Disclaimer:

The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
(Rainbow Trout)
Fishes
Native Transplant
Translate this page with Google
Français Deutsch Español Português Russian Italiano Japanese

Copyright Info
Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)

Common name: Rainbow Trout

Synonyms and Other Names: steelhead [anadromous form], coastal rainbow

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976a); Scott and Crossman (1973); Wydoski and Whitney (1979); Morrow (1980); Eschmeyer et al. (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Behnke (1992). Behnke (1992) gave accounts and drawings for several subspecies. A commonly used named for this species is Salmo gairdnerii, sometimes given as S. gairdneri.

Size: 114 cm

Native Range: Pacific Slope from Kuskokwim River, Alaska, to (at least) Rio Santa Domingo, Baja California; upper Mackenzie River drainage (Arctic basin), Alberta and British Columbia; endorheic basins of southern Oregon (Page and Burr 1991).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Oncorhynchus mykiss are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Alabama196220018Guntersville Lake; Locust; Middle Tennessee-Elk; Mobile Bay; Mobile-Tombigbee; Pickwick Lake; Sipsey Fork; Upper Tallapoosa
Alaska195219804Chena River; Healy Lake-Tanana River; Middle Copper River; Tanana Flats-Tanana River
Arizona1880201433Aqua Fria; Bill Williams; Black; Canyon Diablo; Chevelon Canyon; Detrital Wash; Grand Canyon; Havasu Canyon; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Lake Mead; Little Colorado Headwaters; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Little Colorado; Lower Salt; Lower Verde; Lower Virgin; Middle Gila; Middle Little Colorado; Paria; Rillito; San Francisco; Santa Maria; Silver; Tonto; Upper Gila-San Carlos Reservoir; Upper Little Colorado; Upper Salt; Upper Santa Cruz; Upper Verde; Whitewater Draw; Willcox Playa
Arkansas1950200717Beaver Reservoir; Bull Shoals Lake; Dardanelle Reservoir; Elk; Illinois; Lake Conway-Point Remove; Little Missouri; Little Red; Lower Neosho; Lower White; Middle White; North Fork White; Ouachita Headwaters; Robert S. Kerr Reservoir; Spring; Strawberry; Upper Ouachita
California1930201448Antelope-Fremont Valleys; Clear Creek-Sacramento River; Cottonwood-Tijuana; Coyote; Death Valley-Lower Amargosa; East Branch North Fork Feather; East Walker; Imperial Reservoir; Laguna-San Diego Coastal; Lake Tahoe; Lower Klamath; Lower Pit; McCloud; Middle Fork Feather; Newport Bay; North Fork American; North Fork Feather; Pajaro; Sacramento Headwaters; Salmon; San Diego; San Pablo Bay; Santa Barbara Coastal; Santa Clara; Santa Margarita; Santa Monica Bay; Scott; South Fork American; South Fork Kern; Suisun Bay; Surprise Valley; Tomales-Drake Bays; Trinity; Truckee; Upper Bear; Upper Cache; Upper Carson; Upper Cosumnes; Upper Kern; Upper King; Upper Mokelumne; Upper Putah; Upper Stanislaus; Upper Stony; Upper Yuba; Ventura; Warner Lakes; West Walker
Colorado1880200947Alamosa-Trinchera; Animas; Arkansas Headwaters; Big Thompson; Blue; Cache La Poudre; Clear; Colorado Headwaters; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Conejos; Eagle; East-Taylor; Fountain; Gunnison; Huerfano; Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Gunnison; Lower Yampa; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; Middle South Platte-Sterling; North Platte; North Platte Headwaters; Piedra; Purgatoire; Republican; Rio Grande Headwaters; Roaring Fork; San Luis; San Miguel; South Fork Republican; South Platte; South Platte Headwaters; St. Vrain; Tomichi; Uncompahgre; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith; Upper Dolores; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Gunnison; Upper Laramie; Upper North Platte; Upper San Juan; Upper South Platte; Upper White; Upper Yampa; White - Yampa
Connecticut187520077Farmington; Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; New England Region; Pawcatuck-Wood; Saugatuck; Thames
Delaware188819924Brandywine-Christina; Broadkill-Smyrna; Delaware Bay; Mid Atlantic Region
Florida196819681Choctawhatchee Bay
Georgia1962200114Apalachicola Basin; Conasauga; Etowah; Hiwassee; Little; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Savannah; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Oostanaula; Savannah; South Atlantic-Gulf Region; Tugaloo; Upper Chattahoochee; Upper Savannah
