Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
(Rainbow Trout)
Fishes
Native Transplant
Translate this page with Google
Français Deutsch Español Português Russian Italiano Japanese

Copyright Info
Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792)

Common name: Rainbow Trout

Synonyms and Other Names: steelhead [anadromous form], coastal rainbow

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Moyle (1976a); Scott and Crossman (1973); Wydoski and Whitney (1979); Morrow (1980); Eschmeyer et al. (1983); Page and Burr (1991); Behnke (1992). Behnke (1992) gave accounts and drawings for several subspecies. A commonly used named for this species is Salmo gairdnerii, sometimes given as S. gairdneri.

Size: 114 cm

Native Range: Pacific Slope from Kuskokwim River, Alaska, to (at least) Rio Santa Domingo, Baja California; upper Mackenzie River drainage (Arctic basin), Alberta and British Columbia; endorheic basins of southern Oregon (Page and Burr 1991).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: The Rainbow Trout has been extensively stocked throughout the United States, in states including Alabama (Ayers 2001), Alaska (Morrow 1980); Alabama (Mettee 1978; Boschung 1992; Mettee et al. 1996; Behnke and Benson 1980); Arizona (Miller and Lowe 1967; Tyus et al. 1982; Minckley 1973; Tilmant 1999); Arkansas (Pritchard et al. 1976; Cross et al. 1986); California (Moyle 1976a; Moyle and Daniels 1982; Dill and Cordone 1997; Tilmant 1999; Swift 1993; ); Colorado (Vanicek et al. 1970; Everhart and Seaman 1971; Tyus et al. 1982; Wiltzius 1985; Propst and Carlson 1986; Rasmussen 1998; Tilmant 1999; Beckman 1952; Behnke and Benson 1980); Connecticut (Behnke and Wetzel 1960; Schmidt 1986; Whitworth 1996); Delaware (Raasch and Altemus 1991; Rohde et al. 1994); Florida (Eglin Air Force Base 1968); Georgia (Dahlberg and Scott 1971a, 1971b; Yerger 1977; Burkhead et al. 1997; Stripling 2001); Hawaii (Brock 1960; Maciolek 1984; Mundy 2005); Idaho (Idaho Fish and Game 1996; Campbell 2002); Illinois (Smith 1979; Burr and Page 1986; Underhill 1986; Burr 1991); Indiana (Sweeney 1902; Underhill 1986; Tilmant 1999); Iowa (Harlan and Speaker 1951; Smith 1979; Harlan et al. 1987); Kansas (Cross 1967; Cross et al. 1986); Kentucky (Clay 1962, 1975; Burr and Page 1986; Burr and Warren 1986; Powers and Ceas 2000); Louisiana (J. Forrester, personal communication); Maine (Kendall 1914a; Everhart 1950, 1976; Schmidt 1986); Maryland (Lee et al. 1976, 1981; Rohde et al. 1994; Starnes et al. 2011); Massachusetts (Hartel 1992; Cardoza et al. 1993; Hartel et al. 1996; Tilmant 1999; USFWS 2005); Michigan (Hubbs and Lagler 1947; Emery 1985; Underhill 1986; Tilmant 1999; Cudmore-Vokey and Crossman 2000; Mills 1993); Minnesota (Phillips et al. 1982; Burr and Page 1986; Underhill 1986; Tilmant 1999); Mississippi (Ross and Brenneman 1991); Missouri (Bean 1903; Pflieger 1971, 1975, 1997; Cross et al. 1986; Tilmant 1999); Montana (Brown 1971; Cross et al. 1986; Holton 1990; Tilmant 1999; Madison 2003; Marotz 2004; USFWS 2005); Nebraska (Jones 1963; Morris et al. 1974; Nebraska Game and Parks Division); Nevada (Smith 1896; Miller and Alcorn 1946; La Rivers 1962; Bradley and Deacon 1967; Deacon and Williams 1984; Sigler and Sigler 1987; Tilmant 1999; Insider Viewpoint 2001; USFWS 2005; Vinyard 2001); New Hampshire (Hoover 1936; Bailey and Oliver 1939; Scarola 1973; Schmidt 1986); New Jersey (Fowler 1952; Stiles 1978; Tilmant 1999); New Mexico (Koster 1957; Tyus et al. 1982; Sublette et al. 1990; Tilmant 1999); New York (Bean 1903; Werner 1980; Smith 1985; Schmidt 1986; Underhill 1986); North Carolina (Hocutt et al. 1986; Menhinick 1991; Rohde et al. 1994); North Dakota (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Cross et al. 1986; North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1994); Ohio (Trautman 1981; Burr and Page 1986; Hocutt et al. 1986; Underhill 1986); Oklahoma (Hall 1956; Miller and Robison 1973; Cross et al. 1986); Oregon (State of Oregon 2000; Graham 2003; Li, personal communication; USFWS 2005); Pennsylvania (Bean 1892b; Denoncourt et al. 1975a; Hendricks et al. 1979; Cooper 1983; Hocutt et al. 1986; Underhill 1986; Sajna 1998; Tilmant 1999; Anonymous 2000; Phillips et al. 2003); Enoree River and the upper Saluda and Savannah River drainages in South Carolina (Dahlberg and Scott 1971a, 1971b; Loyacano 1975; Hocutt et al. 1986; Rohde et al. 1994; Rohde et al. 2009); South Dakota (Bailey and Allum 1962; North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1994); Tennessee (Kuhne 1939; Starnes and Etnier 1986; Etnier and Starnes 1993; Tilmant 1999); Texas (Knapp 1953; Conner and Suttkus 1986; Cross et al. 1986; Howells 1992a; Waldrip 1993; Whittier et al. 2000; Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 1993, 1994, 2001; Anonymous 1994); Utah (Sigler and Miller 1963; Vanicek et al. 1970; Tyus et al. 1982; Sigler and Sigler 1987, 1996; Tilmant 1999); Vermont (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Underhill 1986); Virginia (Hocutt et al. 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Rohde et al. 1994; Powers and Ceas 2000); Washington (USFWS 2005); West Virginia (Hocutt et al. 1986; Stauffer et al. 1995); Wisconsin (Eddy and Underhill 1974; Burr and Page 1986; Underhill 1986); Wyoming (Baxter and Simon 1970; Tyus et al. 1982; Hubert 1994; Tilmant 1999; Behnke and Benson 1980); and Puerto Rico (Erdsman 1984).

