Salmo trutta
Salmo trutta
(Brown Trout)
Fishes
Exotic
Translate this page with Google
Français Deutsch Español Português Russian Italiano Japanese

Copyright Info
Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758

Common name: Brown Trout

Synonyms and Other Names: Salmo fario, S. lacustris; von Behr trout, Loch Leven trout, German brown trout

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Scott and Crossman (1973); Page and Burr (1991); Jenkins and Burkhead (1994).

Size: 103 cm

Native Range: Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia (Page and Burr 1991).

US auto-generated map Legend USGS Logo
Alaska auto-generated map
Alaska
Hawaii auto-generated map
Hawaii
Caribbean auto-generated map
Puerto Rico &
Virgin Islands
Guam auto-generated map
Guam Saipan
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: This trout is documented for nearly every state, including Alabama (Boschung 1992; Mettee et al. 1996); Arizona (Miller and Lowe 1967; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Tyus et al. 1982; Tilmant 1999; Behnke and Benson 1980); Arkansas (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Buchanan 1973; Cross et al. 1986); California (Smith 1896; Shebley 1917; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Moyle and Daniels 1982; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993e; Dill and Cordone 1997; Tilmant 1999); Colorado (Bean 1903; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Vanicek et al. 1970; Everhart and Seaman 1971; Tyus et al. 1982; Wiltzius 1985; Propst and Carlson 1986; Walker 1993; Rasmussen 1998; Tilmant 1999; Behnke and Benson 1980); Connecticut (Webster 1942; Behnke and Wetzel 1960; Whitworth et al. 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Schmidt 1986; Whitworth 1996); Delaware (MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Raasch and Altemus 1991; Rohde et al. 1994); Florida (MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Courtenay et al. 1984); Georgia (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Dahlberg and Scott 1971a, 1971b; Yerger 1977; Mettee et al. 1996; Burkhead et al. 1997; Stripling 2001); Hawaii (Brock 1960; MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Maciolek 1984); Idaho (Smith 1896; Linder 1963; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Simpson and Wallace 1978; Idaho Fish and Game 1996); Illinois (Smith 1965; MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Smith 1979; Emery 1985; Underhill 1986; Burr 1991); Indiana (MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Nelson and Gerking 1968; Emery 1985; Underhill 1986; Simon et al. 1992; Tilmant 1999); Iowa (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Burr and Page 1986; Harlan et al. 1987); Kansas (MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Cross et al. 1986; Cross and Collins 1995); Kentucky (Clay 1962; MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Clay 1975; Burr 1980; Burr and Page 1986; Burr and Warren 1986; Hocutt et al. 1986; Powers and Ceas 2000); Maine (Kendall 1914a; Everhart 1950; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Everhart 1976; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Schmidt 1986; Tilmant 1999); Maryland (Bean 1903; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lee et al. 1976; Pritchard et al. 1976; Lee et al. 1981; Rohde et al. 1994; Tilmant 1999); Massachusetts (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Hartel 1992; Cardoza et al. 1993; Hartel et al. 1996; Tilmant 1999; USFWS 2005); Michigan (Bean 1903; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Emery 1985; Underhill 1986; Tilmant 1999; Cudmore-Vokey and Crossman 2000; Courtenay et al 1983); Minnesota (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Eddy and Underhill 1974; Phillips et al. 1982; Emery 1985; Burr and Page 1986; Underhill 1986; Ruetz 2003); Missouri (MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Pflieger 1971, 1975, 1997; Cross et al. 1986; Rasmussen 1998); Montana (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Cross et al. 1986; Holton 1990; Tilmant 1999; USFWS 2005); Nebraska (Bean 1903; Jones 1963; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Morris et al. 1974; Cross et al. 1986; Tilmant 1999); Nevada (Miller and Alcorn 1946; La Rivers 1962; Bradley and Deacon 1967; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Deacon and Williams 1984; Tilmant 1999; Insider Viewpoint 2001; USFWS 2005; Vinyard 2001); New Hampshire (Hoover 1936; Bailey and Oliver 1939; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Scarola 1973); New Jersey (Fowler 1952; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Tilmant 1999); New Mexico (Koster 1957; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Tyus et al. 1982; Sublette et al. 1990); New York (Bean 1903; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Werner 1980; Emery 1985; Smith 1985; Schmidt 1986; Underhill 1986; Cudmore-Vokey and Crossman 2000; Mills 1993; ); North Carolina (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Hocutt et al. 1986; Menhinick 1991; Rohde et al. 1994); North Dakota (MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Cross et al. 1986; North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1994, 1997); Ohio (MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Trautman 1981; Emery 1985; Burr and Page 1986; Underhill 1986); Oklahoma (Hall 1956; MacCrimmon and Marshall 1968; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Cross et al. 1986; Pigg, personal communication); Oregon (Chapman 1942; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1993e; Bond 1994; State of Oregon 2000); Pennsylvania (Bean 1892b, 1903; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Hendricks et al. 1979; Cooper 1983; Emery 1985; Hocutt et al. 1986; Underhill 1986; Sajna 1998; Tilmant 1999; Anonymous 2000; Phillips et al. 2003); Rhode Island (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lapin, personal communication); upper Broad, Saluda, Pee Dee, and Savannah river watersheds in South Carolina (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Dahlberg and Scott 1971a, 1971b; Loyacano 1975; Hocutt et al. 1986; Rohde et al. 1994; Rohde et al. 2009); South Dakota (Bailey and Allum 1962; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Cross et al. 1986; North Dakota Game and Fish Department 1994); Tennessee (Kuhne 1939; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Starnes and Etnier 1986; Etnier and Starnes 1993); Texas (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Howells 1992a; Rasmussen 1998; Texas Parks and Wildlife Department 2001); Utah (Sigler and Miller 1963; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Vanicek et al. 1970; Tyus et al. 1982; Tilmant 1999; Behnke and Benson 1980); Vermont (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.); Virginia (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Hocutt et al. 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Rohde et al. 1994; Powers and Ceas 2000; Starnes et al. 2011); Washington (Chapman 1942; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Wydoski and Whitney 1979; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife 1997; USFWS 2005); West Virginia (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Hocutt et al. 1986; Jenkins and Burkhead 1994; Stauffer et al. 1995); Wisconsin (Bean 1903; MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Emery 1985; Burr and Page 1986; Underhill 1986; Tilmant 1999); and Wyoming (MacCrimmon et al. 1970; Baxter and Simon 1970; Tyus et al. 1982; Hubert 1994; Tilmant 1999; Behnke and Benson 1980). As of 1970, Brown Trout had not been introduced into Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Alaska. Brown Trout have also been introduced in eastern Puerto Rico (Erdsman 1984).