Hawaii192020053Hawaii; Kauai; Oahu
Idaho1941201272American Falls; Bear Lake; Beaver-Camas; Big Lost; Big Wood; Birch; Blackfoot; Boise-Mores; Brownlee Reservoir; Bruneau; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Camas; Clearwater; Coeur d'Alene Lake; Curlew Valley; Goose; Hangman; Hells Canyon; Idaho Falls; Lake Walcott; Lemhi; Little Lost; Little Salmon; Little Wood; Lochsa; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Boise; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Henrys; Lower Kootenai; Lower Middle Fork Salmon; Lower North Fork Clearwater; Lower Salmon; Lower Selway; Lower Snake-Asotin; Middle Bear; Middle Fork Payette; Middle Kootenai; Middle Salmon-Chamberlain; Middle Salmon-Panther; Middle Snake-Succor; Moyie; North and Middle Forks Boise; North Fork Payette; Pahsimeroi; Palisades; Payette; Pend Oreille; Pend Oreille Lake; Portneuf; Priest; Raft; Salmon Falls; South Fork Boise; South Fork Clearwater; South Fork Coeur d'Alene; South Fork Payette; South Fork Salmon; Spokane; St. Joe; Teton; Upper Coeur d'Alene; Upper Henrys; Upper Middle Fork Salmon; Upper North Fork Clearwater; Upper Owyhee; Upper Salmon; Upper Selway; Upper Snake-Rock; Upper Spokane; Weiser; Willow
Illinois1979199612Big Muddy; Copperas-Duck; Green; Lake Michigan; Lower Fox; Lower Illinois; Lower Rock; Rock; Upper Illinois; Upper Illinois; Upper Mississippi; Upper Mississippi Region
Indiana1901199911Blue-Sinking; Kankakee; Lake Michigan; Little Calumet-Galien; Ohio Region; Patoka; Patoka-White; St. Joseph; Sugar; Tippecanoe; Wabash
Iowa1979200110Apple-Plum; Coon-Yellow; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Lower Iowa; Maquoketa; Middle Cedar; Turkey; Upper Cedar; Upper Iowa; Upper Wapsipinicon
Kansas196719675Arkansas-White-Red Region; Medicine Lodge; Missouri Region; Neosho-Verdigris; Smoky Hill Headwaters
Kentucky1972200021Barren; Blue-Sinking; Kentucky; Licking; Little Sandy; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Cumberland; Lower Kentucky; Lower Levisa; Middle Fork Kentucky; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Red; Rockcastle; Rough; South Fork Cumberland; South Fork Licking; Upper Cumberland; Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland; Upper Green; Upper Kentucky; Upper Levisa
Louisiana199120082Amite; East Central Louisiana Coastal
Maine1914201115Androscoggin; Aroostook; Dead; Kennebec; Lower Androscoggin; Lower Kennebec; Maine Coastal; Meduxnekeag; New England Region; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Piscataquis; Presumpscot; Saco; St. George-Sheepscot; Upper Kennebec
Maryland1875201114Cacapon-Town; Chester-Sassafras; Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Susquehanna; Mid Atlantic Region; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Monocacy; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva; Severn; Youghiogheny
Massachusetts1932200517Blackstone; Cape Cod; Charles; Chicopee; Concord; Deerfield; Farmington; Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; Lower Connecticut; Merrimack; Merrimack River; Middle Connecticut; Miller; Nashua; Quinebaug; Westfield
Michigan1876201320Au Gres-Rifle; Au Sable; Betsie-Platte; Betsy-Chocolay; Black-Presque Isle; Boardman-Charlevoix; Brule; Dead-Kelsey; Fishdam-Sturgeon; Great Lakes Region; Lake Huron; Lake Michigan; Lake St. Clair; Lake Superior; Lower Grand; Menominee; Muskegon; Pere Marquette-White; St. Clair; St. Joseph
Minnesota1888201144Baptism-Brule; Beartrap-Nemadji; Beaver-Lester; Big Fork; Buffalo-Whitewater; Cannon; Clearwater; Clearwater-Elk; Cloquet; Coon-Yellow; Crow Wing; Des Moines Headwaters; Eastern Wild Rice; Elk-Nokasippi; Hawk-Yellow Medicine; Kettle; Lake Superior; Leech Lake; Little Fork; Lower Minnesota; Lower Rainy; Lower St. Croix; Middle Minnesota; Minnesota; Mississippi Headwaters; Otter Tail; Pine; Platte-Spunk; Prairie-Willow; Rainy; Rainy Headwaters; Red; Red Lakes; Redwood; Root; Rush-Vermillion; Sauk; South Fork Crow; St. Croix; St. Louis; Twin Cities; Upper Mississippi-Crow-Rum; Upper St. Croix; Zumbro
Mississippi199120012Lower Mississippi-Helena; Upper Yazoo
Missouri188219988Bull Shoals Lake; Current; Eleven Point; Harry S. Truman Reservoir; Lake of the Ozarks; Lower Gasconade; Meramec; Spring