Means of Introduction: Beginning in the late 1800s, there have been many stockings of this species for sportfishing purposes by state and federal agencies and by private individuals, mostly into streams and spring branches. Some states stock on an annual basis.

Status: Established in many states, including Hawaii. Also frequently stocked in most states to replenish populations harvested by fishing pressures or in other areas where populations are not self sustaining. One specimen collected from Mississippi (Ross and Brenneman 1991). Stocked once, in 1991, in Louisiana. The stocking failed.

Impact of Introduction: The Rainbow Trout hybridizes with other, more rare trout species, thereby affecting their genetic integrity (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Rinne and Minckley 1985; Page and Burr 1991). In California, Rainbow Trout have hybridized with Lahontan Cutthroat Trout O. clarki henshawi, Golden Trout O. aguabonita, and redband trout O. mykiss subsp. to the point that all three are included in the threatened trout management program of the California Department of Fish and Game (McAffee 1966b; Moyle 1976b; Behnke 1992). In the Lahontan drainage and various Rocky Mountain rivers, hybridization with Rainbow Trout has been a major factor in the decline of native cutthroat trouts (McAffee 1966a). Rainbow Trout have been shown to hybridize with Westslope Cutthroat Trout throughout the Flathead River system in Montana (Muhlfeld et. al, 2009). In Nevada, this species is also held responsible for the virtual extinction of Alvord cutthroat O. mykiss subsp. (Behnke 1992). In Arizona, the species has hybridized with native Gila Trout O. gilae and Apache Trout O. apache (Minckley 1973; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1979). Rainbow Trout have replaced Lahontan cutthroat trout in areas where the cutthroat is native and Rainbow Trout have been introduced (McAffee 1966b). Introduced Rainbow Trout, and other trout species, were likely responsible for the near-extinction of Lahontan cutthroat in Lake Tahoe in the 1940s (McAffee 1966b). Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi hybridization with O. mykiss, and the resulting backcrossing to pure parent populations, has resulted in strong introgression toward both populations in the Upper Oldman River, Alberta, Canada (Rasmussen et al. 2010).

