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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Carassius auratus
Carassius auratus
(Goldfish)
Fishes
Exotic
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Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Common name: Goldfish

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Carassius auratus has an elongated, stocky body. Not all individuals have the well-known bright gold color. Wild populations vary in color from gold to olive green or even creamy white. It possesses a long dorsal fin with 15 to 21 rays and a hard serrate spine at the origin of the dorsal and anal fins. The lateral line is complete, with 25–31 scales in a lateral series. It can be distinguished from other Asian cyprinids by the presence of a stiff, serrate spine at the origin of the dorsal and anal fins. Asian cyprinids have a stiff, non-serrate spine at this position (Robison and Buchanan, 1988; Page and Burr, 1991). The anal fin of the male is concave, whereas on the female it is convex. It does not reach the large size attained by carp. The usual life span is 6 to 7 years, with a maximum of 30 years recorded (Robison and Buchanan, 1988). Distinguishing characteristics were provided in Wheeler (1978), Raicu et al. (1981), Trautman (1981) and Page and Burr (1991). Identification keys that include this species and photographs or illustrations are provided in most state and regional fish books (e.g., Hubbs and Lagler 1958; Becker 1983; Etnier and Starnes 1993). There has been considerable confusion concerning the taxonomic status of this species. Many authors have recognized two subspecies in its native range: C. a. auratus (the goldfish, Chinese goldfish, or Asian goldfish) from Asia, and C. a. gibelio (the Prussian carp, gibele carp, or European goldfish) from eastern Europe (Raicu et al. 1981). Others have concluded that the goldfish is a subspecies of the crucian carp Carassius carassius (i.e., C. c. auratus). More recently, it has been reported that C. auratus is a tetraploid derivative of C. carassius (references in Jenkins and Burkhead 1994). There are many mutant goldfish varieties and these exhibit a broad range of body forms and colors. Howells (1992b) reported that some exotic fish experts believe that "goldfish" typically observed in U.S. waters is actually a crucian carp x goldfish hybrid. In addition, goldfish commonly hybridizes with common carp Cyprinus carpio, giving rise to individuals that are intermediate in morphology between the two parent species. Goldfish has been widely and repeatedly stocked in the United States from many points of origin, including both Asia and Europe. As such, U.S. populations represent a complex of morphologically and taxonomically diverse forms.

Size: It typically grows to 120 to 220 mm SL, with a maximum of 410 mm SL (Page and Burr, 1991).

Native Range: Eastern Asia, including China and perhaps adjacent regions (Japan, Republic of Korea); also possibly parts of Europe if C. auratus gibelio is a valid subspecies and not just a feral introduction (Raicu et al. 1981).