Montana1889201120Belly; Blackfoot; Fisher; Flathead Lake; Fort Peck Reservoir; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Madison; Marias; Middle Kootenai; Milk; Musselshell; North Fork Flathead; Red Rock; Saskatchewan; South Fork Flathead; Tongue; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Missouri-Dearborn
Nebraska1974198711Hat; Lower Lodgepole; Lower North Platte; Lower Platte; Lower South Platte; Lower Yellowstone; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Missouri Region; North Fork Republican; Upper White
Nevada1880201132Bruneau; Carson Desert; Central Lahontan; Diamond-Monitor Valleys; Fish Lake-Soda Spring Valleys; Hamlin-Snake Valleys; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Lake Tahoe; Little Humboldt; Long-Ruby Valleys; Lower Humboldt; Lower Virgin; Meadow Valley Wash; Middle Carson; North Fork Humboldt; Pilot-Thousand Springs; Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes; Salmon Falls; Smoke Creek Desert; South Fork Humboldt; South Fork Owyhee; Spring-Steptoe Valleys; Thousand-Virgin; Truckee; Upper Carson; Upper Humboldt; Upper Owyhee; Walker Lake; West Walker; White
New Hampshire1864200117Black-Ottauquechee; Contoocook; Lower Androscoggin; Merrimack River; Middle Connecticut; Miller; Nashua; New England; Pemigewasset; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Saco; Upper Androscoggin; Upper Connecticut; Upper Connecticut-Mascoma; Waits; West; Winnipesaukee River
New Jersey195219994Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Delaware; Mid-Atlantic Region; Raritan
New Mexico1957200025Animas; Canadian Headwaters; Carrizo Wash; Cimarron; Conejos; Jemez; Middle San Juan; Mimbres; Pecos Headwaters; Rio Chama; Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Rio Grande-Santa Fe; Rio Hondo; San Francisco; Tularosa Valley; Upper Beaver; Upper Canadian; Upper Canadian; Upper Gila; Upper Gila-Mangas; Upper Pecos; Upper Rio Grande; Upper San Juan; Upper San Juan; Zuni
New York1874200725Ausable River; Black; Chenango; Hudson-Hoosic; Lake Champlain; Lake Ontario; Long Island; Lower Genesee; Lower Hudson; Mettawee River; Middle Hudson; Mohawk; Owego-Wappasening; Raisin River-St. Lawrence River; Raquette; Sacandaga; Sandy Hook-Staten Island; Saranac River; Schoharie; Seneca; St. Regis; Upper Delaware; Upper Hudson; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna
North Carolina1903201518French Broad-Holston; Hiwassee; Lower Little Tennessee; Nolichucky; Pigeon; Roanoke; Seneca; South Fork Catawba; Tuckasegee; Upper Broad; Upper Catawba; Upper French Broad; Upper Little Tennessee; Upper New; Upper Pee Dee; Upper Tennessee; Upper Yadkin; Watauga
North Dakota198019963Lake Sakakawea; Painted Woods-Square Butte; Red
Ohio1885201222Ashtabula-Chagrin; Black-Rocky; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Cuyahoga; Grand; Hocking; Huron-Vermilion; Lake Erie; Little Miami; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Lower Great Miami; Lower Scioto; Muskingum; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Paint; Sandusky; Tuscarawas; Upper Great Miami; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; Upper Scioto; Walhonding
Oklahoma196119924Arkansas-White-Red Region; Blue; Illinois; Upper Cimarron
Oregon1928200310Brownlee Reservoir; Clackamas; Lower Crooked; Lower Grande Ronde; Lower Malheur; Middle Owyhee; North Umpqua; Pacific Northwest Region; Upper Malheur; Willow
Pennsylvania1983200110Allegheny; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Conococheague-Opequon; Lake Erie; Lehigh; Lower Allegheny; Lower Monongahela; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Susquehanna; Upper Ohio
Puerto Rico193419424Cibuco-Guajataca; Culebrinas-Guanajibo; Eastern Puerto Rico; Puerto Rico
South Carolina197120099Cooper; Enoree; Middle Savannah; Saluda; Santee; Santee; Seneca; Tugaloo; Upper Savannah
South Dakota1950200116Big Sioux; Cheyenne; Fort Randall Reservoir; Grand; James; Lewis and Clark Lake; Lower Belle Fourche; Lower James; Lower Lake Oahe; Middle Big Sioux; Middle Cheyenne-Spring; Missouri Region; Rapid; Redwater; Upper Moreau; Vermillion
Tennessee1939200822Buffalo; Caney; Collins; Conasauga; Emory; Hiwassee; Lower Clinch; Lower Cumberland; Lower French Broad; Lower Little Tennessee; Middle Tennessee-Elk; Middle Tennessee-Hiwassee; Obey; Ocoee; South Fork Holston; Upper Clinch; Upper Cumberland; Upper Elk; Upper Tennessee; Watauga; Watts Bar Lake; Wheeler Lake
