A spiny softshell was collected in Suffolk County, Massachusetts, USA, in 1988 (Cardoza et al., 1993).
In 1982, an A. s. spinifera was collected from a small pond in Fairfax County, Virginia, USA (Ernst et al., 1997; C. Ernst, personal communication 1997).
In New Jersey, USA, A. s. spinifera were collected from Cooper’s Creek, Camden County, in 1902; Kearn’s Lake, Elmer, in the years 1949, 1957, 1959,and 1960, Palatine Lake in 1954, and observed in Rainbow Lake and Willow Grove Lake in 1961, Salem County (Conant, 1961). Conant (1961) indicated that this was evidence they had dispersed via the Maurice River. The eastern spiny softshell is now found throughout the Maurice River System and Raritan River Watershed of New Jersey (Conant and Collins, 1998; Schwartz and Golden, 2002), which includes Cumberland County.
On 13 October 2008, an adult A. spinifera was photographed (photographic voucher UF 153765; MorphoBank M88571) in a pond at 11200 SW 8th Street, Florida International University, Modesto Maidique Campus, Miami, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA (Krysko et al., 2011). On 20 June 2010, an adult A. spinifera was observed but not vouchered (possibly the same individual) at this same Florida pond (Krysko et al., 2011). On 7 October 2010, an adult male and female A. spinifera were observed at this same pond, illustrating the potential for future reproduction and establishment (Krysko et al., 2011). These turtles likely were intentionally released pets (Krysko et al., 2011).
A nonindigenous A. s. pallida was collected in Jersey County, Illinois, USA, on 24 October 2005 (Lamer et al., 2005).
Apalone s. emoryi was probably introduced into the Gila-Colorado River System from New Mexico around 1900 (Miller, 1946; Stebbins, 1985, 2003; Degenhardt et al., 1996; Conant and Collins, 1998). They have since spread throughout this river system from extreme southwestern Utah, eastern Nevada, southwestern New Mexico, and Arizona, to the head of the Gulf of California, Imperial Valley, Imperial Valley County and Riverside County to the Salton Sea, California, and into Mexico (Bury and Luckenbach, 1976; Stebbins, 1972, 1985, 2003; Ernst et al., 1994; Conant and Collins, 1998). In Arizona, nonindigenous records of Texas spiny softshells include individuals collected in the Papago Park Ponds, Maricopa County, and associated waterways of nearby counties (M. Demlong, personal communication 1997; Brennan and Holycross, 2005, 2006), and in the Alamo Lake on Bill Williams River on the border of Mohave and La Paz Counties (Jones, 1988), and further into waterways of surrounding counties (Brennan and Holycross, 2006).
In California, A. s. emoryi have been collected from the San Pablo Reservoir, Contra Costa County, and the San Gabriel River, Los Angeles County (Bury and Luckenbach, 1976; Stebbins, 1985, 2003). Two additional A. s. emoryi from California were collected from Kern County, one in 1989 and another from Bakersfield, no date (D. Holland, personnal communication 1997). Other California records include a Texas spiny softshell collected in 1994 from El Dorado Park, Long Beach, Los Angeles County (D. Holland, personal communication 1997), those found in the Lower Otay Reservoir and San Diego River, San Diego County (Stebbins, 1985), individuals seen or collected in 1999 from Coyote Creek and Vasona Reservoir, Los Gatos Creek (tributary to Guadalupe River), Santa Clara County (J. Abel, personal communication 2001), and individuals observed in the Sacramento River system (counties not listed) by C. Swolgaard (J. Quinn, personal communication 2000).
Apalone s. spinifera has been introduced to Oahu, Hawaii, USA, (Ernst and Lovich, 2009).
Nonindigenous A. s. emoryi have entered Baja California, Mexico, through the Rio California (Stebbins, 2003).
Spiny softshells have been collected in France (Haffner, 1997).
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This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.