheries of the Great Lakes. In Taylor, W.W., and C.P. Ferreri (Eds.), Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI, pp. 259-306.

Bond, C.E. 1973. Keys to Oregon Freshwater Fishes. Oregon State University Agriculture Experimental Station Technical Bulletin 58:1-42, revised.

Bond, C.E. 1994. Keys to Oregon Freshwater Fishes. Oregon State University Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis. 58:1-42, revised.

Brown, R.W., M. Ebener, and T. Gorenflo. 1999. Great Lakes commercial fisheries: historical overview and prognosis for the future. In Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective. Taylor, W.W., and C.P. Ferreri (Eds.). Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI, pp. 307-354.

Burr, B. M. 1991. The fishes of Illinois: an overview of a dynamic fauna. Proceedings of our living heritage symposium. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 34(4):417-427.

Burr, B.M. 1991. The fishes of Illinois: an overview of a dynamic fauna. Proceedings of our living heritage symposium. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 34(4):417-427.

Burr, B.M., and L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. Pages 287-324 in C. H. Hocutt, and E. O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Burr, B.M., and M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 4. 398 pp.

Cincotta, D. - West Virginia Department of Natural Resources, Annapolis.

Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA.

Cross, F.B., R.L. Mayden, and J.D. Stewart. 1986. Fishes in the western Mississippi drainage. Pages 363-412 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Crawford, S.S. 2001. Salmonine introductions to the Laurentian Great Lakes: an historical review and evaluation of ecological effects. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 132. 205 pp.

Cudmore-Vokey, B., and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2500: v + 39 pp.

Deacon, J.E., and J.E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

Denoncourt, R.F., T.B. Robbins, and R. Hesser. 1975a. Recent introductions and reintroductions to the Pennsylvania fish fauna of the Susquehanna River drainage above Conowingo Dam. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 49:57-58.

Downs, W., L. Wiland, E.A. White, and S. Wittman. 2002. Coho Salmon/Fish of the Great Lakes. University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute. http://www.seagrant.wisc.edu/greatlakesfish/cohosalmon.html (Accessed 3/4/2011).

Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley, 3rd edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Emery, L. 1985. Review of fish introduced into the Great Lakes, 1819-1974. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report, volume 45. 31 pp.

Eschmeyer, W.N., E.S. Herald, and H. Hamann. 1983. A Field Guide to Pacific Coast Fishes of North America. Peterson Field Guide Series. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Everhart, W.H., and W.R. Seaman. 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks Division, Denver, CO. 75 pp.

Everhart, W.H. 1976. Fishes of Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife. Augusta, ME. 96 pp.

Fausch, K.D., and R.J. White. 1986. Competition among juveniles of coho salmon, brook trout, and brown trout in a laboratory stream, and implications for Great Lakes tributaries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115(3):363-381.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2008. Survey of recreational fishing in Canada: Selected results for the Great Lakes fishery, 2005. Ottawa, Ontario: Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Catalogue No. Fs23-522/2005-1E.  Available: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/stats/rec/gl/gl2005/Report-eng.pdf

Harlan, J.R., E.B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA. 323 pp.

Hartel, K.E. 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Fish Department, Cambridge, MA. 2. September. pp. 1-9.

Hartel, K.E., D.B. Halliwell, and A.E. Launer. 1996. An annotated working list of the inland fishes of Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA (Available from http://www.mcz.harvard.edu/fish/ma_fam.htm. Page accessed March 5, 1998).

Hildebrande, S.G. 1971. The effect of coho spawning on the benthic invertebrates of the Platte River, Benzie County, Michigan. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 100:61-68.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. Pages 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Hoover, E.E. 1936. Preliminary biological survey of some New Hampshire lakes. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. Survey Report No. 1. Concord, NH.

Howells, R.G. 1992a. Annotated list of introduced non-native fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants in Texas waters. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. 19 pp.

Idaho Fish and Game. 1990. Fisheries Management Plan 1991-1995. Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

Idaho Fish and Game. 1997. Official list of Idaho record fish (as of November 15, 1996). (Available from http://www.state.id.us/fishgame/fishrecs.htm. Page accessed June 26, 1997).

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records – Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Kendall, W.C. 1914. An annotated catalogue of the fishes of Maine. Proceedings of the Portland Society of Natural History 3:1-198.

Kendall, W.C. 1914. The Fishes of New England. The Salmon Family. Part I - the trout or charrs. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History 8(1). 103 pp + plates.

Kocik, J.F., and M.L. Jones. 1999. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes basin. In Taylor, W.W. and C.P. Ferreri, (Eds.). Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, MI, pp. 455-488.

Miller, R.R., and J.R. Alcorn. 1946. The introduced fishes of Nevada, with a history of their introduction. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 73:173-193.

Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department. Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

Morris, J., L. Morris, and L. Witt. 1974. The Fishes of Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, NE. 98 pp.