Texas1892201666Austin-Travis Lakes; Bois D'arc-Island; Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes; Buffalo-San Jacinto; Cedar; Cibolo; East Fork San Jacinto; East Fork Trinity; Elm Fork Trinity; International Falcon Reservoir; Johnson Draw; Lake Meredith; Lake O'the Pines; Lampasas; Landreth-Monument Draws; Leon; Little Cypress; Lower Brazos; Lower Brazos; Lower Colorado-Cummins; Lower Frio; Lower Guadalupe; Lower Neches; Lower Nueces; Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red; Lower Sabine; Lower Sulpher; Lower West Fork Trinity; Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney; Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto; Middle Canadian-Spring; Middle Guadalupe; Middle Sabine; Navasota; Navidad; North Bosque; North Concho; North Fork Double Mountain Fork Brazos; North Laguna Madre; Pease; Pedernales; Richland; Rio Grande-Falcon; Rio Grande-Fort Quitman; San Gabriel; San Marcos; San Saba; South Concho; South Corpus Christi Bay; South Laguna Madre; South Llano; Texas-Gulf Region; Tierra Blanca; Tule; Upper Clear Fork Brazos; Upper Guadalupe; Upper Neches; Upper Prairie Dog Town Fork Red; Upper Sabine; Upper Salt Fork Red; Upper San Antonio; Upper Trinity; Upper West Fork Trinity; West Fork San Jacinto; West Galveston Bay; Wichita
Utah1880200737Bear Lake; Beaver Bottoms-Upper Beaver; Blacks Fork; Duchesne; East Fork Sevier; Escalante; Escalante Desert; Fremont; Jordan; Little Bear-Logan; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Green; Lower Green-Desolation Canyon; Lower Green-Diamond; Lower Lake Powell; Lower San Juan-Four Corners; Lower Sevier; Lower Weber; Middle Bear; Middle Sevier; Montezuma; Price; Provo; Rush-Tooele Valleys; San Pitch; San Rafael; Spanish Fork; Strawberry; Upper Bear; Upper Colorado-Dirty Devil; Upper Colorado-Kane Springs; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Lake Powell; Upper Sevier; Upper Virgin; Upper Weber; Utah Lake
Vermont1980200018Black-Ottauquechee; Deerfield; Hudson-Hoosic; Lake Champlain; Lamoille River; Mettawee River; Missiquoi River; Otter Creek; Passumpsic; Richelieu; St. Francois; St. Francois River; Upper Connecticut; Upper Connecticut-Mascoma; Waits; West; White; Winooski River
Virginia1945200727Conococheague-Opequon; James; Kanawha; Lower James; Lower Rappahannock; Maury; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle New; Middle Roanoke; North Fork Holston; North Fork Shenandoah; Potomac; Powell; Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock; Rivanna; Roanoke; Shenandoah; South Branch Potomac; South Fork Holston; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Clinch; Upper Dan; Upper James; Upper Levisa; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; Upper Yadkin
Washington192020053Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Pacific Northwest Region
West Virginia1986199511Big Sandy; Guyandotte; James; Kanawha; Little Kanawha; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Middle New; Monongahela; Potomac; Upper James; Upper Kanawha
Wisconsin1888201449Apple-Plum; Bad-Montreal; Baraboo; Beartrap-Nemadji; Black; Black-Presque Isle; Brule; Buffalo-Whitewater; Castle Rock; Coon-Yellow; Door-Kewaunee; Duck-Pensaukee; Eau Claire; Flambeau; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Great Lakes Region; Jump; Kickapoo; La Crosse-Pine; Lake Dubay; Lake Michigan; Lake Superior; Lower Chippewa; Lower Fox; Lower St. Croix; Lower Wisconsin; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Menominee; Middle Rock; Milwaukee; Namekagon; Oconto; Ontonagon; Pecatonica; Peshtigo; Pike-Root; Red Cedar; Rush-Vermillion; South Fork Flambeau; St. Louis; Sugar; Trempealeau; Upper Chippewa; Upper Fox; Upper Fox; Upper Rock; Upper St. Croix; Upper Wisconsin; Wolf
Wyoming1880201822Big Horn; Blacks Fork; Cheyenne; Crazy Woman; Great Divide Closed Basin; Gros Ventre; Missouri Headwaters; North Fork Shoshone; North Platte; Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs; Snake Headwaters; South Platte; Upper Bighorn; Upper Green; Upper Green; Upper Green-Flaming Gorge Reservoir; Upper Green-Slate; Upper North Platte; Upper Wind; Upper Yellowstone; White - Yampa; Yellowstone Headwaters