Means of Introduction: The Brown Trout was first imported to the United States in 1883 from Germany and stocked in the Pere Marquette River, Michigan, by the U.S. Fish Commission (Mather 1889; Courtenay et al. 1984). Since then, the species has been stocked in virtually every state. MacCrimmon et al. (1970) gave dates of first stocking in each state. In most regions the species was first stocked in the late 1800s or early 1900s. Texas and Alabama introductions took place after 1970; MacCrimmon et al. (1970) listed no introductions for those states. 

Status: Natural reproduction is low or nonexistent in most states, as such, many states maintain Brown Trout populations by periodic stocking. Rinne (1995) listed this species as established in Arizona, but the species may not be reproducing in open waters; Rinne apparently used the term 'established' for species that maintain long-term populations through continual or periodic stockings. Courtenay et al. (1984) indicated that introductions failed to establish populations in Florida, Kansas, Ohio, and Oklahoma.

Impact of Introduction: Brown Trout have been implicated in reducing native fish populations (especially other salmonids) through predation, displacement, and food competition (Taylor et al. 1984). Many studies have been conducted looking at the effects of Brown Trout on Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis including Nyman (1970), Fausch and White (1981), Waters (1983), Fausch and White (1986), and DeWald and Wilzbach (1992), to name a few. Taylor et al. (1984) list a number of papers citing the effects of Brown Trout on native fishes. Fausch and White (1981) stated adult Brown Trout displaced adult native Brook Trout from the best habitats in a Michigan stream, and in the northeast in general. Brook Trout are also more susceptible to angling and predation. Conversely, juvenile Brook Trout are dominant over juvenile Brown Trout of the same size in an artificial stream (Fausch and White 1986). The competitive advantage of the two species may change with size, age, temperature, stream size, or environmental adaptations of different populations (Fausch and White 1986). Wagner et al. (2013) used two-species occupancy models to examine the distribution of Brown and Brook Trout in Pennsylvania streams, and found that predicted occurrence of Brook Trout was lower in the presence of Brown Trout across a wide range of landscape habitat characteristics. McKenna et al. (2013) used modeling, ordination, and simulations and found that stocking intensity of Brown Trout into Brook Trout habitat was a major factor in Brook Trout abundance, moreso than habitat differences or interspecific interactions. Houde et al. (2015) found that juvenile Brown Trout reduced the survival and growth of juvenile Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) from three populations in artificial stream trials.

