Common name: Oriental Fire-bellied Toad
available through www.itis.gov
Native Range: Korea, northeastern China and adjacent parts of Russia (Krysko et al. 2011).
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Puerto Rico &
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps
Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Bombina orientalis are found here.
Table last updated 10/26/2021
† Populations may not be currently present.
Ecology: Bombina orientalis is semi-aquatic. It spends most of its time on land. The species usually lives in mixed coniferous/broad-leaved forests; however, it often occurs in other habitats, including spruce, pine or leafed forests, open meadows, river valleys, swampy bushlands, etc. Bombina orientalis inhabits different types of bodies of water with stagnant (sometimes running) water: lakes, ponds, swamps, streams, springs, ditches, puddles, etc. At the end of summer, the species can be found on land at distances up to few hundred meters from water (Kuzmin et al. 2004; AmphibiaWeb, 2012).
This toad hibernates from late September/October to late April/May, usually on land in rotten trees, heaps of stones, leaves, and in groups of 1–6 individuals. Sometimes hibernation occurs in streams. Reproduction occurs from May to mid-August. The clutch contains 38–257 eggs deposited in portions of 3–45 eggs that the female attaches to plants near the water’s edge. The interval between depositing subsequent portions is 7–10 days. Females probably are capable of depositing multiple clutches. Embryonic and larval development takes about 2 months, and hatching takes place usually from early June to late July. Tadpoles complete metamorphosis usually by the end of August/late September. Maximum longevity is estimated as 20 years (Harkewicz, 2004; AmphibiaWeb, 2012).
Larvae consume detritus, various algae, fungi, higher plants, protozoans, and, in smaller amounts, aquatic invertebrates. Preying upon terrestrial invertebrates starts before the completion of metamorphosis. Adult food consists of terrestrial invertebrates including worms, mollusks, and insects.
The proportion of aquatic invertebrates consumed varies among populations (Harkewicz, 2004; AmphibiaWeb, 2012). Some predatory birds and mammals are known as natural enemies of this species. The defensive posture of adult individuals is similar to that of the European Fire-bellied Toad (B. bombina) (AmphibiaWeb, 2012).
Means of Introduction: Pet trade. They commonly are kept as pets in land and water vivariums and are readily available in large pet store chains.
Status: There is no evidence of reproduction (Krysko, et al. 2011).
Impact of Introduction: The impacts of this species are currently unknown, as no studies have been done to determine how it has affected ecosystems in the invaded range. The absence of data does not equate to lack of effects. It does, however, mean that research is required to evaluate effects before conclusions can be made.
References: (click for full references)
AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. 2012. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. Available from: http://amphibiaweb.org/. Accessed 1/1-13/2012.
Harkewicz, K.A. 2004. Maintenance of bombina species of frogs, Seminars in Avian and Exotic Pet Medicine 13(4):229—233.
Krysko, K.L. and 12 others. 2011. Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida from 1863 through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion pathways and stages. Zootaxa 3028:1-64.
Kuzmin, S., L. Pipeng, M. Matsui, V. Ishchenko, and I. Maslova. 2004. Bombina orientalis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Accessed 3/5/2013.
Revision Date: 4/17/2019
Fuller, P., 2021, Bombina orientalis (Boulenger, 1890): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=2864, Revision Date: 4/17/2019, Access Date: 10/26/2021
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.