The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Corbicula fluminea
Corbicula fluminea
(basket clam)

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Corbicula fluminea (O. F. Müller, 1774)

Common name: basket clam

Synonyms and Other Names: Asiatic clam, golden clam, good luck clam

IMPORTANT NOTE: The taxonomy of Corbicula species needs further revision. Therefore until then, in this database unless otherwise named, all unidentified species of the genus Corbicula collected in the United States are compiled under one name, Corbicula fluminea.

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: A small light-colored bivalve with shell ornamented by distinct, concentric sulcations, anterior and posterior lateral teeth with many fine serrations. Dark shell morphs exist but are limited to the southwestern United States. The light-colored shell morph has a yellow-green to light brown periostracum and white to light blue or light purple nacre while the darker shell morph has a dark olive green to black periostracum and deep royal blue nacre (McMahon 1991). Qiu et al. (2001) reported yellow and brown shell color morphs among specimens collected from Sichuan Province in China. The shells of the yellow morphs were straw yellow on the outside and white on the inside, those of brown morphs were dark brown and purple, respectively. Further analyses revealed that the yellow and brown morphs are triploid and tetraploid, respectively.
A separate clonal population of Corbicula has been reported for one location in the Illinois River (Tiemann et al. 2017). Tentatively named Form D, this newest form is pyramidal in shape with weakly elevated ridges; exterior is yellowish-brown with fine rust colored rays radiating out from the umbo; interior is creamy white but the lateral teeth are purple. Form D has a distinctive nuclear ribosomal DNA genotype, but the mtDNA COI haplotype is identical to Form A.

Size: < 50 mm shell length

Native Range: The genus Corbicula lives in temperate to tropical southern Asia west to the eastern Mediterranean; Africa, except in the Sahara desert; and southeast Asian islands south into central and eastern Australia (Morton 1986).