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Alaska
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Hawaii
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Puerto Rico &
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Guam Saipan
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Carassius auratus are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Alabama1968199910Apalachicola Basin; Black Warrior-Tombigbee; Cahaba; Chipola; Coosa-Tallapoosa; Guntersville Lake; Lower Chattahoochee; Lower Tallapoosa; Middle Coosa; Wheeler Lake
Alaska198019801Nenana River
Arizona1935201710Bill Williams; Brawley Wash; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Lower Colorado Region; Lower Salt; Middle Gila; Upper San Pedro; Upper Santa Cruz; Whitewater Draw
Arkansas1988198817Beaver Reservoir; Bodcau Bayou; Bull Shoals Lake; Dardanelle Reservoir; Frog-Mulberry; Illinois; Lake Conway-Point Remove; L'Anguille; Little Red; Lower Arkansas-Maumelle; Lower Black; Lower Mississippi-Greenville; Middle White; Ouachita Headwaters; Spring; Upper Ouachita; Upper Saline
California1865201320California Region; Death Valley-Lower Amargosa; Lake Tahoe; Lower Colorado; Lower Sacramento; Mojave; Mono Lake; Owens Lake; Pajaro; Salinas; San Diego; San Francisco Bay; San Joaquin; Santa Clara; Santa Monica Bay; Seal Beach; Suisun Bay; Tomales-Drake Bays; Upper Cache; Upper Yuba
Colorado1872201513Bijou; Cache La Poudre; Colorado Headwaters-Plateau; Republican; Roaring Fork; San Luis; South Platte; St. Vrain; Uncompahgre; Upper Arkansas; Upper Arkansas-Lake Meredith; Upper South Platte; Upper Yampa
Connecticut194019924Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; New England Region; Thames
Delaware198120075Brandywine-Christina; Broadkill-Smyrna; Delaware Bay; Lower Delaware; Upper Chesapeake
District of Columbia187819992Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin
Florida197420165Cape Canaveral; Florida Southeast Coast; Lower St. Johns; Oklawaha; Upper St. Johns
Georgia1971201713Altamaha; Apalachicola Basin; Conasauga; Hiwassee; Lower Ocmulgee; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Flint; Middle Savannah; Ocoee; South Atlantic-Gulf Region; Upper Chattahoochee; Upper Coosa; Upper Ocmulgee
Hawaii187020056Hawaii; Kauai; Lanai; Maui; Molokai; Oahu
Idaho188719905Kootenai-Pend Oreille-Spokane; Little Lost; Lower Boise; Pacific Northwest Region; Upper Snake-Rock
Illinois1917201725Apple-Plum; Bear-Wyaconda; Cache; Chicago; Copperas-Duck; Des Plaines; Embarras; Iroquois; Kankakee; Lake Michigan; Little Calumet-Galien; Lower Illinois; Lower Illinois; Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua; Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake; Lower Rock; Lower Sangamon; Middle Rock; Pecatonica; Peruque-Piasa; Pike-Root; The Sny; Upper Fox; Upper Illinois; Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau
Indiana190220189Flatrock-Haw; Little Calumet-Galien; Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon; Lower White; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion; Ohio Region; Upper Wabash; Upper White
Iowa1977201811Big Papillion-Mosquito; Keg-Weeping Water; Lower Cedar; Lower Des Moines; Lower Iowa; Middle Cedar; Middle Des Moines; Missouri-Nishnabotna; Shell Rock; Upper Cedar; Upper Mississippi Region
Kansas191420082South Fork Ninnescah; Tarkio-Wolf
Kentucky1959199316Barren; Bayou De Chien-Mayfield; Big Sandy; Licking; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Cumberland; Lower Kentucky; Lower Tennessee; Middle Green; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Obion; Salt; Silver-Little Kentucky; South Fork Licking; Upper Cumberland; Upper Green
Louisiana196720055Boeuf; Liberty Bayou-Tchefuncta; Lower Mississippi Region; Lower Ouachita; Lower Red-Lake Iatt
Maine191419141New England Region
Maryland1876201010Chester-Sassafras; Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Lower Potomac; Mid Atlantic Region; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Upper Chesapeake Bay
Massachusetts183320054Charles; Merrimack; Middle Connecticut; New England Region
Michigan1880201718Au Gres-Rifle; Black-Macatawa; Clinton; Detroit; Great Lakes Region; Huron; Kalamazoo; Lake Erie; Lake Huron; Lake St. Clair; Lower Grand; Muskegon; Ottawa-Stony; Raisin; Saginaw; St. Clair; Tittabawassee; Upper Grand
Minnesota194120089Buffalo-Whitewater; Lake Superior; Lower Minnesota; Lower St. Croix; Minnesota; Rush-Vermillion; Shell Rock; St. Louis; Twin Cities
Mississippi1892200111Big Sunflower; Coldwater; Little Tallahatchie; Lower Mississippi-Greenville; Lower Mississippi-Helena; Middle Pearl-Strong; Upper Pearl; Upper Tombigbee; Wolf; Yazoo; Yocona
Missouri1975201118Bear-Wyaconda; Bourbeuse; Current; Gasconade-Osage; Lake of the Ozarks; Lamine; Lower Missouri-Crooked; North Fabius; North Fork Salt; Peruque-Piasa; Salt; South Grand; Spring; Tarkio-Wolf; Upper Black; Upper Mississippi-Cape Girardeau; Upper White; Whitewater
Montana1966200111Flint-Rock; Lower Clark Fork; Lower Yellowstone; Lower Yellowstone-Sunday; Marias; Middle Clark Fork; Missouri Headwaters; Tongue; Upper Little Missouri; Upper Missouri; Upper Yellowstone
