The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Dreissena bugensis
Dreissena bugensis
(quagga mussel)

Copyright Info
Dreissena bugensis Andrusov, 1897

Common name: quagga mussel

Synonyms and Other Names: Dreissena rostriformis bugensis is viewed as a freshwater subspecies (or race) of D. rostriformis (Therriault et al. 2004).

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Injurious: This species is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as injurious wildlife.

Identification: Dreissena rostriformis bugensis is a small freshwater bivalve mollusk that exhibits many different morphs, though there are several diagnostic features that aid in identification. The quagga mussel has a rounded angle, or carina, between the ventral and dorsal surfaces (May and Marsden 1992). The quagga also has a convex ventral side that can sometimes be distinguished by placing shells on their ventral side: a quagga mussel will topple over, whereas a zebra mussel will not (Claudi and Mackie 1994). Overall, quaggas are rounder in shape and have a small byssal groove on the ventral side near the hinge (Claudi and Mackie 1994). Color patterns vary widely with black, cream, or white bands; a distinct quagga morph has been found that is pale or completely white in Lake Erie (Marsden et al. 1996). They usually have dark concentric rings on the shell and are paler in color near the hinge. If quaggas are viewed from the front or from the ventral side, the valves are clearly asymmetrical (Domm et al. 1993). Considerable phenotypic plasticity of all morphological characteristics is known in dreissenid species and this may be a result of environmental factors, meaning the same genotype may express different phenotypes in response to environmental conditions (Claxton et al. 1998). Due to this phenotypic plasticity, visual identification is not always an acceptable means of differentiating between quagga and zebra mussels (Kerambrun et al. 2018, Beggel et al. 2015).  Thus, different methods of genetic comparison have been developed (e.g. May and Marsden 1992; Brown and Stepien 2010; Ram et al. 2012).

Size: Reaching sizes up to 4 cm

Native Range: Dreissena rostriformis bugensis is indigenous to the Dneiper River drainage of Ukraine and Ponto-Caspian Sea. It was discovered in the Bug River in 1890 by Andrusov, who named the species in 1897 (Mills et al. 1996).

Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Dreissena bugensis are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
AZ2007202110Agua Fria; Bill Williams; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Lake Mead; Lower Colorado; Lower Colorado-Marble Canyon; Lower Lake Powell; Lower Salt; Middle Gila
CA2007202312Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Imperial Reservoir; Newport Bay; Salton Sea; San Diego; San Gabriel; San Luis Rey-Escondido; Santa Ana; Santa Clara; Santa Margarita; Southern Mojave; Whitewater River
CO200720175Blue; Colorado Headwaters; Middle South Platte-Sterling; South Platte Headwaters; Upper Arkansas
ID202320231Upper Snake-Rock
IL200220235Chicago; Lake Michigan; Lower Illinois-Lake Chautauqua; Lower Ohio-Bay; Pike-Root
IN200320141Lake Michigan
KY200420053Blue-Sinking; Lower Ohio-Bay; Middle Ohio-Laughery
MI1997202313Betsie-Platte; Boardman-Charlevoix; Brule; Carp-Pine; Cheboygan; Detroit; Fishdam-Sturgeon; Lake Erie; Lake Huron; Lake Michigan; Lake St. Clair; Muskegon; Pere Marquette-White
MN200420065Buffalo-Whitewater; La Crosse-Pine; Lake Superior; Rush-Vermillion; St. Louis
NV200720114Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Lake Mead; Lower Humboldt; Middle Carson
NY1991202012Headwaters St. Lawrence River; Irondequoit-Ninemile; Lake Erie; Lake Ontario; Middle Hudson; Mohawk; Niagara River; Oak Orchard-Twelvemile; Oneida; Raisin River-St. Lawrence River; Seneca; Upper Susquehanna
OH199220163Ashtabula-Chagrin; Lake Erie; Middle Ohio-Laughery
PA199420124Lake Erie; Lehigh; Lower Susquehanna; Upper Juniata
SD201420141Angostura Reservoir
TX202120221Lower Devils
UT200920143Lower Green-Diamond; Provo; Upper Virgin
WI200020177Buffalo-Whitewater; Coon-Yellow; Duck-Pensaukee; Lake Michigan; Lake Superior; Manitowoc-Sheboygan; Rush-Vermillion