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Corbicula fluminea are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AL1960202342Bear; Blackwater; Buttahatchee; Cahaba; Chipola; Guntersville Lake; Locust; Lower Alabama; Lower Black Warrior; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Choctawhatchee; Lower Conecuh; Lower Coosa; Lower Elk; Lower Tallapoosa; Lower Tombigbee; Luxapallila; Middle Alabama; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F; Middle Coosa; Middle Tallapoosa; Middle Tombigbee-Chickasaw; Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub; Mobile-Tensaw; Mulberry; Noxubee; Patsaliga; Pea; Pickwick Lake; Sepulga; Sipsey; Sipsey Fork; Sucarnoochee; Upper Alabama; Upper Black Warrior; Upper Choctawhatchee; Upper Conecuh; Upper Coosa; Upper Tallapoosa; Wheeler Lake; Yellow
AZ1955202016Agua Fria; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Lower Colorado; Lower Gila; Lower Gila-Painted Rock Reservoir; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Salt; Lower Santa Cruz; Lower Verde; Lower Virgin; Middle Gila; Upper Salt; Upper Verde; Yuma Desert
AR1964202248Bayou Bartholomew; Bayou Macon; Bayou Meto; Beaver Reservoir; Big; Boeuf; Buffalo; Bull Shoals Lake; Cache; Cadron; Current; Dardanelle Reservoir; Eleven Point; Fourche La Fave; Frog-Mulberry; Illinois; Lake Conway-Point Remove; L'Anguille; Little Missouri; Little Red; Little River Ditches; Lower Arkansas; Lower Arkansas-Maumelle; Lower Black; Lower Little Arkansas, Oklahoma; Lower Mississippi-Greenville; Lower Mississippi-Helena; Lower Mississippi-Memphis; Lower Ouachita-Smackover; Lower Saline; Lower St. Francis; Lower Sulpher; Lower White; Lower White-Bayou Des Arc; McKinney-Posten Bayous; Middle White; Mountain Fork; North Fork White; Ouachita Headwaters; Petit Jean; Poteau; Robert S. Kerr Reservoir; Spring; Strawberry; Upper Black; Upper Ouachita; Upper Saline; Upper White-Village
CA1945202467Aliso-San Onofre; Calleguas; Central Coastal; Cottonwood-Tijuana; Coyote; Crowley Lake; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Tahoe; Los Angeles; Lost; Lower American; Lower Colorado; Lower Klamath; Lower Pit; Lower Sacramento; Lower San Joaquin River; Mad-Redwood; Middle Kern-Upper Tehachapi-Grapevine; Middle San Joaquin-Lower Chowchilla; Mojave; North Fork American; North Fork Feather; Owens Lake; Pajaro; Rock Creek-French Camp Slough; Russian; Sacramento Headwaters; Sacramento-Stone Corral; Salinas; Salton Sea; San Diego; San Francisco Bay; San Francisco Coastal South; San Gabriel; San Jacinto; San Joaquin Delta; San Luis Rey-Escondido; San Pablo Bay; Santa Ana; Santa Clara; Santa Margarita; Santa Monica Bay; Santa Ynez; Seal Beach; South Fork American; Southern Mojave; Suisun Bay; Tomales-Drake Bays; Truckee; Tulare Lake Bed; Upper Bear; Upper Cache; Upper Coon-Upper Auburn; Upper Cosumnes; Upper Kaweah; Upper Merced; Upper Mokelumne; Upper Pit; Upper Putah; Upper San Joaquin; Upper Stanislaus; Upper Tuolumne; Upper Yuba; Ventura; Whitewater River
CO1991202217Cache La Poudre; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Lower Gunnison; McElmo; Middle South Platte-Cherry Creek; Middle South Platte-Sterling; Purgatoire; South Fork Republican; St. Vrain; Uncompahgre; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith; Upper Dolores; Upper Gunnison; Upper South Platte; Upper Yampa
CT199020228Housatonic; Long Island Sound; Outlet Connecticut River; Quinebaug River; Quinnipiac; Saugatuck; Shetucket River; Thames
DE198120174Brandywine-Christina; Broadkill-Smyrna; Delaware Bay; Nanticoke
DC197820091Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan
FL1960202444Alafia; Alapaha; Apalachee Bay-St. Marks; Apalachicola; Aucilla; Big Cypress Swamp; Caloosahatchee; Cape Canaveral; Charlotte Harbor; Chipola; Crystal-Pithlachascotee; Daytona-St. Augustine; Econfina-Steinhatchee; Escambia; Everglades; Florida Southeast Coast; Hillsborough; Kissimmee; Lake Okeechobee; Little Manatee; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Choctawhatchee; Lower Conecuh; Lower Ochlockonee; Lower St. Johns; Lower Suwannee; Manatee; Myakka; Oklawaha; Peace; Perdido Bay; Santa Fe; Sarasota Bay; St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays; St. Marys; Tampa Bay; Upper St. Johns; Upper Suwannee; Vero Beach; Waccasassa; Western Okeechobee Inflow; Withlacoochee; Withlacoochee; Yellow
GA1967202144Alapaha; Altamaha; Apalachicola; Aucilla; Brier; Broad; Canoochee; Conasauga; Coosawattee; Etowah; Ichawaynochaway; Kinchafoonee-Muckalee; Little; Little; Little Ocmulgee; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Flint; Lower Ochlockonee; Lower Ocmulgee; Lower Oconee; Lower Ogeechee; Lower Savannah; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Chattahoochee-Walter F; Middle Flint; Middle Savannah; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Ogeechee Coastal; Ohoopee; Oostanaula; Satilla; Spring; St. Marys; Tugaloo; Upper Chattahoochee; Upper Coosa; Upper Flint; Upper Ochlockonee; Upper Ocmulgee; Upper Oconee; Upper Ogeechee; Upper Savannah; Upper Tallapoosa; Withlacoochee
HI198220224Hawaii; Kauai; Maui; Oahu
ID195520189Bruneau; C.J. Strike Reservoir; Clearwater; Lower Boise; Middle Snake-Succor; Pend Oreille; Pend Oreille Lake; Salmon Falls; Upper Snake-Rock
IL1960201949Apple-Plum; Bear-Wyaconda; Big Muddy; Cache; Cahokia-Joachim; Chicago; Copperas-Duck; Des Plaines; Embarras; Flint-Henderson; Green; Highland-Pigeon; Iroquois; Kankakee; Kishwaukee; La Moine; Little Calumet-Galien; Little Wabash; Lower Fox; Lower Illinois; Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua; Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake; Lower Kaskaskia; Lower Ohio; Lower Ohio-Bay; Lower Sangamon; Lower Wabash; Mackinaw; Macoupin; Middle Kaskaskia; Middle Rock; Middle Wabash-Busseron; Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion; Peruque-Piasa; Pike-Root; Saline; Salt; Shoal; Skillet; South Fork Sangamon; Spoon; The Sny; Upper Fox; Upper Illinois; Upper Kaskaskia; Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau; Upper Sangamon; Vermilion; Vermilion
IN1964202028Blue-Sinking; Driftwood; Eel; Flatrock-Haw; Highland-Pigeon; Kankakee; Lake Michigan; Little Calumet-Galien; Lower East Fork White; Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon; Lower Wabash; Lower White; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Middle Wabash-Busseron; Middle Wabash-Deer; Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion; Muscatatuck; Patoka; Silver-Little Kentucky; St. Joseph; Sugar; Tippecanoe; Upper East Fork White; Upper Wabash; Upper White; Vermilion; Whitewater; Wildcat
IA1974201813Apple-Plum; Big Papillion-Mosquito; Boyer; Coon-Yellow; Copperas-Duck; Flint-Henderson; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Lower Des Moines; Lower Iowa; Middle Cedar; Middle Des Moines; Skunk; Thompson