Table last updated 10/23/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Means of Introduction: Beginning in the late 1800s, there have been many stockings of this species for sportfishing purposes by state and federal agencies and by private individuals, mostly into streams and spring branches. Some states stock on an annual basis.

Status: Established in many states, including Hawaii. Also frequently stocked in most states to replenish populations harvested by fishing pressures or in other areas where populations are not self sustaining. One specimen collected from Mississippi (Ross and Brenneman 1991). Stocked once, in 1991, in Louisiana. The stocking failed. Previously established in Soda Butte Creek in Yellowstone National Park. Extirpated via rotenone treatments in 2015 and 2016; currently monitoring and eDNA testing (Ertel 2018).

Impact of Introduction: The Rainbow Trout hybridizes with other, more rare trout species, thereby affecting their genetic integrity (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Rinne and Minckley 1985; Page and Burr 1991). In California, Rainbow Trout have hybridized with Lahontan Cutthroat Trout O. clarki henshawi, Golden Trout O. aguabonita, and redband trout O. mykiss subsp. to the point that all three are included in the threatened trout management program of the California Department of Fish and Game (McAffee 1966b; Moyle 1976b; Behnke 1992). In the Lahontan drainage and various Rocky Mountain rivers, hybridization with Rainbow Trout has been a major factor in the decline of native cutthroat trouts (McAffee 1966a). Rainbow Trout have been shown to hybridize with Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout the Flathead River system in Montana (Muhlfeld et. al, 2009). In Nevada, this species is also held responsible for the virtual extinction of Alvord cutthroat O. mykiss subsp. (Behnke 1992). In Arizona, the species has hybridized with native Gila Trout O. gilae and Apache Trout O. apache (Minckley 1973; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1979). Rainbow Trout have replaced Lahontan cutthroat trout in areas where the cutthroat is native and Rainbow Trout have been introduced (McAffee 1966b). Introduced Rainbow Trout, and other trout species, were likely responsible for the near-extinction of Lahontan cutthroat in Lake Tahoe in the 1940s (McAffee 1966b). Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi hybridization with O. mykiss, and the resulting backcrossing to pure parent populations, has resulted in strong introgression toward both populations in the Upper Oldman River, Alberta, Canada (Rasmussen et al. 2010).