Although it rarely occurs, the Brown Trout is one of the few foreign species able to hybridize with natives (e.g., S. fontinalis) (Brown 1966; Taylor et al. 1984). In California, competition and predation from Brown Trout may have contributed to the decline of the Dolly Varden S. malma in the McCloud River (Moyle 1976), and of the Golden Trout Oncorhynchus aguabonita in the Kern River (Krueger and May 1991; Courtenay and Williams 1992). Brown Trout may have also depleted the Modoc Sucker Catostomus microps, an endangered species, in Rush Creek, Modoc County (Moyle and Marciochi 1975). Brown Trout have commonly replaced Cutthroat Trout O. clarkii in large rivers (Behnke 1992). McAffee (1966) specifically lists Lahontan cutthroats O. c. henshawi as being replaced by Brown Trout. Introduced Brown Trout, and other trout species, were likely responsible for the near-extinction of Lahontan cutthroat in Lake Tahoe in the 1940s (McAffee 1966). Because of their predatory nature, Brown Trout were introduced into Flaming Gorge Reservoir to reduce populations of the Utah Chub Gila atraria (Teuscher and Luecke 1996).  Competition with and predation by nonnative species (i.e., Catostomus sp., Creek Chub Semotilus atromaculatus, Redside Shiner Richardsonius balteatus, Burbot Lota lota, Brown Trout Salmo trutta, and Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush) limit populations of the rare Bluehead Sucker Catostomus discobolus (Wyoming Game and Fish Department 2010). Brown Trout occupy similar habitat types as, and predate upon, Roundtail Chub Gila robusta (a species of conservation concern) in Wyoming lakes (Laske et al. 2012). Nonnative predators, including Brown Trout, have been shown to reduce the abundance and diversity of native prey species in several Pacific Northwest rivers (Hughes and Herlihy 2012).

Remarks: The state of California has attempted to eradicate Brown Trout in some areas in order to preserve native Golden Trout O. aguabonita (Taylor et al. 1984; Moyle, personal communication). Tyus et al. (1982) mapped the distribution of the Brown Trout in the upper Colorado basin. MacCrimmon and Marshall (1968) and MacCrimmon et al. (1970) summarized information on worldwide distribution and introductions. 

References: (click for full references)

Álvarez, D., and E. Garcia-Vasquez. 2011. Maintenance of asymmetric hybridization between Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) via postzygotic barriers and paternal effects. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68(4):593-602.

Anonymous. 2000. Northwestern Pa. waters. James's Northeastern Fishing Guide.

Bailey, J.R., and J.A. Oliver. 1939. The Fishes of the Connecticut watershed. Pages 150-189 in H.E. Warfel, ed.. Biological survey of the Connecticut watershed. Survey Report No. 4. New Hampshire Fish and Game Commission, Concord, NH.

Bailey, R.M., and M.O. Allum. 1962. Fishes of South Dakota. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 119:1-131.

Baxter, G.T., and J.R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department Bulletin 4, Cheyenne, WY.

Bean, T.H. 1892b. The fishes of Pennsylvania, with descriptions of the species and notes on their common names, distribution, habits, reproduction, rate of growth and mode of capture. Report of the State Commissioners of Fisheries for the years 1889-90-91. Edwin K. Meyers, State Printer, Harrisburg, PA.

Bean, T.H. 1903. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. New York State Museum Bulletin 60, Zoology 9. University of the State of New York Bulletin 278.

Behnke, R.J., and R.M. Wetzel. 1960. A preliminary list of the fishes found in the fresh waters of Connecticut. Copeia 1960(2):141-143.

Behnke, R.J. 1992. Native trout of western North America. American Fisheries Society Monograph 6. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Bence, J.R., and K.D. Smith. 1999. An overview of recreational fisheries of the Great Lakes. Pages 259-306 in Taylor, W.W., and C.P. Ferreri, eds. Great Lakes fisheries policy and management: a binational perspective. Michigan State University Press. East Lansing, MI.

Bond, C.E. 1994. Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. Oregon State University Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis. 58:1-42, revised.

Boogaard, M.A., T.D. Bills, and D.A. Johnson. 2003. Acute toxicity of TFM and a TFM/niclosamide mixture to selected species of fish, including lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) and Mudpuppies (Necturus maculosus), in Laboratory and Field Exposures. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29(Supplement 1):529-541.

Boschung, H.T. 1992. Catalogue of freshwater and marine fishes of Alabama. Alabama Museum of Natural History Bulletin 14:1-266.

Bradley, W.G., and J.E. Deacon. 1967. The biotic communities of southern Nevada. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers No. 13, Part 4. 201-273.