KS1983202051Caney; Chikaskia; Coon-Pickerel; Cow; Delaware; Elk; Fall; Gar-Peace; Independence-Sugar; Kaw Lake; Little Arkansas; Little Osage; Lower Big Blue; Lower Cottonwood; Lower Kansas, Kansas; Lower Little Blue; Lower Marais Des Cygnes; Lower Missouri-Crooked; Lower Republican; Lower Saline; Lower Smoky Hill; Lower Walnut River; Marmaton; Medicine Lodge; Middle Arkansas-Lake McKinney; Middle Arkansas-Slate; Middle Kansas; Middle Neosho; Middle Smoky Hill; Middle Verdigris; Neosho Headwaters; Ninnescah; North Fork Ninnescah; North Fork Smoky Hill; Prairie Dog; Solomon; South Fork Ninnescah; Spring; Upper Arkansas-John Martin Reservoir; Upper Cimarron-Bluff; Upper Cottonwood; Upper Kansas; Upper Marais Des Cygnes; Upper Neosho; Upper North Fork Solomon; Upper Saline; Upper Salt Fork Arkansas; Upper Smoky Hill; Upper South Fork Solomon; Upper Verdigris; Upper Walnut River
KY1957201632Barren; Bayou De Chien-Mayfield; Blue-Sinking; Highland-Pigeon; Kentucky Lake; Licking; Little Sandy; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Cumberland; Lower Kentucky; Lower Levisa; Lower Mississippi-Memphis; Lower Ohio; Lower Ohio-Bay; Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon; Lower Tennessee; Middle Green; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Pond; Red; Rockcastle; Rolling Fork; Salt; Silver-Little Kentucky; South Fork Cumberland; South Fork Kentucky; Tradewater; Upper Cumberland; Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland; Upper Green; Upper Kentucky
LA1961202032Amite; Atchafalaya; Bayou D'Arbonne; Bayou Pierre; Bayou Sara-Thompson; Bayou Teche; Bogue Chitto; Cross Bayou; East Central Louisiana Coastal; Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta; Little; Loggy Bayou; Lower Grand; Lower Mississippi-Baton Rouge; Lower Mississippi-Greenville; Lower Mississippi-Natchez; Lower Ouachita; Lower Ouachita-Bayou De Loutre; Lower Pearl; Lower Red; Lower Red-Lake Iatt; Lower Sabine; Middle Red-Coushatta; Red Chute; Tangipahoa; Tensas; Tickfaw; Toledo Bend Reservoir; Upper Calcasieu; Vermilion; West Central Louisiana Coastal; Whisky Chitto
MD1975202319Cacapon-Town; Chester-Sassafras; Chincoteague; Choptank; Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Potomac; Lower Susquehanna; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Monocacy; Nanticoke; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Pokomoke-Western Lower Delmarva; Severn; Tangier; Upper Chesapeake Bay; Youghiogheny
MA1999202011Blackstone River; Cape Cod; Charles; Chicopee River; Concord River; Housatonic; Merrimack River; Narragansett; Outlet Connecticut River; Quinebaug River; Westfield River
MI1980202323Black-Macatawa; Clinton; Detroit; Flint; Huron; Kalamazoo; Lake Erie; Lake Michigan; Lake Superior; Lower Grand; Manistee; Maple; Muskegon; Ottawa-Stony; Pine; Raisin; Shiawassee; St. Clair; St. Joseph; Thornapple; Tiffin; Tittabawassee; Upper Grand
MN197820219Buffalo-Whitewater; Clearwater-Elk; Lake Superior; Lower Minnesota; Lower St. Croix; Otter Tail; Rush-Vermillion; St. Louis; Twin Cities
MS1963202144Amite; Bayou Pierre; Bear; Big Sunflower; Black; Bogue Chitto; Buffalo; Buttahatchee; Chunky-Okatibbee; Coldwater; Deer-Steele; Homochitto; Little Tallahatchie; Lower Big Black; Lower Chickasawhay; Lower Leaf; Lower Mississippi-Greenville; Lower Mississippi-Helena; Lower Mississippi-Natchez; Lower Pearl; Lower Yazoo; Luxapallila; Middle Pearl-Silver; Middle Pearl-Strong; Middle Tombigbee-Lubbub; Noxubee; Pascagoula; Pickwick Lake; Sucarnoochee; Tallahatchie; Tangipahoa; Tibbee; Tickfaw; Town; Upper Big Black; Upper Chickasawhay; Upper Hatchie; Upper Leaf; Upper Pearl; Upper Tombigbee; Upper Yazoo; Wolf; Yalobusha; Yocona
MO1961201948Bear-Wyaconda; Beaver Reservoir; Big; Big Piney; Blackwater; Bourbeuse; Bull Shoals Lake; Cahokia-Joachim; Cuivre; Current; Eleven Point; Elk; Harry S. Truman Reservoir; Independence-Sugar; James; Lake of the Ozarks; Lamine; Little Chariton; Little River Ditches; Lower Black; Lower Gasconade; Lower Marais Des Cygnes; Lower Mississippi-Memphis; Lower Missouri; Lower Missouri-Crooked; Lower Missouri-Moreau; Lower Osage; Lower St. Francis; Marmaton; Meramec; Niangua; North Fork White; Peruque-Piasa; Pomme De Terre; Sac; Salt; South Fabius; South Fork Salt; Spring; Spring; The Sny; Town of Madrid-Saint Johns Bayou; Upper Black; Upper Gasconade; Upper Grand; Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau; Upper St. Francis; Whitewater
MT201920191Upper Yellowstone-Pompeys Pillar
NE1991201914Big Papillion-Mosquito; Blackbird-Soldier; Keg-Weeping Water; Lewis and Clark Lake; Little Nemaha; Lower Platte; Lower South Platte; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Middle Republican; Salt; South Fork Big Nemaha; Tarkio-Wolf; Wood
NV195920225Lake Mead; Lake Tahoe; Las Vegas Wash; Pyramid-Winnemucca Lakes; Truckee
NH200720221Merrimack River
NJ196320147Cohansey-Maurice; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Delaware; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Raritan; Sandy Hook-Staten Island
NM1964201210Caballo; Delaware; El Paso-Las Cruces; Elephant Butte Reservoir; Pecos Headwaters; Rio Grande-Albuquerque; Upper Canadian; Upper Canadian-Ute Reservoir; Upper Pecos; Upper Pecos-Black
NY1977202020Bronx; Chenango; Conewango; Hackensack-Passaic; Hudson-Hoosic; Hudson-Wappinger; Irondequoit-Ninemile; Lake Champlain; Lake Erie; Middle Hudson; Mohawk; Niagara River; Northern Long Island; Oak Orchard-Twelvemile; Owego-Wappasening; Sandy Hook-Staten Island; Seneca; Southern Long Island; Tioga; Upper Susquehanna
NC1969202045Albemarle; Black; Blackwater; Chowan; Contentnea; Deep; Fishing; Haw; Hiwassee; Lower Cape Fear; Lower Catawba; Lower Dan; Lower Little Tennessee; Lower Neuse; Lower Pee Dee; Lower Roanoke; Lower Tar; Lower Yadkin; Lumber; Meherrin; Middle Neuse; Middle Roanoke; New River; Nolichucky; Northeast Cape Fear; Pamlico; Pigeon; Roanoke Rapids; Rocky; South Fork Catawba; South Yadkin; Tuckasegee; Upper Broad; Upper Cape Fear; Upper Catawba; Upper Dan; Upper French Broad; Upper Little Tennessee; Upper Neuse; Upper New; Upper Pee Dee; Upper Tar; Upper Yadkin; Waccamaw; Watauga, North Carolina, Tennessee
OH1962202229Cedar-Portage; Cuyahoga; Hocking; Lake Erie; Licking; Little Miami; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Great Miami, Indiana, Ohio; Lower Maumee; Lower Scioto; Mahoning; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Mohican; Muskingum; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Paint; Raccoon-Symmes; Sandusky; St. Joseph; Tuscarawas; Upper Great Miami, Indiana, Ohio; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; Upper Scioto; Walhonding; Whitewater; Wills
OK1969202042Bird; Black Bear-Red Rock; Blue; Bois D'arc-Island; Cache; Caney; Chikaskia; Clear Boggy; Deep Fork; Dirty-Greenleaf; Illinois; Kaw Lake; Kiamichi; Lake O' The Cherokees; Lake Texoma; Little; Lower Beaver; Lower Canadian; Lower Canadian-Deer; Lower Canadian-Walnut; Lower Cimarron; Lower Cimarron-Eagle Chief; Lower Cimarron-Skeleton; Lower Little Arkansas, Oklahoma; Lower Neosho; Lower North Canadian; Lower North Fork Red; Lower Verdigris; Lower Washita; Lower Wolf; Middle Neosho; Middle North Canadian; Middle Verdigris; Middle Washita; Mountain Fork; Muddy Boggy; Northern Beaver; Polecat-Snake; Poteau; Robert S. Kerr Reservoir; Upper Little; Upper Washita