Rainbow Trout have been found to negatively affect Little Colorado Spinedace Lepidomeda vittata through predation and by affecting spinedace behavior. The trout occupied undercut banks that the spinedace normally used for refuge. As a result, spinedace were displaced from preferred microhabitats and pushed into open water, making them vulnerable to predation (Blinn et al. 1993). Thibault and Dodsen (2013) found significant habitat niche overlap between introduced Rainbow Trout and two native salmonids, Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinatlis, within eastern Quebec rivers, and increased habitat overlap between native salmonids in rivers containing Rainbow Trout.

Stocking of hatchery Rainbow Trout in rivers has led to introduction of whirling disease into open waters in approximately 20 states including, most recently, the Madison River and its tributaries in Montana (B. Nehring and R. White, personal communication). In the Madison River, the disease has reduced the Rainbow Trout population by 90% (White, personal communication). Rainbow Trout have the potential to consume native fishes and compete with native salmonids (Page and Laird 1993). Introduced Rainbow Trout eat endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Little Colorado River, and may exert a major negative effect on the population there (Marsh and Douglas 1997). Fausch (1988), Clark and Rose (1997), and numerous papers cited in both, discussed several factors affecting competitive interactions between Rainbow and Brook Trout. Rainbow Trout drive nongame fishes such as suckers and squawfish from feeding territories (Li, personal communication to P. Moyle in Moyle 1976a). Introduced predatory fishes, including the Rainbow Trout, are likely at least partially responsible for the decline of the Chiricahua leopard frog Rana chiricahuensis in southeastern Arizona (Rosen et al. 1995).

Remarks: Tyus et al. (1982) mapped the distribution of Rainbow Trout in the upper Colorado basin.

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous. 2000. Northwestern Pa. waters. James's Northeastern Fishing Guide.

Behnke, R.J. 1992. Native trout of western North America. American Fisheries Society Monograph 6. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, 275 pp.

Blinn, D.W., C. Runck, D.A. Clark, and J.N. Rinne. 1993. Effects of rainbow trout predation on Little Colorado spinedace. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:139-143.

Boogaard, M.A., T.D. Bills, and D.A. Johnson. 2003. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and Mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in Laboratory and Field Exposures. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29(Supplement 1):529-541.

Bradley, W.G., and J.E. Deacon. 1967. The biotic communities of southern Nevada. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers No. 13, Part 4. 201-273.

Burkhead, N.M., S.J. Walsh, B.J. Freeman, and J.D. Williams. 1997. Status and restoration of the Etowah River, an imperiled southern Appalachian ecosystem, p 375-444, In: G.W. Benz and D.E. Collins (eds). Aquatic Fauna in Perile: The Southeastern Perspective. Special Publication 1, Southeast Aquatic Research Institute, Lenz Design & Communications, Decatur, GA.

Champion, P., J. Clayton, and D. Rowe. 2002. Lake Manager's Handbook: Alien Invaders. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, Wellington, New Zealand.

Clark, M.E., and K.A. Rose. 1997. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: implications of an individual-based model. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126(2):1-20.

Clearwater, S.J., C.W. Hickey, and M.L. Martin. 2008. Overview of potential piscicides and molluscicides for controlling aquatic pest species in New Zealand. Science & Technical Publishing, New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes. John Hopkins. Baltimore and London.

Crawford, S.S. 2001. Salmonine introductions to the Laurentian Great Lakes: an historical review and evaluation of ecological effects. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 132. 205 pp.

Cudmore-Vokey, B., and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2500: v + 39 pp.

Ertel, B. 2018. Preservation of Native Cutthroat Trout in Northern Yellowstone. https://www.nps.gov/articles/preservation-of-native-cutthroat-trout-in-northern-yellowstone.htm. Accessed on 04/23/2018.