Brock, V.E. 1960. The introduction of aquatic animals into Hawaiian waters. Internationale Revue der gesamten Hydrobiologie 45(4):463-480.

Brown, C.J.D. 1966. Natural hybrids of Salmo trutta and Salvelinus fontinalis. Copeia 1966(3):600-601.

Brown, C.J.D., and A.C. Fox. 1966. Mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) in a Montana pond. Copeia 1966(3):614-616.

Buchanan, T.M. 1973. Key to the fishes of Arkansas. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, AR.

Burkhead, N.M., S.J. Walsh, B.J. Freeman, and J.D. Williams. 1997. Status and restoration of the Etowah River, an imperiled southern Appalachian ecosystem. Pages 375-444 in Benz, G.W., and D.E. Collins, eds. Aquatic fauna in peril: the southeastern perspective. Southeast Aquatic Research Institute, Lenz Design & Communications. Decatur, GA.

Burr, B.M. 1980. A distributional atlas of the fishes of Kentuky. Brimleyana 3:53-84.

Burr, B.M., and M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Scientific and Technical Series No. 4. Kentucky State Nature Preserves Commission, Frankfort, KY.

Burr, B.M. 1991. The fishes of Illinois: an overview of a dynamic fauna. Proceedings of our living heritage symposium. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 34(4):417-427.

Burr, B.M., and L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. Pages 287-324 in Hocutt, C.H., and E.O. Wiley, eds. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Cardoza, J.E., G.S. Jones, T.W. French, and D.B. Halliwell. 1993. Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts, 2nd edition. Fauna of Massachusetts Series 6. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Publication 17223-110-200-11/93-C.R, Westborough, MA.

Chapman, W.M. 1942. Alien fishes in the waters of the Pacific northwest. California Fish and Game 28:9-15.

Clay, W.M. 1962. Aquatic-life resources of the Ohio River. Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, Cincinnati, OH.

Clay, W.M. 1975. The fishes of Kentucky. Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Frankfort, KY.

Clearwater, S.J., C.W. Hickey, and M.L. Martin. 2008. Overview of potential piscicides and molluscicides for controlling aquatic pest species in New Zealand. Science & Technical Publishing, New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Cooper, E.L. 1983. Fishes of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, PA.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Hensley, J.N. Taylor, and J.A. McCann. 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States. Pages 41-77 in Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.D. Williams. 1992. Dispersal of exotic species from aquaculture sources, with emphasis on freshwater fishes. Pages 49-81 in Rosenfield, A., and R. Mann, eds. Dispersal of living organisms into aquatic ecosystems. Maryland Sea Grant Publication, College Park, MD.

Cross, F.B., R.L. Mayden, and J.D. Stewart. 1986. Fishes in the western Mississippi drainage. Pages 363-412 in Hocutt, C.H., and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Cross, F.B., and J.T. Collins. 1995. Fishes in Kansas. University of Kansas Natural History Museum, Lawrence, KS.

Crawford, S.S. 2001. Salmonine introductions to the Laurentian Great Lakes: a historical review and evaluation of ecological effects. Canadian Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 132:1-205.

Cudmore-Vokey, B., and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2500: v + 39 pp.

Dahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott. 1971a. The freshwater fishes of Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:1-64.

Dahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott. 1971b. Introductions of freshwater fishes in Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:245-252.

Deacon, J.E., and J.E. Williams. 1984. Annotated list of the fishes of Nevada. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 97(1):103-118.

DeWald, L., and M.A. Wilzbach. 1992. Interactions between native brook trout and hatchery brown trout: effects on habitat use, feeding, and growth. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 121(3):287-296.

Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. Fish Bulletin 178. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt8p30069f&brand=calisphere

Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley, 3rd edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Emery, L. 1985. Review of fish introduced into the Great Lakes, 1819-1974. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report, volume 45.

Erdsman, D.S. 1984. Exotic fishes in Puerto Rico. Pages 162-176 in Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr, eds. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, MD.

Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The Fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.

Everhart, W.H. 1950. Fishes of Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife. Augusta, ME.

Everhart, W.H. 1976. Fishes of Maine. Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife. Augusta, ME.

Everhart, W.H., and W.R. Seaman. 1971. Fishes of Colorado. Colorado Game, Fish and Parks Division, Denver, CO.

Fausch, K.D., and R.J. White. 1981. Competition between brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) for positions in a Michigan stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 38:1220-1227.

Fausch, K.D., and R.J. White. 1986. Competition among juveniles of coho salmon, brook trout, and brown trout in a laboratory stream, and implications for Great Lakes tributaries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115(3):363-381.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2008. Survey of recreational fishing in Canada: Selected results for the Great Lakes fishery, 2005. Catalogue No. Fs23-522/2005-1E.  Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. Available: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/stats/rec/gl/gl2005/Report-eng.pdf

Fowler, H.W. 1952. A list of the fishes of New Jersey, with off-shore species. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia CIV:89-151.