OR1943202325Beaver-South Fork; Brownlee Reservoir; Clackamas; Coast Fork Willamette; Coos; Coquille; Jordan; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower John Day; Lower Rogue; Lower Willamette; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Molalla-Pudding; North Umpqua; Siltcoos; Siuslaw; South Umpqua; Sprague; Umpqua; Upper Deschutes; Upper John Day; Upper Willamette
PA1972202441Bald Eagle; Beaver; Brandywine-Christina; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Conemaugh; Connoquenessing; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; French; Kiskiminetas; Lake Erie; Lehigh; Lower Allegheny; Lower Delaware; Lower Juniata; Lower Monongahela; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna-Penns; Lower Susquehanna-Swatara; Lower West Branch Susquehanna; Mahoning; Middle Allegheny-Redbank; Middle Allegheny-Tionesta; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Middle West Branch Susquehanna; Owego-Wappasening; Pine; Raystown; Schuylkill; Shenango; Sinnemahoning; Tioga; Upper Allegheny; Upper Juniata; Upper Monongahela; Upper Ohio; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock; Upper West Branch Susquehanna; Youghiogheny
PR199820113Cibuco-Guajataca; Eastern Puerto Rico; Southern Puerto Rico
RI199920144Blackstone River; Narragansett; Pawcatuck River; Point Judith-Block Island
SC1968201929Black; Carolina Coastal-Sampit; Congaree; Cooper; Edisto River; Enoree; Lake Marion; Little Pee Dee; Lower Broad; Lower Catawba; Lower Pee Dee; Lower Savannah; Lumber; Lynches; Middle Savannah; North Fork Edisto; Salkehatchie; Saluda; Santee; Seneca; South Fork Edisto; Stevens; Tugaloo; Tyger; Upper Broad; Upper Catawba; Upper Savannah; Waccamaw; Wateree
SD200420183Angostura Reservoir; Fort Randall Reservoir; Lewis and Clark Lake
TN1959201941Barren; Buffalo; Caney; Collins; Conasauga; Emory; Guntersville Lake; Harpeth; Hiwassee; Holston; Kentucky Lake; Lower Clinch; Lower Cumberland; Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake; Lower Cumberland-Sycamore; Lower Duck; Lower Elk; Lower French Broad; Lower Hatchie; Lower Little Tennessee; Lower Mississippi-Memphis; Lower Tennessee-Beech; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Nolichucky; North Fork Holston; Obey; Ocoee; Pickwick Lake; Pigeon; Powell; Red; Sequatchie; South Fork Cumberland; South Fork Holston; Stones; Upper Clinch, Tennessee, Virginia; Upper Duck; Upper Elk; Watauga, North Carolina, Tennessee; Watts Bar Lake; Wolf
TX19582012126Amistad Reservoir; Aransas Bay; Atascosa; Austin-Oyster; Austin-Travis Lakes; Big Bend; Black Hills-Fresno; Bois D'arc-Island; Bosque; Brady; Buchanan-Lyndon B. Johnson Lakes; Buffalo-San Jacinto; Caddo Lake; Cedar; Chambers; Cibolo; Cibolo-Red Light; Colorado Headwaters; Concho; Denton; Double Mountain Fork Brazos; East Fork San Jacinto; East Fork Trinity; East Galveston Bay; East Matagorda Bay; East Matagorda Bay; East San Antonio Bay; El Paso-Las Cruces; Elm Fork Trinity; Elm-Sycamore; Hondo; Hubbard; International Falcon Reservoir; Jim Ned; Lake Fork; Lake Meredith; Lake O'the Pines; Lake Texoma; Lampasas; Lavaca; Leon; Little; Little Cypress; Little Wichita; Llano; Los Olmos; Lower Angelina; Lower Brazos; Lower Brazos-Little Brazos; Lower Clear Fork Brazos; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado-Cummins; Lower Devils; Lower Frio; Lower Guadalupe; Lower Neches; Lower Nueces; Lower Pecos; Lower Pecos-Red Bluff Reservoir; Lower Prairie Dog Town Fork Red; Lower Rio Grande; Lower Sabine; Lower San Antonio; Lower Sulpher; Lower Trinity; Lower Trinity-Kickapoo; Lower Trinity-Tehuacana; Lower West Fork Trinity; Medina; Middle Brazos-Lake Whitney; Middle Brazos-Palo Pinto; Middle Colorado; Middle Colorado-Elm; Middle Guadalupe; Middle Neches; Middle Nueces; Middle Sabine; Navasota; Navidad; North Bosque; North Concho; North Llano; Paint; Pease; Pecan Bayou; Pecan-Waterhole; Pedernales; Pine Island Bayou; Reagan-Sanderson; Rio Grande Region; Rio Grande-Fort Quitman; Sabine Lake; San Ambrosia-Santa Isabel; San Fernando; San Gabriel; San Marcos; San Miguel; San Saba; South Concho; South Corpus Christi Bay; South Laguna Madre; South Llano; Spring; Sulphur Headwaters; Terlingua; Toledo Bend Reservoir; Toyah; Upper Angelina; Upper Clear Fork Brazos; Upper Colorado; Upper Devils; Upper Guadalupe; Upper Neches; Upper Nueces; Upper Sabine; Upper Salt Fork Red; Upper San Antonio; Upper Trinity; Upper West Fork Trinity; Village; West Fork San Jacinto; West Galveston Bay; West Matagorda Bay; White; Wichita; Yegua
UT1978201812Escalante; Jordan; Little Bear-Logan; Lower Bear-Malad; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Sevier; Lower Virgin; Lower Weber; Middle Sevier; Upper Lake Powell; Upper Virgin; Utah Lake
VT201620161Mettawee River
VA1971202338Appomattox; Banister; Blackwater; Chowan; Conococheague-Opequon; Great Wicomico-Piankatank; Hampton Roads; Lower Dan; Lower James; Lower Potomac; Lower Rappahannock; Mattaponi; Maury; Meherrin; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle James-Willis; Middle New; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Middle Roanoke; North Fork Holston; North Fork Shenandoah; Nottoway; Pamunkey; Powell; Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock; Rivanna; Roanoke Rapids; Shenandoah; South Fork Holston; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Clinch, Tennessee, Virginia; Upper Dan; Upper James; Upper Levisa; Upper New; Upper Roanoke; York
WA1937202247Banks Lake; Chief Joseph; Colville; Crescent-Hoko; Deschutes; Dungeness-Elwha; Duwamish; Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake; Hoh-Quillayute; Hood Canal; Kettle; Lake Chelan; Lake Washington; Lewis; Lower Chehalis; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Columbia-Sandy; Lower Cowlitz; Lower Crab; Lower Skagit; Lower Snake; Lower Snake-Asotin; Lower Snake-Tucannon; Lower Spokane; Lower Yakima; Middle Columbia-Hood; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Naches; Nisqually; Nooksack; Okanogan; Palouse; Pend Oreille; Puget Sound; Puyallup; Snohomish; Stillaguamish; Strait of Georgia; Upper Chehalis; Upper Columbia-Entiat; Upper Columbia-Priest Rapids; Upper Skagit; Upper Spokane; Walla Walla; Wenatchee; Willapa Bay
WV1963201724Cacapon-Town; Cheat; Conococheague-Opequon; Elk; Gauley; Greenbrier; Little Kanawha; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Lower Guyandotte; Lower Kanawha; Lower Monongahela; Lower New; Middle New; North Branch Potomac; Raccoon-Symmes; Shenandoah; South Branch Potomac; Twelvepole; Upper Kanawha; Upper Monongahela; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; West Fork
WI1977201913Coon-Yellow; Des Plaines; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Lake Michigan; Lower Fox; Lower St. Croix; Middle Rock; Milwaukee; Rush-Vermillion; St. Louis; Upper Fox; Upper Rock; Wolf
WY201120226Glendo Reservoir; Horse; Lower Laramie; Middle North Platte-Scotts Bluff; Upper Belle Fourche; Upper Laramie