Rainbow Trout have been found to negatively affect Little Colorado Spinedace Lepidomeda vittata through predation and by affecting spinedace behavior. The trout occupied undercut banks that the spinedace normally used for refuge. As a result, spinedace were displaced from preferred microhabitats and pushed into open water, making them vulnerable to predation (Blinn et al. 1993). Thibault and Dodsen (2013) found significant habitat niche overlap between introduced Rainbow Trout and two native salmonids, Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar and Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinatlis, within eastern Quebec rivers, and increased habitat overlap between native salmonids in rivers containing Rainbow Trout.

Stocking of hatchery Rainbow Trout in rivers has led to introduction of whirling disease into open waters in approximately 20 states including, most recently, the Madison River and its tributaries in Montana (B. Nehring and R. White, personal communication). In the Madison River, the disease has reduced the Rainbow Trout population by 90% (White, personal communication). Rainbow Trout have the potential to consume native fishes and compete with native salmonids (Page and Laird 1993). Introduced Rainbow Trout eat endangered Humpback Chub Gila cypha in the Little Colorado River, and may exert a major negative effect on the population there (Marsh and Douglas 1997). Fausch (1988), Clark and Rose (1997), and numerous papers cited in both, discussed several factors affecting competitive interactions between Rainbow and Brook Trout. Rainbow Trout drive nongame fishes such as suckers and squawfish from feeding territories (Li, personal communication to P. Moyle in Moyle 1976a). Introduced predatory fishes, including the Rainbow Trout, are likely at least partially responsible for the decline of the Chiricahua leopard frog Rana chiricahuensis in southeastern Arizona (Rosen et al. 1995).

Remarks: Tyus et al. (1982) mapped the distribution of Rainbow Trout in the upper Colorado basin.

References: (click for full references)

Anonymous. 2000. Northwestern Pa. waters. James's Northeastern Fishing Guide.

Behnke, R.J. 1992. Native trout of western North America. American Fisheries Society Monograph 6. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD, 275 pp.

Blinn, D.W., C. Runck, D.A. Clark, and J.N. Rinne. 1993. Effects of rainbow trout predation on Little Colorado spinedace. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122:139-143.

Boogaard, M.A., T.D. Bills, and D.A. Johnson. 2003. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and Mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in Laboratory and Field Exposures. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29(Supplement 1):529-541.

Bradley, W.G., and J.E. Deacon. 1967. The biotic communities of southern Nevada. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers No. 13, Part 4. 201-273.

Burkhead, N.M., S.J. Walsh, B.J. Freeman, and J.D. Williams. 1997. Status and restoration of the Etowah River, an imperiled southern Appalachian ecosystem, p 375-444, In: G.W. Benz and D.E. Collins (eds). Aquatic Fauna in Perile: The Southeastern Perspective. Special Publication 1, Southeast Aquatic Research Institute, Lenz Design & Communications, Decatur, GA.

Champion, P., J. Clayton, and D. Rowe. 2002. Lake Manager's Handbook: Alien Invaders. New Zealand Ministry for the Environment, Wellington, New Zealand.

Clark, M.E., and K.A. Rose. 1997. Factors affecting competitive dominance of rainbow trout over brook trout in southern Appalachian streams: implications of an individual-based model. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 126(2):1-20.

Clearwater, S.J., C.W. Hickey, and M.L. Martin. 2008. Overview of potential piscicides and molluscicides for controlling aquatic pest species in New Zealand. Science & Technical Publishing, New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, Biology, and Management of Exotic Fishes. John Hopkins. Baltimore and London.

Crawford, S.S. 2001. Salmonine introductions to the Laurentian Great Lakes: an historical review and evaluation of ecological effects. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences No. 132. 205 pp.

Cudmore-Vokey, B., and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2500: v + 39 pp.

Fausch, K.D. 1988. Tests of competition between native and introduced salmonids in streams: what have we learned? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 45(12):2238-2246.