Nebraska1939199812Big Papillion-Mosquito; Lewis and Clark Lake; Little Nemaha; Lower Elkhorn; Lower North Platte; Lower Platte; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Middle Republican; Missouri Region; South Loup; Tarkio-Wolf; Upper Middle Loup
Nevada1900201615Carson Desert; Diamond-Monitor Valleys; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Hot Creek-Railroad Valleys; Ivanpah-Pahrump Valleys; Lake Mead; Las Vegas Wash; Little Smoky-Newark Valleys; Lower Humboldt; Muddy; Sand Spring-Tikaboo Valleys; Spring-Steptoe Valleys; Truckee; Upper Amargosa; White
New Hampshire197319731Merrimack River
New Jersey1890201811Cohansey-Maurice; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Great Egg Harbor; Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Delaware; Lower Hudson; Mid-Atlantic Region; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Mullica-Toms; Raritan; Sandy Hook-Staten Island
New Mexico195719994Carrizo Wash; Elephant Butte Reservoir; Pecos Headwaters; Upper Pecos
New York1842201629Ausable River; Bronx; Buffalo-Eighteenmile; Cattaraugus; Chaumont-Perch; Chemung; Chenango; Conewango; Eastern Lake Erie; Great Lakes Region; Hudson-Hoosic; Hudson-Wappinger; Irondequoit-Ninemile; Lake Erie; Lake Ontario; Long Island; Lower Genesee; Lower Hudson; Middle Hudson; Niagara; Northern Long Island; Oak Orchard-Twelvemile; Oneida; Raisin River-St. Lawrence River; Salmon-Sandy; Schoharie; Seneca; Southern Long Island; Upper Susquehanna
North Carolina1985201517Cape Fear; Chowan; French Broad-Holston; Lower Catawba; Lower Roanoke; Lower Yadkin; Lumber; Neuse; Pigeon; Roanoke; Upper Broad; Upper Catawba; Upper Dan; Upper French Broad; Upper Tennessee; Upper Yadkin; Waccamaw
North Dakota198520181Lower Sheyenne
Ohio1882201714Cedar-Portage; Huron-Vermilion; Lake Erie; Licking; Little Miami; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Great Miami; Raccoon-Symmes; Sandusky; Tuscarawas; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Shade; Whitewater
Oklahoma1948199910Arkansas-White-Red Region; Illinois; Little; Lower Cimarron; Lower Neosho; Lower Washita; Middle Washita; Spring; Upper Cimarron; Upper Little
Oregon192920109Alvord Lake; Coos; Lower Willamette; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Pacific Northwest Region; South Santiam; Upper Rogue; Upper Willamette; Willamette
Pennsylvania1903201432Bald Eagle; Beaver; Brandywine-Christina; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Conemaugh; Connoquenessing; Conococheague-Opequon; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Lackawaxen; Lake Erie; Lehigh; Lower Allegheny; Lower Delaware; Lower Delaware; Lower Juniata; Lower Monongahela; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna-Penns; Lower Susquehanna-Swatara; Lower West Branch Susquehanna; Mahoning; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Schuylkill; Shenango; Tioga; Upper Juniata; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Beaver; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock; Youghiogheny
Puerto Rico192920074Cibuco-Guajataca; Eastern Puerto Rico; Puerto Rico; Southern Puerto Rico
Rhode Island198519921New England Region
South Carolina197920093Middle Savannah; South Atlantic-Gulf Region; Tyger
South Dakota193319946Cheyenne; Fort Randall Reservoir; James; Little White; Middle Cheyenne-Spring; Missouri Region
Tennessee1939201119Collins; French Broad-Holston; Harpeth; Lower Cumberland; Lower Cumberland; Lower Cumberland-Old Hickory Lake; Lower Cumberland-Sycamore; Lower French Broad; Lower Mississippi-Memphis; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Obey; Obion; Pickwick Lake; South Fork Obion; Stones; Upper Clinch; Upper Duck; Upper Elk; Upper Hatchie
Texas1981200510Buffalo-San Jacinto; Guadalupe; Lake Texoma; Lower Rio Grande; Lower Sulphur; Nueces; Red-Washita; Upper Sabine; West Fork San Jacinto; West Galveston Bay
Utah188920152Upper Virgin; Utah Lake
Vermont197919992Mettawee River; Richelieu
Virginia1890201015Appomattox; Blackwater; Chowan; Lower James; Lower Potomac; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle James-Willis; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; North Fork Holston; Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock; South Fork Holston; Upper Clinch; Upper Levisa; Upper Roanoke
Washington1935201811Colville; Hangman; Lake Washington; Lower Columbia; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Lower Crab; Lower Yakima; Middle Columbia-Lake Wallula; Pacific Northwest Region; Palouse; Upper Crab
West Virginia1897200511Conococheague-Opequon; Greenbrier; Little Kanawha; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Middle New; Monongahela; Potomac; Raccoon-Symmes; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling
Wisconsin1966201316Coon-Yellow; Des Plaines; Duck-Pensaukee; Grant-Little Maquoketa; Lake Michigan; Lower Fox; Lower St. Croix; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Middle Rock; Milwaukee; Pecatonica; Pike-Root; Sugar; Upper Fox; Upper Rock; Wolf
Wyoming195120064Clear; Crow; Middle North Platte-Casper; Upper Belle Fourche