Table last updated 7/13/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: Corbicula fluminea is a highly plastic and tolerant bivalve capable of surviving in a variety of habitats and environmental conditions. It prefers shallow waters (<3 m deep) of rivers and lakes but is also found in waters ~10 m deep (Mattice and Dye 1975, Patrick et al. 2017). It inhabits sandy or fine gravel substrate and individuals commonly bury themselves in sediment (Paganelli et al. 2018, McDowell and Byers 2019). Temperature is one of the leading factors in the distribution of C. fluminea. Corbicula fluminea can tolerate a wide range of temperatures, but are prone to mass mortality in events of prolonged extreme heat and cold. In both simulated and natural heat waves where water temperatures reach >34?, nearly entire populations of C. fluminea can die off (McDowell et al. 2017). Similarly, near freezing temperatures (<5?) also can lead to mass mortality (Basen et al. 2016). In regions where freezing temperatures are common, C. fluminea typically is found in artificially heated waters such as where cooling water from power plants are released. These regions can act as thermal refugia for C. fluminea to survive winter and act as a steppingstone for future spread (Castenada et al. 2018, Penk and Williams 2019). Notably, the phenotypic plasticity and genotypic adaptations of C. fluminea are allowing it to push the known boundaries of its thermal tolerances. A population living in the cooling waters of a power plant in North Carolina were found to survive in water reaching 38? (Falfushynska et al. 2016). Similarly, populations that have invaded the northern altitudes of eastern North America had nearly double the survivorship (55% vs 26.7%) exhibited by southern populations when exposed to 1? temperatures for 8 weeks (Cvetanovska et al. 2021). Corbicula fluminea lives in fresh and brackish water (0–20 ppt) (Ferreira-Rodríguez and Pardo 2016), with survivorship decreasing as salinity approaches 30 ppt (Crespo et al. 2017). Its salt tolerance makes it likely to survive transport in ship ballast (Coldsnow and Relyea 2018). As a bivalve with a large shell, C. fluminea is reliant on the concentration of calcium in the water. Calcium concentrations <12 mg/L may limit the establishment of C. fluminea (Bollens et al. 2021) as low calcium concentrations increase oxidative stress (Ferreira-Rodríguez et al. 2017).

