Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Apalone spinifera listed in key words.

Results also available in (click to export table to spreadsheet)

REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
887 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
31633 Journal Article Bolton, R. M., and R. J. Brooks. 2010. Impact of the seasonal invasion of Phragmites australis (Common Reed) on turtle reproductive success. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 9(2):238-243.
18963 Journal Article Bradley W.G., and J.E. Deacon. 1966. Amphibians and reptile records for southern Nevada. The Southwestern Naturalist 11(1):132-134.
951 Journal Article Bradley, W.G., and J.E. Deacon. 1967. The biotic communities of southern Nevada. Nevada State Museum Anthropological Papers 13(4):201-273.
36714 Journal Article Braun, A.P., and Q.E. Phelps. 2016. Habitat use by five turtle species in the middle Mississippi River. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 15(1):62-68.
15915 News Brennan, P. 2006. O.C. Turtles Crowded Out. The Orange County Resister. July 14, 2006.
15817 Book Brennan, T.C., and A.T. Holycross. 2006. A Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles in Arizona. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ.
28385 Journal Article Brown, G.J III. 2015. Apalone spinifera (Spiny Softshell Turtle). Herpetological Review 46(4):563.
12121 Journal Article Bury, R.B., and R.A. Luckenbach. 1976. Introduced amphibians and reptiles in California. Biological Conservation 10:1-14.
12176 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
704 Book Cardoza, J.E., G.S. Jones, T.W. French, and D.B. Halliwell. 1993. Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts. Fauna of Massachusetts Series No. 6. 2nd edition. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.
24369 Database Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. 2019. EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system. The University of Georgia, Tifton, GA. Accessed on 01/27/2019.
31609 Web Page Colorado Partners in Amphibian and Reptile Conservation. 2015. Spiny Softshell, Apalone spinifera. Created on 01/27/2015. Accessed on 07/18/2018.
12138 Journal Article Conant, R. 1961. The softshell turtle, Trionyx spinifer, introduced and established in New Jersey. Copeia 1961(3):355-356.
700 Book Conant, R., and J.T. Collins. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America. Volume 12. Houghton Mifflin Co, Boston.
13342 Book Conant, R., and J.T. Collins. 1998. A Field Guide to Reptiles and & Amphibians. Eastern and Central North America. Third Edition, Expanded. Houghton and Mifflin Company, Boston.
18961 Journal Article Cowles, R.B., and C.M. Bogert. 1936. The herpetology of the Boulder Dam region (Nev., Ariz., Utah). Herpetologica 1(2):33-42.
12109 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
13174 Book Ernst, C.H., J.E Lovich, and R.W. Barbour. 1994. Turtles of the United States and Canada. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
12141 Journal Article Ernst, C.H., S.C. Belfit, S.W. Sekscienski, and A.F. Laemmerzahl. 1997. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Ft. Belvoir and Northern Virginia. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Sociey 33(1):1-62.
13772 News Fimrite, P. 2004. Turtles Battle for Marin Turf: Native Western Pond Species is Being Driven out of its Home in Marin Water District Lakes. 2004 (May 17).
18582 Database Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, (Larry Connor). 2009. FWC Exotic database as of 3-31-2009. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
31594 Web Page Franklin, C. J. 2018. Texas Turtles. Accessed on 07/17/2018.
15912 Book Chapter Gessner, J., and E. Stiles. 2001. Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of New Jersey (Turtles). Page 8 pp in New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection; Division of Fish & Wildlife Endangered & Nongame Species Program.
12148 Book Jones, K.B. 1988. Distribution and Habitat Associations of Herpetofauna in Arizona: Comparisons by Habitat Type. In: R.C. Szaro, K.E. Severson, and D.R. Patton (coordinators) Management of Amphibians, Reptiles and Small Mammals in North America. USDA Forest Service.
31635 Journal Article Kopeck√Ĺ, O., L. Kalous, and J. Patoka. 2013. Establishment risk from pet-trade freshwater turtles in the European Union. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 410(2):02p1-02p11.