GLMRIS. 2012. Appendix C: Inventory of Available Controls for Aquatic Nuisance Species of Concern, Chicago Area Waterway System. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.

Grant, G.C. 2002. Spawning interactions between sympatric brown and brook trout may contribute to species replacement. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131(3):569-576.

Hall, G.E. 1956. Additions to the fish fauna of Oklahoma with a summary of introduced species. Southwestern Naturalist 1(1):16-26.

Harlan, J.R., E.B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew. 1987. Iowa fish and fishing. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, Des Moines, IA. 323 pp.

Hartel, K.E. 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Fish Department, Cambridge, MA. 2. September. pp. 1-9.

Hartel, K.E., D.B. Halliwell, and A.E. Launer. 1996. An annotated working list of the inland fishes of Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts, Cambridge, MA (Available from http://www.mcz.harvard.edu/fish/ma_fam.htm. Page accessed March 5, 1998).

Hartley, S.E. 1996. High incidence of Atlantic salmon x brown trout hybrids in a Lake District stream. Journal of Fish Biology 48(1):151-154.

Hendricks, M.L., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., C.H. Hocutt, and C.R. Gilbert. 1979. A preliminary checklist of the fishes of the Youghiogheny River. Chicago Academy of Sciences, Natural History Miscellanea 203:1-15.

Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. Pages 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Holton, G.D. 1990. A Field Guide to Montana Fishes. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. 104 pp.

Hoover, E.E. 1936. Preliminary biological survey of some New Hampshire lakes. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department. Survey Report No. 1. Concord, NH.

Houde, A.L.S., C.C. Wilson, and B.D. Neff. 2015. Effects of competition with four nonnative salmonid species on Atlantic Salmon from three populations. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 144(5):1081-1090. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2015.1064477

Howells, R.G. 1992a. Annotated list of introduced non-native fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants in Texas waters. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Management Data Series 78, Austin, TX. 19 pp.

Hubert, W. 1994. Exotic fish. Pages 158-174 in T. L. Parrish, and S. H. Anderson, editors. Exotic species manual. Wyoming Game and Fish Department, Laramie, WY.

Hughes, R.M. and A.T. Herlihy. 2012. Patterns in catch per unit effort of native prey fish and alien piscivorous fish in 7 Pacific Northwest USA rivers. Fisheries 37(5):201-211.

Idaho Fish and Game. 1996. Fisheries Management Plan 1996-2000. Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

Ikuta, K., Y. Suzuki, and S. Kitamura. 2003. Effects of low pH on the reproductive behavior of salmonid fishes. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 28(1-4):407-410.

Insider Viewpoint. 2001. Fishing Records – Nevada. Insider Viewpoint Magazine. 3 pp.

Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Jones, D.J. 1963. A history of Nebraska's fisheries resources. Dingell-Johnson Federal Aid in Fish Restoration Project F-4-R Publication. Nebraska Game, Forestation and Parks Commission.

Kendall, W.C. 1914. An annotated catalogue of the fishes of Maine. Proceedings of the Portland Society of Natural History 3:1-198.

Kendall, W.C. 1914. The Fishes of New England. The Salmon Family. Part I - the trout or charrs. Memoirs of the Boston Society of Natural History 8(1). 103 pp + plates.

Koster, W.J. 1957. Guide to the Fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Krueger, C.C., and B. May. 1991. Ecological and genetic effects of salmonid introductions in North America. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 48(Suppl. 1):66-77.

Kuhne, E.R. 1939. A Guide to the Fishes of Tennessee and the Mid-South. Tennessee Department of Conservation, Nashville, TN. 124 pp.

Lapin, W.J. - Dept. of Environmental Management, Division of Fish and Wildlife, West Kingson, Rhode Island. Response to USGS/BRD-G nonindigenous questionnaire. 1992.

La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. Nevada State Print Office, Carson City, NV.

Laske, S.M., F.J. Rahel, and W.A. Hubert. 2012. Differential interactions of two introduced piscivorous salmonids with a native cyprinid in lentic systems: implications for conservation of roundtail chub. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 141(2):495-506.

Lee, D.S., A. Norden, C.R. Gilbert, and R. Franz. 1976. A list of the freshwater fishes of Maryland and Delaware. Chesapeake Science 17(3):205-211.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC. (Cited as a work rather than as individual accounts in the interest of space).