Fausch, K.D. 1988. Tests of competition between native and introduced salmonids in streams: what have we learned? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45(12):2238-2246.

Feltmate, B.W., and D.D. Williams. 1989. Influence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on density and feeding behavior of a perlid stonefly. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46(9):1575-1580.

Finlayson, B.J., R.A. Schnick, R.L. Cailteux, L. Demong, W.D. Horton, W. McClay, and C.W. Thompson. 2002. Assessment of antimycin A use in fisheries and its potential for reregistration. Fisheries 27(6):10-18.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2011. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Oncorhynchus mykiss. Text by Cowx, I.G. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 15 June 2005. Available: http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Oncorhynchus_mykiss/en. Accessed 19 December 2011.

Gilderhus, P.A. 1972. Exposure times necessary for antimycin and rotenone to eliminate certain freshwater fish. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 25(2):199-202.

Graham, K. 2003. Diamond Lake sick with algae. OregonLive.com. July 21, 2003.

Hamblin, P.F., and P. Gale. 2002. Water quality modeling of caged aquaculture impacts in Lake Wolsey, North Channel of Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research 28(1):32-43.

Ivan, L.N., E.S. Rutherford, and T.H. Johengen. 2011. Impacts of adfluvial fish on the ecology of two Great Lakes tributaries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:1670-1682.

Kelch, D., F. Lichtkoppler, B. Sohngen, and A. Daigneault. 2006. The value of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) angling in Lake Erie tributaries. Journal of Great Lakes Research 32(3):424-433.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. Volume 1980. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh.

Li, H.W. – Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Lintermans, M. and T. Raadik. 2003. Local eradication of trout from streams using rotenone: the Australian experience. Pages 95-111 in Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand: Proceedings of a workshop hosted by the Department of Conservation, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Loyacano, H.A. 1975. A List of Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. Bulletin of the South Carolina Experimental Station. Bulletin 580, 9 pp.

Madison, D. 2003. Outlaw Introductions. Montana Outdoors. July/August 2003: 26-35.

Marking, L.L. and T.D. Bills. 1985. Effects of contaminants on toxicity of the lampricides TFM and Bayer 73 to three species of fish. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(2):171-178.

Marotz, B. 2004. Tough Love, why it makes sense to kill some fish in order to save others. Montana Outdoors. March/April 2004.

Marsh, P.C., and M.E. Douglas. 1997. Predation by introduced fishes on endangered humpback chub and other native species in the Little Colorado River, Arizona. Transactions American Fisheries Society 126:343-346.

McAffee, W.R. 1966a. Rainbow trout. In A. Calhoun, ed. Inland Fisheries Management. California Department of Fish and Game. pp. 192-215.

McAffee, W.R. 1966b. Lahontan cutthroat trout. In A. Calhoun, ed. Inland Fisheries Management. California Department of Fish and Game. pp. 225-231.

Miller, R.R., and C.H. Lowe. 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona, p 133-151, In: C.H. Lowe, ed. The Vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department. Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

Morrow, J.E. 1980. The freshwater fishes of Alaska. Alaska Northwest Publishing Company, Anchorage, AK.

Moyle, P.B. 1976a. Inland Fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Moyle, P.B. 1976b. Fish introduction in California: history and impact on native fishes. Biological Conservation 9:101-118.

Muhlfeld, C.C., T.E. McMahon, M.C. Boyer, and R.E. Gresswell. 2009. Local habitat, watershed, and biotic factors influencing the spread of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:1036-1051.

National Park Service. 2011. Natural Resource Fact Sheet--Exotic Fish Management. National Park Service.

Nehring, R.B. – Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.

New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC). 2011. Fish stocking lists: 2010 lists by county. Bureau of Fisheries, Albany, NY. Available:http://www.dec.ny.gov/outdoor/7739.html

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Page, L.M., and C.A. Laird. 1993. The identification of the nonnative fishes inhabiting Illinois waters. Report prepared by Center for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, for Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield. Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 1993(4). 39 pp.

Parmenter, R.R., and Lamarra, V.A. 1991. Nutrient cycling in a freshwater marsh: The decomposition of fish and waterfowl carrion. Limnology and Oceanography 36(5):976-987.