23803 Journal Article Krysko, K.L., J.P. Burgess, M.R. Rochford, C.R. Gillette, D. Cueva, K.M. Enge, L.A. Somma, J.L. Stabile, D.C. Smith, J.A. Wasilewski, G.N. Kieckhefer, III, M.C. Granatosky, and S.V. Nielsen. 2011. Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida from 1863 through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion pathways and stages. Zootaxa 3028:1-64.
1503 Journal Article Laudenslayer, W.F., Jr., W.E. Grenfell, Jr., and D.C. Zeiner. 1991. A check-list of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of California. California Fish and Game 77(3):109-141.
18906 Journal Article Lindsdale, J.M. 1940. Amphibians and Reptiles in Nevada. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 73(8):197-257.
12179 Journal Article Livo, L.J., G.A. Hammerson, and H.M. Smith. 1998. Summary of Amphibians and Reptiles Introduced into Colorado. Northwestern Naturalist 79(1):1-11.
27545 Report Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. 2013. Walden planning unit including Walden Pond State Reservation: Resource Management Plan. Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, Bonstan, MA.
36359 Journal Article McAllister, C. T., and H.W. Robison. 2019. Haemogregarina sp.(Apicomplexa: Eucoccidiorida: Adeleorina) from Eastern Spiny Softshell, Apalone spinifera spinifera (Testudines: Trionychidae), from Arkansas. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science 73(1):141-142.
28936 News McKay, D. 2016. Invasive species of turtle spotted in western Massachusetts. WWLP-22News. Created on 08/02/2016. Accessed on 08/05/2016.
31602 Web Page Michigan Herp Atlas. 2018. Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera). Accessed on 07/18/2018.
12139 Journal Article Miller, R.R. 1946. The probable origin of the soft-shelled turtle in the Colorado River basin. Copeia 1946(1):46.
31595 Report Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2011. Protect our turtles. State of Minnesota, Department of Natural Resources, St. Paul, MN. file:///U:/NAS/TURTLEs/Spiny%20softshell/turtle_poster_MN.pdf.
21077 Journal Article Mitchell, J.C., B.W. Steury, K.A. Buhlmann, P.P. van Dijk. 2007. Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) in the Potomac River and notes on Eastern spiny softshells (Apalone spinifera) in Northern Virginia. Banisteria 30:41-43.
31606 Web Page Montana Field Guide. 2018. Spiny Softshell - Apalone spinifera. Accessed on 07/18/2018.
31605 Web Page PAHerps. 2016. Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle. Accessed on 07/18/2018.
31533 Journal Article Plummer, M.V., N.E. Mills, and S.L. Allen. 1997. Activity, habitat, and movement patterns of softshell turtles (Trionyx spiniferus) in a small stream. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(4):514-520.
17280 Report Schmidt, C.A., C.A. Drost, and W.L. Halvorson. 2006. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument. U S Geological Survey, Southwest Biological Science Center, Sonoran Desert Research Station, University of Arizona.
15913 Journal Article Spinks, P.Q., G.B. Pauly, J.J. Crayon, and H.B. Shaffer. 2003. Survival of the western pond turtle (Emys marmorata) in an urban California environment. Biological Conservation 113(2):257-267.
702 Book Stebbins, R.C. 1966. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
13272 Book Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A field guide to western reptiles and ampbibians. Peterson Field Guide series. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.
14257 Web Page U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2005. National Wildlife Refuge System Invasive Species. (Last accessed 2006).
25944 Database Ueda, K., J. Belmonte, A. Shepard, P. Leary, and S. Loarie. 2021. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA. Accessed on 11/23/2021.
31608 Web Page University of Nebraska - Lincoln. 2018. Turtle Identification Key- Spiny Softshell Turtle. Accessed on 07/18/2018.
13761 News Walder, R. 2004. Another Non-native Species Found in West Marin's Creeks. http://wwwcoastalpostcom/04/05/19htm.
31599 Web Page Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. 2018. Spiny Softshell (Apalone spinifera). Accessed on 07/18/2018.
31607 Web Page Wyoming Game and Fish Department. 2017. Eastern Spiny Softshell - Apalone spinifera spinifera. Accessed on 07/18/2018.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2023]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [12/1/2023].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.