Morrow, J.E. 1980. The Freshwater Fishes of Alaska. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, AK.

Moyle, P.B. 1976a. Inland Fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Moyle, P.B., and R.A. Daniels. 1982. Fishes of the Pit River System, McCloud River System, and Surprise Valley Region. University of California Publications, Zoology 115:1-82.

Nelson, J.S., and S.D. Gerking. 1968. Annotated Key to the Fishes of Indiana. Project 342-303-815. Department of Zoology, Indiana Aquatic Research Unit, Indiana State University, Bloomington, IN.

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Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Page, L.M., and C.A. Laird. 1993. The identification of the nonnative fishes inhabiting Illinois waters. Report prepared by Center for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, for Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield. Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 1993(4). 39 pp.

Parmenter, R.R., and Lamarra, V.A. 1991. Nutrient cycling in a freshwater marsh: The decomposition of fish and waterfowl carrion. Limnology and Oceanography 36(5):976-987.

Parsons, J.W. 1973. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970. U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife Technical Paper 68. 80 pp.

Phillips, G.L., W.D. Schmid, and J.C. Underhill. 1982. Fishes of the Minnesota Region. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Pigg, J. - State of Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma City.

Raasch, M.S., and V.L. Altemus, Sr. 1991. Delaware's freshwater and brackish water fishes - a popular account. Delaware State College for the Study of Del-Mar-Va Habitats and the Society of Natural History of Delaware. 166 pp.

Rand, P.S., C.A.S. Hall, W.H. McDowell, N.H. Ringler, and J.G. Kennen. 1992. Factors limiting primary productivity in Lake Ontario tributaries receiving salmon migrations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(11):2377-2385.

Rinne, J.N. 1995. The effects of introduced fishes on native fishes: Arizona, southwestern United States. Pages 149-159 in D.P. Philipp, J.M. Epifanio, J.E. Marsden, and J.E. Claussen, editors. Protection of Aquatic Biodiversity. Proceedings of the World Fisheries Congress, Theme 3. Science Publishers Inc., Lebanon, NH.

Scarola, J.F. 1973. Freshwater fishes of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, Division of Inland and Marine Fisheries. 131 pp.

Schmidt, R.E. 1986. Zoogeography of the Northern Appalachians. Pages 137-160 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Scott, W.B., and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. Ottawa. 966 pp.

Sigler, W.F., and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, UT. 203 pp.

Sigler, W.F., and J.W. Sigler. 1996. Fishes of Utah. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT. 375 pp.

Simon, T.P., J.O. Whitaker, Jr., J.S. Castrale, and S.A. Minton. 1992. Checklist of the vertebrates of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 101:95-126.

Smith, P.W. 1979. The Fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY. 522 pp.

Stolte, L.W. 1974. Introduction of coho salmon into the coastal waters of New Hampshire. Progressive Fish-Culturist 36(1):29-32.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. 393 pp.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Trautman, M.B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, OH.

Tyus, H.M., B.D. Burdick, R.A. Valdez, C.M. Haynes, T.A. Lytle, and C.R. Berry. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado River basin: distribution, abundance, and status. Pages 12-70 in W.H. Miller, H.M. Tyus, and C.A. Carlson, editors. Fishes of the upper Colorado River system: present and future, Western Division, American Fisheries Society.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 3 Fisheries Program, and Great Lakes Fishery Commission (USFWS/GLFC). 2010. Great Lakes Fish Stocking database. Available: http://www.glfc.org/fishstocking/index.htm

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). 2010. Commercial fishing reports: total pounds and dollar value of commercial catch in the U.S. waters of the Great Lakes. Available: http://www.glsc.usgs.gov/main.php?content=products_data_fishingreports

Walker, B.W., R.R. Whitney, and G.W. Barlow. 1961. Fishes of the Salton Sea. Pages 77-92 in B.W. Walker, editor. The ecology of the Salton Sea, California, in relation to the sport fishery of California. Fish Bulletin of the California Department of Fish and Game 113.

Wiltzius, W.J. 1985. Fish culture and stocking in Colorado, 1872-1978. Division Report 12. Colorado Division of Wildlife.

Whitworth, W.R. 1996. Freshwater Fishes of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 114.

Wydoski, R.S., and R.R. Whitney. 1979. Inland Fishes of Washington. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Other Resources:
Distribution in Illinois - Illinois Natural History Survey

Fishes of Wisconsin (Becker) - Wisconsin Sea Grant

Great Lakes Water Life Photo Gallery - Great Lakes Sea Grant

FishBase Summary

Author: Fuller, P., J. Larson, and A. Fusaro

Revision Date: 6/26/2014

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., J. Larson, and A. Fusaro, 2018, Oncorhynchus kisutch (Walbaum, 1792): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=908, Revision Date: 6/26/2014, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 12/13/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [12/13/2018].

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