Lee, D.S., S.P. Platania, C.R. Gilbert, R. Franz, and A. Norden. 1981. A revised list of the freshwater fishes of Maryland and Delaware. Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings 3(3):1-10.

Linder, A.D. 1963. Idaho's alien fishes. Tebiwa 6(2):12-15.

Ling, N. 2005. Rotenone--a review of its toxicity and use for fisheries management. New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.

Lintermans, M. and T. Raadik. 2003. Local eradication of trout from streams using rotenone: the Australian experience. Pages 95-111 in Managing invasive freshwater fish in New Zealand: Proceedings of a workshop hosted by the Department of Conservation, Hamilton, New Zealand.

Loyacano, H.A., Jr. 1975. A list of freshwater fishes of South Carolina. Bulletin of the South Carolina Experimental Station 580:1-8.

MacCrimmon, H.R., and T.L. Marshall. 1968. World distribution of brown trout, Salmo trutta. Journal Fisheries Research Board Canada 25(12):2527-2548.

MacCrimmon, H.R., T.L. Marshall, and B.L. Gots. 1970. World distribution of brown trout, Salmo trutta: further observations. Journal Fisheries Research Board Canada 27(4):811-818.

Maciolek, J.A. 1984. Exotic fishes in Hawaii and other islands of Oceania. Pages 131-161 in W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., editors. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Marking, L.L. and T.D. Bills. 1985. Effects of contaminants on toxicity of the lampricides TFM and Bayer 73 to three species of fish. Journal of Great Lakes Research 11(2):171-178.

Mather, F. 1889. Brown trout in America. Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission 7(1887):21-22.

Matthews, M.A., W.R. Poole, C.E. Thompson, J. McKillen, A. Ferguson, K. Hindar, and K.F. Wheelan. 2000. Incidence of hybridization between Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., and brown trout, Salmo trutta L. in Ireland. Fisheries Management and Ecology 7(4):337-347.

McAffee, W.R. 1966. Lahontan cutthroat trout. Pages 225-231 in A. Calhoun, editor. Inland Fisheries Management. California Department of Fish and Game.

McKenna, J.E., Jr., M.T. Slattery, and K.M. Clifford. 2013. Broad-scale patterns of Brook Trout responses to introduced Brown Trout in New York. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 33(6):1221-1235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02755947.2013.830998.

Menhinick, E.F. 1991. The Freshwater Fishes of North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 227 pp.

Mettee, M.F., P.E. O'Neil, and J.M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Inc. Birmingham, AL. 820 pp.

Miller, R.R., and J.R. Alcorn. 1946. The introduced fishes of Nevada, with a history of their introduction. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 73:173-193.

Miller, R.R. and C.H. Lowe. 1967. Part 2. Fishes of Arizona, p 133-151, In: C.H. Lowe, ed. The Vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press. Tucson.

Morris, J., L. Morris, and L. Witt. 1974. The Fishes of Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, NE. 98 pp.

Moyle, P. – University of California, Davis, CA.

Moyle, P.B. 1976. Inland Fishes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Moyle, P.B., and R.A. Daniels. 1982. Fishes of the Pit River System, McCloud River System, and Surprise Valley Region. University of California Publications, Zoology 115:1-82.

Moyle, P.B., and A. Marciochi. 1975. Biology of the Modoc sucker, Catostomus microps (Pisces: Catostomidae) in northeastern California. Copeia 1975(3):556-560.

National Park Service. 2011. Natural Resource Fact Sheet--Exotic Fish Management. National Park Service.

Nelson, J.S., and S.D. Gerking. 1968. Annotated key to the fishes of Indiana. Project 342-303-815. Department of Zoology, Indiana Aquatic Research Unit, Indiana State University, Bloomington, IN.

New York Department of Environmental Conservation (NYDEC). 2011. Fish stocking lists: 2010 lists by county. Bureau of Fisheries, Albany, NY. Available: http://www.dec.ny.gov/outdoor/7739.html

North Dakota Game and Fish Department. 1994. Fishes of the Dakotas. Brochure. North Dakota Game and Fish Department, Bismark, ND.

North Dakota Game and Fish Department. 1997. North Dakotas record fish. (Available from http://www.state.nd.us.gnf.fish.html. Page accessed June 26, 1997.)

Nyman, O.L. 1970. Ecological interaction of brown trout (Salmo trutta) L., and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) (Mitchill), in a stream. Canadian Field-Naturalist 84:343-350.

Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Penaluna, B.E., I. Arismendi, and D. Soto. 2009. Evidence of interactive segregation between introduced trout and native fishes in Northern Patagonian rivers, Chile. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 138:839-845.