Feltmate, B.W., and D.D. Williams. 1989. Influence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on density and feeding behavior of a perlid stonefly. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 46(9):1575-1580.

Finlayson, B.J., R.A. Schnick, R.L. Cailteux, L. Demong, W.D. Horton, W. McClay, and C.W. Thompson. 2002. Assessment of antimycin A use in fisheries and its potential for reregistration. Fisheries 27(6):10-18.

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2011. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme: Oncorhynchus mykiss. Text by Cowx, I.G. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 15 June 2005. Available: http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Oncorhynchus_mykiss/en. Accessed 19 December 2011.

Gilderhus, P.A. 1972. Exposure times necessary for antimycin and rotenone to eliminate certain freshwater fish. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 25(2):199-202.

Graham, K. 2003. Diamond Lake sick with algae. OregonLive.com. July 21, 2003.

Hamblin, P.F., and P. Gale. 2002. Water quality modeling of caged aquaculture impacts in Lake Wolsey, North Channel of Lake Huron. Journal of Great Lakes Research 28(1):32-43.

Ivan, L.N., E.S. Rutherford, and T.H. Johengen. 2011. Impacts of adfluvial fish on the ecology of two Great Lakes tributaries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 140:1670-1682.

Kelch, D., F. Lichtkoppler, B. Sohngen, and A. Daigneault. 2006. The value of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) angling in Lake Erie tributaries. Journal of Great Lakes Research 32(3):424-433.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. Volume 1980. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh.

Li, H.W. – Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

Lintermans, M. and T. Raadik. 2003. Local eradication of trout from streams using rotenone: the Australian experience. Pages 95-111 in Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand: Proceedings of a workshop hosted by the Department of Conservation, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Loyacano, H.A. 1975. A List of Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. Bulletin of the South Carolina Experimental Station. Bulletin 580, 9 pp.

Madison, D. 2003. Outlaw Introductions. Montana Outdoors. July/August 2003: 26-35.

Marking, L.L. and T.D. Bills. 1985. Effects of contaminants on toxicity of the lampricides TFM and Bayer 73 to three species of fish. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(2):171-178.

Marotz, B. 2004. Tough Love, why it makes sense to kill some fish in order to save others. Montana Outdoors. March/April 2004.

Marsh, P.C., and M.E. Douglas. 1997. Predation by introduced fishes on endangered humpback chub and other native species in the Little Colorado River, Arizona. Transactions American Fisheries Society 126:343-346.

McAffee, W.R. 1966a. Rainbow trout. In A. Calhoun, ed. Inland Fisheries Management. California Department of Fish and Game. pp. 192-215.

McAffee, W.R. 1966b. Lahontan cutthroat trout. In A. Calhoun, ed. Inland Fisheries Management. California Department of Fish and Game. pp. 225-231.

Miller, R.R., and C.H. Lowe. 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona, p 133-151, In: C.H. Lowe, ed. The Vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department. Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.

Moyle, P.B. 1976a. Inland Fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Moyle, P.B. 1976b. Fish introduction in California: history and impact on native fishes. Biological Conservation 9:101-118.

Muhlfeld, C.C., T.E. McMahon, M.C. Boyer, and R.E. Gresswell. 2009. Local habitat, watershed, and biotic factors influencing the spread of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:1036-1051.

National Park Service. 2011. Natural Resource Fact Sheet--Exotic Fish Management. National Park Service.

Nehring, R.B. – Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fort Collins, CO.

New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC). 2011. Fish stocking lists: 2010 lists by county. Bureau of Fisheries, Albany, NY. Available:http://www.dec.ny.gov/outdoor/7739.html

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Page, L.M., and C.A. Laird. 1993. The identification of the nonnative fishes inhabiting Illinois waters. Report prepared by Center for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, for Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield. Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 1993(4). 39 pp.

Parmenter, R.R., and Lamarra, V.A. 1991. Nutrient cycling in a freshwater marsh: The decomposition of fish and waterfowl carrion. Limnology and Oceanography 36(5):976-987.

Phillips, E.C., M.E. Washek, A.W. Hertel, and B.M. Niebel. 2003. The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in Pennsylvania tributary streams of Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29(1):34-40.

