The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Cynoscion xanthulus
Cynoscion xanthulus
(Orangemouth Corvina)
Marine Fishes

Copyright Info
Cynoscion xanthulus Jordan and Gilbert, 1882

Common name: Orangemouth Corvina

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Walker et al. (1961); Howells (1991); Page and Burr (1991).

Size: 90 cm.

Native Range: Marine. Pacific Coast from Gulf of California to Acapulco, Mexico (Page and Burr 1991).

Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences: The Orangemouth Corvina was stocked in the Salton Sea in southern California from 1950 to 1955 (Walker et al. 1961). It was introduced into New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990). The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department transferred orangemouth corvina from the Salton Sea to stock Calaveras and Victor Braunig reservoirs in Bexar County, Texas (Howells 1992; Howells and Garrett 1992; Texas Department of Parks and Wildlife 1993).

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Cynoscion xanthulus are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
CA195019561Salton Sea
TX198119921Upper San Antonio

Table last updated 7/22/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

* HUCs are not listed for states where the observation(s) cannot be approximated to a HUC (e.g. state centroids or Canadian provinces).

Means of Introduction: In California, stockings were carried out by the California Department of Fish and Game, and in Texas by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, for the purpose of introducing a sportfish. Total number of fish introduced into the Salton Sea did not exceed 272 (Walker et al. 1961); the Texas stockings totaled nearly 770,000 fish (Howells and Garrett 1992).

Status: This species was established in the Salton Sea, California, where it was considered an important sportfish (Walker et al. 1961), but became extirpated in 2003 due to increasing salinity (Page et al. 2013; J. Crayon, California Department of Fish and Game, personal communication). There has been no evidence of reproduction in Texas, and existing populations were predicted to disappear (Howells 1991; Howells 1992; Howells and Garrett 1992). It is extirpated in New Mexico (Sublette et al. 1990).

Impact of Introduction: Largely unknown. Texas biologists expressed concern over the potential for establishment of this species in the Gulf of Mexico (Howells and Garrett 1992).

References: (click for full references)

Howells, R.G. 1991. Identification of orangemouth corvina, spotted seatrout and their hybrids. Management Data Series No. 57. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Fisheries Division, Austin, TX.

Howells, R.G. 1992. Annotated list of non-native fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, and aquatic plants, in Texas waters. Management Data Series No. 78. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin, TX.

Howells, R.G., and G.P. Garrett. 1992. Status of some exotic sport fishes in Texas waters. Texas Journal of Science 44(3):317-324.

Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

Page, L.M., H. Espinosa-Pérez, L.T. Findlay, C.R. Gilbert, R.N. Lea, N.E. Mandrak, R.L. Mayden, and J.S. Nelson. 2013. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. 7th edition. American Fisheries Society Special Publicatin 34. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.

Sublette, J.E., M.D. Hatch, and M. Sublette. 1990. The fishes of New Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM.

Walker, B.W., R.R. Whitney, and G.W. Barlow. 1961. Fishes of the Salton Sea. Pages 77-91 in Walker, B.W., ed. The ecology of the Salton Sea, California, in relation to the sportfishery. Fish Bulletin No. 113. California Department of Fish and Game. Sacramento, CA.

Other Resources:
FishBase Summary

Author: Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson

Revision Date: 5/16/2019

Peer Review Date: 3/5/2014

Citation Information:
Pam Fuller, and Matt Neilson, 2024, Cynoscion xanthulus Jordan and Gilbert, 1882: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=952, Revision Date: 5/16/2019, Peer Review Date: 3/5/2014, Access Date: 7/22/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/22/2024].

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