Table last updated 11/16/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Ecology: Goldfish may reach 59 cm TL and up to 3.0 kg (IGFA 2001); however, they generally reach only 15–20 cm TL and weigh 100–300 g (Szczerbowski 2001).  Lifespan is typically 6–7 years, but has been reported as long as 30 years (Carlander, 1969).

Typical habitat includes the quiet backwaters of streams and pools, especially those with submerged aquatic vegetation (Hensley and Courtenay 1980; Trautman 1981; Robison and Buchanan 1988).  The goldfish is tolerant of high levels of turbidity (Wallen 1951), temperature fluctuations (reviewed by Spotila et al. 1979), and low levels of dissolved oxygen (Zhadin and Gerd 1963; Walker and Johansen 1977).  Laboratory results reported pH tolerance levels between 4.5–10.5, and a preference for pH levels between 5.5–7.0 (Szczerbowski 2001).  Although laboratory tests suggested that eggs and fry are not particularly salinity tolerant (Murai and Andrews 1977), the goldfish is reported to live in salt lakes on the coast of the Black Sea and to inhabit the floodplain of the Ob delta in Russia (Zhadin and Gerd 1963).  The goldfish has been captured in waters with salinities as high as 17 parts per thousand (ppt) (Schwartz 1964), although studies have shown an inability to withstand long exposures exceeding 15 ppt (Lockley 1957).  Adults thrive equally well in salinities between 0–6 ppt (Canagartnam 1959), and can survive water temperatures between 0–41 °C (Carlander 1969; Moyle 2002).  Additionally, the species is more tolerant of aquatic pollution than most native North American fishes (Robison and Buchanan 1988).

The ominvorous diet includes planktonic crustaceans, phytoplankton, insect larvae, fish eggs and fry, benthic vegetation, and detritus (Scott and Crossman 1973; Hensley and Courtenay 1980; Robison and Buchanan 1988; Moyle 2002).  Foraging goldfish may create high levels of turbidity, which can result in the decline of aquatic vegetation (Richardson et al. 1995).

Means of Introduction: DeKay (1842) reported that goldfish first was brought into this country shortly after the early part of the seventeenth century. Citing that work, Courtenay and Stauffer (1990) reported that the first recorded goldfish releases in the United States occurred during the late 1600s, and they suggested that these earliest introductions resulted from intentional releases by settlers wanting to add it to the North American fish fauna, as opposed to goldfish escaping from ponds. DeKay (1842) reported, likely in reference to the early 1800s, that goldfish in the United States was considered an ornamental species rather than a food fish, even though the fish freely reproduced in ponds in New York and adjacent states. During the late 1800s the U.S. Fish Commission raised the species and was responsible for distributing it to many states, mainly to meet the demand for fish for aquaria, fountains, and ornamental lakes (McDonald 1886, 1893). Johnson and Becker (1980) stated that goldfish was introduced to Wisconsin through a fish exchange program with the Nebraska Fish Commission in the early 1900s. Brock (1960) stated that this species was established in Hawaii before 1900 and that there had doubtless been many reintroductions. Jordan and Evermann (1905) indicated that these fish were introduced into Hawaii from China, but stated that there is no record as to the date. They did state that shipments of goldfish were being made to San Francisco (California) as early as 1867. More recent introductions of C. auratus in the United States were the result of escapes from hatcheries and ponds, escapes and releases of baitfish, and aquarium releases (Knapp 1953; Courtenay and Hensley 1979; Courtenay et al. 1984; Pflieger 1997). In Michigan, the report of the State Superintendent of Fisheries for 1877-1878 states that C. auratus was first introduced into the ponds of the State Hatchery in 1878 (Eschmeyer 1938).