Pflieger, W.L. 1971. A distributional study of Missouri fishes. University of Kansas Museum of Natural History 20(3):225-570.

Pflieger, W.L. 1975. The Fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO. 343 pp.

Pflieger, W.L. 1997. The Fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO. 372 pp.

Pham, L., D. West, and G.P. Closs. 2013. Reintroduction of a native galaxiid (Galaxias fasciatus) following piscicide treatment in two streams: response and recovery of the fish population. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 22(3):361-373.

Phillips, G.L., W.D. Schmid, and J.C. Underhill. 1982. Fishes of the Minnesota Region. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Phillips, E.C., M.E. Washek, A.W. Hertel, and B.M. Niebel. 2003. The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in Pennsylvania tributary streams of Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29(1):34-40.

Pigg, J. – State of Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality, Oklahoma City.

Powers, S.L., and P.A. Ceas. 2000. Ichthyofauna and biogeography of Russell Fork (Big Sandy River - Ohio River). Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings. 41: 1-12.

Pritchard, D.L., O.D. May, Jr., and L. Rider. 1976. Stocking of predators in the predator-stocking-evaluation reservoirs. Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners 30(1976):108-113.

Propst, D.L., and C.A. Carlson. 1986. The distribution and status of warmwater fishes in the Platte River drainage, Colorado. Southwestern Naturalist 31(2):149-167.

Raasch, M.S., and V.L. Altemus, Sr. 1991. Delaware's freshwater and brackish water fishes - a popular account. Delaware State College for the Study of Del-Mar-Va Habitats and the Society of Natural History of Delaware. 166 pp.

Rasmussen, J.L. 1998. Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin. 60th Midwest Fish and Wildlife Conference, Aquatic Nuisance Species Symposium, Dec. 7, 1998, Cincinnati, OH.

Rinne, J.N. 1995. The effects of introduced fishes on native fishes: Arizona, southwestern United States. Pages 149-159 in D.P. Philipp, J.M. Epifanio, J.E. Marsden, and J.E. Claussen, editors. Protection of Aquatic Biodiversity. Proceedings of the World Fisheries Congress, Theme 3. Science Publishers Inc., Lebanon, NH.

Rohde, F.C., R.G. Arndt, J.W. Foltz, and J.M. Quattro. 2009. Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC. 430 pp.

Rohde, F.C., R.G. Arndt, D.G. Lindquist, and J.F. Parnell. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of the Carolinas, Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC. 122 pp.

Sajna, M. 1998. Outdoors: El Nino spurs early arrival of peregrines. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.

Scarola, J.F. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of New Hampshire. New Hampshire Fish and Game Department, Division of Inland and Marine Fisheries. 131 pp.

Schmidt, R.E. 1986. Zoogeography of the Northern Appalachians. Pages 137-160 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Scott, W.B., and E.J. Crossman. 1973. Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Fisheries Research Board of Canada, Bulletin 184. Ottawa. 966 pp.

Shebley, W.H. 1917. History of the introduction of food and game fishes into the waters of California. California Fish and Game 3(1):3-10.

Sigler, W.F., and R.R. Miller. 1963. Fishes of Utah. Utah Department of Fish and Game, Salt Lake City, UT. 203 pp.

Simon, T.P., J.O. Whitaker, Jr., J.S. Castrale, and S.A. Minton. 1992. Checklist of the vertebrates of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 101:95-126.

Simpson, J., and R. Wallace. 1978. Fishes of Idaho. University of Idaho Press, Moscow, ID.

Smith, H.M. 1896. A review of the history and results of the attempts to acclimatize fish and other water animals in the Pacific states. Bulletin of the U.S. Fish Commission for 1895, 40:379-472.

Smith, P.W. 1965. A preliminary annotated list of the lampreys and fishes of Illinois. Illinois Natural History Survey, Biological Notes 54. 12 pp.

Smith, P.W. 1979. The Fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.

Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY. 522 pp.

Starnes, W.C. and D.A. Etnier. 1986. Drainage evolution and fish biogeography of the Tennessee and Cumberland rivers drainage realm. Pages 325-362 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

Starnes, W.C., J. Odenkirk, and M.J. Ashton. 2011. Update and analysis of fish occurrences in the lower Potomac River drainage in the vicinity of Plummers Island, Maryland—Contribution XXXI to the natural history of Plummers Island, Maryland. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 124(4):280-309.

State of Oregon. 2000. Warm Water Game Fish Records. 7 pp.

Stauffer, J.R., Jr., J.M. Boltz, and L.R. White. 1995. The Fishes of West Virginia. West Virginia Department of Natural Resources. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. 389 pp.