This species is a filter feeder that removes particles from the water column, including diatoms, flagellates, cyanobacteria, and other microplankton. Using its pedal, or foot, it can also feed on soil microbes and periphyton (Bolam et al. 2019). Corbicula fluminea is consumed by fish, birds, mammals, crustaceans, and turtles but its thick wide shell makes it less palatable than other unionids (Castro et al. 2018a, Castro et al. 2018b, Bradshaw-Wilson et al. 2019, Sterrett et al. 2020).

Corbicula fluminea is a functional hermaphrodite, and incubates its larvae in gill chambers when waters are >15?. It can also reproduce by self-fertilization at different ploidy levels, and is capable of androgenesis, a type of male quasi-sexual reproduction (Hsu et al. 2020). The reproduction of C. flumina is very plastic, and it can respond to the onset of ideal environmental conditions by having multiple consecutive spawning events (Cao et al. 2017). The high reproductive potential of this species has garnered estimates that it only takes one individual to start a new population. Corbicula fluminea can live for around 6 years (Li et al. 2017).

Factors that may affect population density and distribution of Asian clams include excessively high or low temperatures, salinity, drying, low pH, silt, hypoxia, pollution, bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, inter- and intraspecific competition, predators, and genetic changes (Evans et al. 1979, Sickel 1986). Corbicula fluminea has been found in the stomachs of black buffalo (Ictiobus niger) (Minckley 1973); carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), yellow bullhead (Ameiurus natalis), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), Mozambique tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) (Minckley 1982); blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) (M. Moser pers. comm. 1996; Gatlin et al. 2013); and spotted catfish (Ameiurus serracanthus) (A. Foster pers. comm. 1996). Other predators of Corbicula include birds, raccoons, crayfish, and flatworms (Sickel 1986). Densities of C. fluminea have also been documented to occur by the thousands per square meter, often dominating the benthic community (Sickel 1986).