Status: Established or reported in all states except Alaska. Even though the species is one of the most widely distributed foreign fishes in North America, much of its established range is restricted to only portions of certain drainages (Courtenay and Stauffer 1990). Some areas may represent repeated escapes or releases rather than established populations (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.). Courtenay et al. (1984) reviewed the literature and concluded that the species had been taken in the wild in all states except Alaska. They denoted the species as being established in 16 of the lower 48 states, including California, Delaware, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. Courtenay et al. (1984) listed it as possibly established, status uncertain, in 17 additional states: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, and Wyoming. In recent years, the existence of breeding populations has been confirmed for some of the above names states, for example, Connecticut (Whitworth 1996), Missouri (Pflieger 1997), and Wyoming (Stone 1995). Bond (1994) noted that it is present locally in warm, still waters of Oregon. The species is also known from all the major islands of Hawaii and Brock (1960) stated that it was established in that state before 1900. Devick (1991) listed it as definitely established in Hawaii. This species has been recorded from Florida, Maine, Utah, Vermont, and West Virginia, but there is as yet no available data indicating the presence of self-sustaining populations. Countryman (1975) listed it as "naturalized" in Vermont, which suggests presence of reproducing populations. In a recent paper, Courtenay (1993) listed goldfish as established in most states except Alaska and Florida.

Impact of Introduction: Little is known about the ecology of the goldfish in North America. In most states it is not considered a "pest species", this term generally referring to species whose populations become very large and highly visible to the public. Nevertheless, this species has the potential to produce large populations in U.S. waters. In the United States most of the large established populations are recorded from the vicinity of western Lake Erie (references in Courtenay and Hensley 1979; Trautman 1981) and in parts of southern and central California (Moyle 1976). In Nevada, its establishment in Manse Spring was believed to be a major reason for the initial decline during the early 1960s of populations of a subspecies of the now endangered Pahrump poolfish Empetrichthys latos latos (Deacon et al. 1964; Lee et al. 1980 et seq.), possibly competing with adult E. l. latos and preying on their young. According to Moyle (1976), goldfish probably compete with native fishes for food and space; and similar to common carp, large populations of this species can greatly disturb sport fish habitats. The Sacramento sucker Catostomus occidentalis, is one native species that suffers in the presence of goldfish (Moyle 1976). However, Laird and Page (1996) concluded that goldfish in Illinois appear unable to compete with native fishes and reported that the species becomes established only in severely disturbed areas. Based on a series of artificial pond experiments, and observations of a feral population, Richardson et al. (1995) found that goldfish is a benthic herbivore whose behavior often results in visible increases in turbidity and decreases in aquatic vegetation.

Remarks: The goldfish is thought to be the first foreign fish species introduced to North America (DeKay 1842; Courtenay et al. 1984). In the United States, large numbers are cultured as bait and as forage for sport fishes, as well as for the production of young fish that are then sold in the aquarium trade, mostly as live food (i.e., feeder fish) for carnivorous ornamental fishes. Although brightly-colored forms popular in the aquarium trade are occasionally taken in North American waters, the surviving progeny of these colorful individuals typically are the natural, cryptic olive-green coloration, partly as a result of selective predation by other animals. In nature, goldfish often hybridize with common carp Cyprinus carpio producing reproductively fertile offspring; cross fertilization and back-crossing is common in some areas, for instance polluted habitats, and in such places hybrid offspring may outnumber the parent species (Trautman 1981; Page and Burr 1991). Goldfish grows rapidly and thus is limited in their usefulness as a forage fish. The use of goldfish as baitfish is prohibited in some states. Detailed background information on the occurrence of this species in the United States was provided by Becker (1983). Knapp (1953) stated that this species is used as a hardy bait fish in many areas or crossed with carp for same purpose. He reported that a population of these hybrids was found in Buffalo Lake, Randall County, in the Texas panhandle. In their summary table, Bailey and Smith (1981) indicated that Carassius auratus is widely distributed in the Great Lakes basin.