Phillips, E.C., M.E. Washek, A.W. Hertel, and B.M. Niebel. 2003. The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in Pennsylvania tributary streams of Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29(1):34-40.

Powers, S.L., and P.A. Ceas. 2000. Ichthyofauna and biogeography of Russell Fork (Big Sandy River - Ohio River). Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings 41:1-12.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Rand, P.S., C.A.S. Hall, W.H. McDowell, N.H. Ringler, and J.G. Kennen. 1992. Factors limiting primary productivity in Lake Ontario tributaries receiving salmon migrations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(11):2377-2385.

Rasmussen, J.B., M.D. Robinson, and D.D. Heath. 2010. Ecological consequences of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout: effects on life history and habitat use. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 67(2):357-370.

Rinne, J.N. and W.L. Minckley. 1985. Patterns of variation and distribution in Apache trout (Salmo apache) relative to co-occurrence with introduced salmonids. Copeia 1985(2):285-292.

Rohde, F.C., R.G. Arndt, J.W. Foltz, and J.M. Quattro. 2009. Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC. 430 pp.

Rosen, P.C., C.R. Schwalbe, D.A. Parizek, Jr., P.A. Holm, and C.H. Lowe. 1995. Introduced aquatic vertebrates in the Chiricahua region: effects on declining native ranid frogs. In: Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. pp. 251-261.

Rooney, R.C., and C.L. Podemski. 2010. Freshwater trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming affects sediment and pore-water chemistry. Marine and Freshwater Research 61:513-526.

Sajna, M. 1998. Outdoors: El Nino spurs early arrival of peregrines. Pitsburgh Post-Gazette.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

State of Oregon. 2000. Warm Water Game Fish Records. 7 pp.

Stripling, M. 2001. Trout: The jewels of the Chattahoochee. The Natural Georgia Series: The Chattahoochee River. Sherpa Guides. 9 pp. http://www.sherpaguides.com/georgia/chattahoochee/trout/

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2001. Fish Records: Water Body - All Tackle. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. April 24, 2001.

Thibault, I. and J. Dodson. 2013. Impacts of exotic Rainbow Trout on habitat use by native juvenile salmonid species at an early invasive stage. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142(4):1141-1150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2013.799516

Tiegs, S.D., E.Y. Campbell, P.S. Levi, J. Rüegg, M.E. Benbow, D.T. Chaloner, R.W. Merritt, J.L. Tank, and G.A. Lamberti. 2009. Separating physical disturbance and nutrient enrichment caused by Pacific salmon in stream ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 54(9): 1864-1857.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1979. Arizona trout recovery plan. Arizona Trout Recovery Team, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, NM. 37 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006. Economic effects of rainbow trout production by the national fish hatchery system. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA, 33 pp. Available: http://www.fws.gov/southeast/fisheries/pdf/RainbowTrout-05.pdf

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 3 Fisheries Program, and Great Lakes Fishery Commission (FWS/GLFC). 2010. Great Lakes Fish Stocking database. Available: http://www.glfc.org/fishstocking/index.htm

Waldrip, L. 1993. Fish Stocking Report. Texas Parks and Wildlife News. March 5, 1993. 1993: 7-8.

Whittier, T.R., D.B. Halliwell, and R.A. Daniels. 2000. Distributions of lake fishes in the Northeast - II. The Minnows (Cyprinidae). Northeastern Naturalist 7(2):131-156.

Yoder, W.G. 1972. The spread of Myxosoma cerebralis into native trout populations in Michigan. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 34(2):103-106.

Other Resources:
Distribution in Illinois - Illinois Natural History Survey

Oncorhyncus mykiss - Global Invasive Species Database

Great Lakes Water Life Photo Gallery

FishBase Summary

Author: Fuller, P., J. Larson, A. Fusaro, T.H. Makled, and M. Neilson

Revision Date: 4/23/2018

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., J. Larson, A. Fusaro, T.H. Makled, and M. Neilson, 2018, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=910, Revision Date: 4/23/2018, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 11/19/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logoU.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://nas.er.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Pam Fuller - NAS Program (pfuller@usgs.gov)
Page Last Modified: Wednesday, October 24, 2018

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [11/19/2018].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Pam Fuller. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.