Means of Introduction: The first collection of C. fluminea in the United States occurred in 1938 along the banks of the Columbia River near Knappton, Washington (Counts 1986). Since this first introduction, it is now found in 47 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Corbicula fluminea was thought to enter the United States as a food item used by Chinese immigrants (Hanna 1966) but there is no direct evidence of that. Alternatively, it may have come in with the importation of the Giant Pacific oyster also from Asia. The mechanism for dispersal within North America is unknown. It is known mostly as a biofouler of many electrical and nuclear power plants across the country. As water is drawn from rivers, streams, and reservoirs for cooling purposes so are Corbicula larvae. Once inside the plant, this clam can clog condenser tubes, raw service water pipes, and firefighting equipment. Economic problems can result from the decreased efficiency of energy generation. Warm water effluents at these power plants make a hospitable environment for stabilizing populations. With humans demonstrated to be the primary agent of dispersal, no large-scale geographic features function as dispersal barriers (Counts 1986; Isom 1986). Current methods of introduction include bait bucket introductions (Counts 1986), accidental introductions associated with imported aquaculture species (Counts 1986), and intentional introductions by people who buy them as a food item in markets (Devick 1991). The only other significant dispersal agent is thought to be passive movement via water currents (Isom 1986); fish and birds are not considered to be significant distribution vectors (Counts 1986; Isom 1986). Migrating blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) had shown the potential to pass live adults through their gut when the clam was consumed and digested in cooler water (<21.1?) (Gatlin et al. 2013).