Powers, S.L., and P.A. Ceas. 2000. Ichthyofauna and biogeography of Russell Fork (Big Sandy River - Ohio River). Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings 41:1-12.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Rand, P.S., C.A.S. Hall, W.H. McDowell, N.H. Ringler, and J.G. Kennen. 1992. Factors limiting primary productivity in Lake Ontario tributaries receiving salmon migrations. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(11):2377-2385.

Rasmussen, J.B., M.D. Robinson, and D.D. Heath. 2010. Ecological consequences of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and introduced rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) trout: effects on life history and habitat use. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 67(2):357-370.

Rinne, J.N. and W.L. Minckley. 1985. Patterns of variation and distribution in Apache trout (Salmo apache) relative to co-occurrence with introduced salmonids. Copeia 1985(2):285-292.

Rohde, F.C., R.G. Arndt, J.W. Foltz, and J.M. Quattro. 2009. Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC. 430 pp.

Rosen, P.C., C.R. Schwalbe, D.A. Parizek, Jr., P.A. Holm, and C.H. Lowe. 1995. Introduced aquatic vertebrates in the Chiricahua region: effects on declining native ranid frogs. In: Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. pp. 251-261.

Rooney, R.C., and C.L. Podemski. 2010. Freshwater trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farming affects sediment and pore-water chemistry. Marine and Freshwater Research 61:513-526.

Sajna, M. 1998. Outdoors: El Nino spurs early arrival of peregrines. Pitsburgh Post-Gazette.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

State of Oregon. 2000. Warm Water Game Fish Records. 7 pp.

Stripling, M. 2001. Trout: The jewels of the Chattahoochee. The Natural Georgia Series: The Chattahoochee River. Sherpa Guides. 9 pp. http://www.sherpaguides.com/georgia/chattahoochee/trout/

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2001. Fish Records: Water Body - All Tackle. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. April 24, 2001.

Thibault, I. and J. Dodson. 2013. Impacts of exotic Rainbow Trout on habitat use by native juvenile salmonid species at an early invasive stage. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142(4):1141-1150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2013.799516

Tiegs, S.D., E.Y. Campbell, P.S. Levi, J. Rüegg, M.E. Benbow, D.T. Chaloner, R.W. Merritt, J.L. Tank, and G.A. Lamberti. 2009. Separating physical disturbance and nutrient enrichment caused by Pacific salmon in stream ecosystems. Freshwater Biology 54(9): 1864-1857.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1979. Arizona trout recovery plan. Arizona Trout Recovery Team, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, NM. 37 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2006. Economic effects of rainbow trout production by the national fish hatchery system. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, GA, 33 pp. Available: http://www.fws.gov/southeast/fisheries/pdf/RainbowTrout-05.pdf

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 3 Fisheries Program, and Great Lakes Fishery Commission (FWS/GLFC). 2010. Great Lakes Fish Stocking database. Available: http://www.glfc.org/fishstocking/index.htm

Waldrip, L. 1993. Fish Stocking Report. Texas Parks and Wildlife News. March 5, 1993. 1993: 7-8.

Whittier, T.R., D.B. Halliwell, and R.A. Daniels. 2000. Distributions of lake fishes in the Northeast - II. The Minnows (Cyprinidae). Northeastern Naturalist 7(2):131-156.

Yoder, W.G. 1972. The spread of Myxosoma cerebralis into native trout populations in Michigan. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 34(2):103-106.

Other Resources:
Distribution in Illinois - Illinois Natural History Survey

Oncorhyncus mykiss - Global Invasive Species Database

Great Lakes Water Life Photo Gallery

FishBase Fact Sheet

Author: Fuller, P., J. Larson, A. Fusaro, T.H. Makled and M. Neilson

Revision Date: 11/4/2013

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., J. Larson, A. Fusaro, T.H. Makled and M. Neilson. 2017. Oncorhynchus mykiss. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=910 Revision Date: 11/4/2013


This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logoU.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://nas.er.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Pam Fuller - NAS Program (pfuller@usgs.gov)
Page Last Modified: Thursday, January 26, 2017

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2017]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/24/2017].

Additional information for authors