Voucher specimens: Alabama (TU 16398, 51965, 52008, 52022, many others), Arkansas (TU 7071, 44838, 46903), California (USNM 4485, 38016), Georgia (UGAMNH, USNM 110111), Hawaii (BPBM 1803, 3623, specimens discarded in1969), Illinois (INHS 710, 726, many others including hybrids with carp), Maryland (USNM 85073, 85217, 85795, 238723, 271219, 271221), Massachusetts (USNM 020091, 77787), Michigan (TNHC 671), Nevada (TU 94343), New York (USNM 020271, TU 36678), Ohio (USNM 28416, TU 6566), Pennsylvania (USNM 335461), Rhode Island (USNM 21658), South Carolina (USNM 271220), Texas (TCWC 0455.01, 1045.01, 1030.01, TNHC 6969, many others), Virginia (USNM 37789, 85694, 283639), West Virginia (USNM 64464).

References: (click for full references)

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Associated Press (AP). 2004. Dumped goldfish blamed for killing bass in Ind. Chicago Sun-Times. July 6, 2004.

Bailey, R.M., and M.O. Allum. 1962. Fishes of South Dakota. Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 119:1-131.

Bailey, R.M., and G.R. Smith. 1981. Origin and geography of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 38:1539-1561.

Baxter, G.T., and J.R. Simon. 1970. Wyoming fishes. Wyoming Game and Fish Department Bulletin 4, Cheyenne, WY. 168 pp.

Bean, T.H. 1903. Catalogue of the Fishes of New York. New York State Museum Bulletin 60, Zoology 9. University of the State of New York Bulletin 278. 784 pp.

Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI.

Blatchley, W.S. 1938. The Fishes of Indiana: with Descriptions, Notes on Habits and Distribution in the State. The Nature Publishing Co., Indianapolis, IN.

Bond, C.E. 1994. Keys to Oregon freshwater fishes. Oregon State University Bookstores, Inc., Corvallis. 58:1-42, revised.

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Courtenay, W.R., Jr., D.A. Hensley, J.N. Taylor, and J.A. McCann. 1984. Distribution of exotic fishes in the continental United States. 41-77 in W.R. Courtenay, Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr., eds. Distribution, biology and management of exotic fishes. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and J.R. Stauffer, Jr.. 1990. The introduced fish problem and the aquarium fish industry. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 21(3):145-159.

Courtenay, W.R., Jr. 1993. Biological pollution through fish introductions. 35-61 in B. N. McKnight, ed. Biological pollution: the control and impact of invasive exotic species. Proceedings of a symposium, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, IN.

Cross, F.B. 1967. Handbook of Fishes of Kansas. State Biological Survey and University of Kansas Museum of Natural History, Miscellaneous Publication 45, Topeka, KS.

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Other Resources:
Distribution map in Illinois - Illinois Natural History Survey

Fishes of Wisconsin (by George C. Becker) - Wisconsin Sea Grant

Great Lakes Water Life Photo Gallery - Great Lakes Sea Grant

Global Invasive Species Database Factsheet

FishBase Summary

Author: Nico, L.G., P.J. Schofield, J. Larson, T.H. Makled, and A. Fusaro

Revision Date: 6/4/2018

Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016

Citation Information:
Nico, L.G., P.J. Schofield, J. Larson, T.H. Makled, and A. Fusaro, 2018, Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758): U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?SpeciesID=508, Revision Date: 6/4/2018, Peer Review Date: 4/1/2016, Access Date: 11/16/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [11/16/2018].

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