Status: Corbicula fluminea is established in river networks across many states as well as in Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior (USEPA 2008).

Impact of Introduction:
Summary of species impacts derived from literature review. Click on an icon to find out more...

EcologicalEconomicHuman HealthOther


Environmental: The most prominent effect of the introduction of the Asian clam into the United States has been biofouling, especially of complex power plant and industrial water systems (Isom et al. 1986; Williams and McMahon 1986). It has also been documented to cause problems in irrigation canals and pipes (Prokopovich and Hebert 1965; Devick 1991) and drinking water supplies (Smith et al. 1979). It also alters benthic substrates (Sickel 1986), and competes with native species for limited resources (Devick 1991).

Economic: In the USA, C. fluminea has caused millions of dollars worth of damage to intake pipes used in the power and water industries. Large numbers, either dead or alive, clog water intake pipes and the cost of removing them is estimated at about a billion US dollars each year (Anon., 2005). Juvenile C. fluminea get carried by water currents into condensers of electrical generating facilities where they attach themselves to the walls via byssus threads, growing and ultimately obstructing the flow of water. Several nuclear reactors have had to be closed down temporarily in the USA for the removal of Corbicula from the cooling systems (Isom, 1986). In Ohio and Tennessee where river beds are dredged for sand and gravel for use as aggregation material in cement, the high densities of C. fluminea have incorporated themselves in the cement, burrowing to the surface as the cement starts to set, weakening the structure (Sinclair and Isom, 1961). Isom (1986) has reviewed the invasion of C. fluminea of the Americas and the biofouling of its waters and industries.

Ecological: C. fluminea is consumed mainly by fish and crayfish. An account of the different species which prey on C. fluminea in the USA is given by McMahon (1983). Garcia and Protogino (2005) describe the diet of some native fishes from Argentina (Rio de la Plata) previously not known to feed on C. fluminea. Their results indicate that several local fish species have modified their diet to feed on invasive molluscan species such as C. fluminea. A study of sections of a New Hampshire River pre and post-invasion showed that C. fluminea did not have any impact on local invertebrate denisty or biodiverity (Richardson 2020).

Remarks: Factors that may affect population density and distribution of Asian clams include excessively high or low temperatures, salinity, drying, low pH, silt, hypoxia, pollution, bacterial, viral and parasitic infections, inter- and intraspecific competition, predators, and genetic changes (Evans et al. 1979, Sickel 1986). This clam has been found in the stomachs of black buffalo - Ictiobus niger (Minckley 1973); carp - Cyprinus carpio, channel catfish - Ictalurus punctatus, yellow bullhead - Ameiurus natalis, redear sunfish - Lepomis microlophus, largemouth bass - Micropterus salmoides, Mozambique tilapia - Tilapia mossambica (Minckley 1982); blue catfish - Ictalurus furcatus (M. Moser pers. comm. 1996; Gatlin et al. 2013); and spotted catfish - Ameiurus serracanthus (A. Foster pers. comm. 1996). Other predators of Corbicula include birds, raccoons, crayfish, and flatworms (Sickel 1986). Densities of C. fluminea have also been documented to occur by the thousands per square meter, often dominating the benthic community (Sickel 1986).

Though there is considerable morphological variation in C. fluminea, one study showed that it is possible to identify genotypes in populations based on internal shell color (Hsu et al. 2020).

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Author: Benson, A., Foster, A.M., Fuller, P., Constant, S., Raikow, D., Larson, J., Fusaro, A., and A. Bartos.

Revision Date: 6/24/2024

Citation Information:
Benson, A., Foster, A.M., Fuller, P., Constant, S., Raikow, D., Larson, J., Fusaro, A., and A. Bartos., 2024, Corbicula fluminea (O. F. Müller, 1774): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=92, Revision Date: 6/24/2024, Access Date: 7/14/2024

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