Stripling, M. 2003. Trout: The jewels of the Chattahoochee. The Natural Georgia Series: The Chattahoochee River. Sherpa Guides. 9 pp. http://www.sherpaguides.com/georgia/chattahoochee/trout/

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The Fishes of New Mexico. New Mexico Department of Game and Fish, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. 393 pp.

Taylor, J.N., W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.A. McCann. 1984. Known impact of exotic fishes in the continental United States. Pages 322-373 in W. R. Courtenay, Jr., and J. R. Stauffer, editors. Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fish. Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, MD.

Teuscher, D., and C. Luecke. 1996. Competition between kokanees and Utah chub in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Utah-Wyoming. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 125(4):505-511.

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. 2001. Fish Records: Water Body - All Tackle. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. April 24, 2001.

Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.

Townsend, C.R. 1996. Invasion biology and ecological impacts of brown trout Salmo trutta in New Zealand. Biological Conservation 78:13-22.

Trautman, M.B. 1957. The Fishes of Ohio. Ohio State University Press, Columbus.

Tyus, H.M., B.D. Burdick, R.A. Valdez, C.M. Haynes, T.A. Lytle, and C.R. Berry. 1982. Fishes of the upper Colorado River basin: distribution, abundance, and status. Pages 12-70 in W.H. Miller, H.M. Tyus, and C.A. Carlson, editors. Fishes of the upper Colorado River system: present and future, Western Division, American Fisheries Society.

Underhill, J.C. 1986. The fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes, the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Newfoundland and Labrador. Pages 105-136 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1993e. Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chamistes brevirostris) sucker recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR. 108 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Region 3 Fisheries Program, and Great Lakes Fishery Commission (USFWS/GLFC). 2010. Great Lakes Fish Stocking database. Available: http://www.glfc.org/fishstocking/index.htm

Vanicek, C.D., R.H. Kramer, and D.R. Franklin. 1970. Distribution of Green River fishes in Utah and Colorado following closure of Flaming Gorge Dam. The Southwestern Naturalist 14(3):297-315.

Wagner, T., J.T. Deweber, J. Detar, and J.A. Sweka. 2013. Landscape-scale evaluation of asymmetric interactions between Brown Trout and Brook Trout using two-species occupancy models. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 142(2):353-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00028487.2012.734892

Walker, P. 1993. A list of the endemic and introduced fishes of Colorado - March, 1993. Colorado Division of Wildlife, Aquatic Resources Unit. Unpublished manuscript. 16 pp.

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. 1997. Washington fishing guide: Sportfish of Washington. (Available from http://www.wa.gov/wdfw/outreach/fishing/wfg97/wfgsport.htm. Page updated: May 7, 1997; page accessed October 31, 1997).

Waters, T.F. 1983. Replacement of brook trout by brown trout over 15 years in a Minnesota stream: production and abundance. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112:137-146.

Waters, T.F. 1999. Long-term trout production dynamics in Valley Creek, MN. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128(6):1151-1162.

Webster, D.A. 1942. The life histories of some Connecticut fishes. Pages 122-227 in State Board of Fisheries and Game. A fishery survey of important Connecticut lakes. Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey 63.

Whitworth, W.R., P.L. Berrien, and W.T. Keller. 1968. Freshwater Fishes of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 101.

Whitworth, W.R. 1996. Freshwater Fishes of Connecticut. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut, Bulletin 114.

Wiltzius, W.J. 1985. Fish culture and stocking in Colorado, 1872-1978. Division Report 12. Colorado Division of Wildlife.

Wydoski, R.S., and R.R. Whitney. 1979. Inland Fishes of Washington. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA.

Yerger, R.W. 1977. Fishes of the Apalachicola River. Florida Marine Research Publications 26:22-33.

Young, K.A., J.B. Dunham, J.F. Stephenson, A. Terreau, A.F. Thailly, G. Gajardo, and C.G. de Leaniz. 2010. A trial of two trouts: comparing the impacts of rainbow and brown trout on a native galaxiid. Animal Conservation 13:399-410.

FishBase Fact Sheet

Author: Fuller, P., J. Larson, A. Fusaro, T.H. Makled, and M. Neilson

Revision Date: 1/6/2015

Citation Information:
Fuller, P., J. Larson, A. Fusaro, T.H. Makled, and M. Neilson, 2017, Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=931, Revision Date: 1/6/2015, Access Date: 10/23/2017

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices

Take Pride in America logoU.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
URL: https://nas.er.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Pam Fuller - NAS Program (pfuller@usgs.gov)
Page Last Modified: Thursday, January 26, 2017

Disclaimer:

The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2017]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [10/23/2017].

Additional information for authors