The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Salmo letnica
Salmo letnica
(Ohrid trout)
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Salmo letnica (Karaman, 1924)

Common name: Ohrid trout

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Stefanovic (1966), Kottelat and Freyhof (2007).

Size: Not reported.

Native Range: The Ohrid trout is native to Ohrid Lake located in the Republic of Macedonia in Europe (formerly Yugoslavia) (Robins et al. 1991b).

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Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Salmo letnica are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Colorado196919693Arkansas Headwaters; Cache La Poudre; Lower Dolores
Minnesota1965200820Baptism-Brule; Beaver-Lester; Big Fork; Cloquet; Crow; Crow Wing; Eastern Wild Rice; Kettle; Leech Lake; Little Fork; Long Prairie; Lower Minnesota; Lower St. Croix; Mississippi Headwaters; Otter Tail; Pine; Platte-Spunk; Prairie-Willow; Rainy Headwaters; St. Louis
Tennessee197119972South Fork Holston; Watauga
Wyoming196520115Blacks Fork; Middle North Platte-Casper; North Platte; Nowood; Pathfinder-Seminoe Reservoirs

Table last updated 5/25/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.

* HUCs are not listed for states where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. state centroids or Canadian provinces).

Means of Introduction: The Ohrid trout was brought into the United States by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and shipped to a federal hatchery in Iowa and a state hatchery in Minnesota (Courtenay and Hensley 1979a). In 1965, eggs from Yugoslavia were hatched in the United States; young fish were released into several small lakes in northern Minnesota in 1968 and 1969 (Stroud 1969). Ohrid trout have been stocked in Tennessee since 1971 (Etnier and Starnes 1993). The species was first stocked in Colorado in 1969 (Wiltzius 1985).

Status: Introductions into most of these states failed. Repeatedly stocked in Tennessee with no evidence of reproduction yet (Etnier and Starnes 1993). Courtenay and Hensley (1979a) report that even though there has been no reproduction, spawning has been observed in Tennessee.

Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.

Remarks: A state record-sized fish was taken from the North Platte River in Wyoming in 1986 (Wyoming Game and Fish, Fish Division 1997).

References: (click for full references)

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and D.A. Hensley. 1979. Survey of introduced non-native fishes. Phase I Report. Introduced exotic fishes in North America: status 1979. Report Submitted to National Fishery Research Laboratory, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Gainesville, FL.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.P. Jennings, and J.D. Williams. 1991. Appendix 2: exotic fishes. 97-107 in Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada, 5th edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 20. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tenneessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Hubert, W. 1994. Exotic fish. 158-174 in T.L. Parrish, and S.H. Anderson, eds. Exotic species manual. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

Kottelat, M., and J. Freyhof. 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Publications Kottelat, Cornol, Switzerland.

MacCrimmon, H.R. and J.S. Campbell. 1969. World distribution of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Journal of the Fisheries Reserearch Board of Canada. 26:1699-1725.

Radonski, G.C., N.S. Prosser, R.G. Martin, and R.H. Stroud. 1984. Exotic fishes and sport fishing. 313-321 in W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, eds. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada, 5th edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 20. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Stefanovic, D. 1966. Racial and ecological study of the Ohrid salmonids. NOLIT Publishing House, Belgrade, Yugoslavia translated/published for U.S. Department of Interior & National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

Stroud, R. H. 1969. Ohrid trout tests. Sport Fishing Institute Bulletin 210:7-8.

Wiltzius, W.J. 1985. Fish culture and stocking in Colorado, 1872-1978. Division Report 12. Colorado Division of Wildlife.

FishBase Summary

Author: Fuller, P.

Revision Date: 3/30/2012

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., 2018, Salmo letnica (Karaman, 1924): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=925, Revision Date: 3/30/2012, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 11/19/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Page Last Modified: Wednesday, October 24, 2018


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [11/19/2018].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted. For queries involving fish, please contact Pam Fuller. For queries involving invertebrates, contact Amy Benson.