Table last updated 6/20/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Ecology: Quagga mussels inhabit freshwater rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. In North American populations, they are not known to tolerate salinities greater than 5 ppt (Spidle et al. 1995). Water temperatures of 28°C begin to cause significant mortality, and 32-35°C are considered lethal for dreissenid species (Antonov and Shkorbatov 1990, as cited in Mills 1996).  The depth at which the mussels live varies depending on water temperature.  They are not generally found in lakes near shore in shallow water due to wave action.  The quagga mussel can inhabit both hard and soft substrates, including sand and mud, down to depths of 130 m and possibly deeper. The maximum density of quagga mussels in Lake Michigan is at 31-90 m (Rowe et al. 2015a).

Means of Introduction: The introduction of D. r. bugensis into the Great Lakes appears to be the result of ballast water discharge from transoceanic ships that were carrying veligers, juveniles, or adult mussels. The genus Dreissena is highly polymorphic and prolific, with high potential for rapid adaptation attributed to its rapid expansion and colonization (Mills et al. 1996). Still, there are other factors that can aid in the spread of this species across North American waters. Thse factors include larval drift in river systems or fishing and boating activities that allow for overland transport or movement between water basins.

Status: The quagga mussel may have arrived more recently than the zebra based on differences in size classes of initially discovered populations, and therefore it seems plausible that the quagga is still in the process of expanding its nonindigenous range (May and Marsden 1992, MacIsaac 1994). In the 1990s, the absence of quagga mussels from areas where zebra mussels were present may have been related to the timing and location of introduction rather than physiological tolerances (MacIsaac 1994). The quagga mussel is now well established in the lower Great Lakes and found in a few harbor and nearshore areas of ake Superior. 

Quagga mussels have displaced zebra mussels in all offshore areas of Lakes Michigan (Nalepa et al 2014); Rowe et al. 2015a), Huron (Nalepa et al. 2018), and Ontario (Wilson et al. 2006; Birkett et al. 2015). There is a gradient of dreissenid domination in Lake Erie, with quagga mussels dominating eastern basins and the two species coexisting in the western basin (Patterson et al. 2005; Karatayev et al. 2014). A similar gradient was initially observed in southern Lake Ontario with quagga mussel dominating the west and zebra dominating the east (Mills et al. 1999), but the quagga mussel has since displaced zebra mussels in all offshore regions of Lake Ontario (Birkett et al. 2015). Coexistence is generally only found in shallow, productive systems such as Green Bay in Lake Michigan, Saginaw Bay in Lake Huron, and Western Lake Erie.There are multiple mechanisms by which quagga mussels displace zebra mussels, including differences in growth, reproduction, respiration, and development (Ram et al. 2012; Karateyev et al. 2015). Though zebra mussels have garnered the majority of public and research attention, quagga mussels have a more extensive distribution in the Great Lakes and their abundance far exceeds that of the zebra mussel peak (e.g., southern Lake Michigan, Nalepa et al. 2010).

Impact of Introduction:
Summary of species impacts derived from literature review. Click on an icon to find out more...

EcologicalEconomicHuman HealthOther

Quaggas are prodigious water filterers, removing substantial amounts of phytoplankton and suspended particulate from the water. As such, their impacts are similar to those of the zebra mussel. By removing the phytoplankton, quaggas in turn decrease the food source for zooplankton, therefore altering the food web. Impacts associated with the filtration of water include increases in water transparency, decreases in mean chlorophyll a concentrations, and accumulation of pseudofeces (Claxton et al. 1998). Water clarity increases light penetration causing a proliferation of aquatic plants that can change species dominance and alter the entire ecosystem. The pseudofeces that is produced from filtering the water accumulates and creates a foul environment. As the waste particles decompose, oxygen is used up, and the pH becomes very acidic and toxic byproducts are produced. In addition, quagga mussels accumulate organic pollutants within their tissues to levels more than 300,000 times greater than concentrations in the environment and these pollutants are found in their pseudofeces, which can be passed up the food chain, therefore increasing wildlife exposure to organic pollutants (Snyder et al. 1997). Macksasitorn et al. (2015) found that mussel tissue polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration was positively related to sediment PCB levels, suggesting that quagga (and zebra) mussels might provide an entry point for PCBs into near-shore benthic trophic webs.

Dreissena species ability to rapidly colonize hard surfaces causes serious economic problems. These major biofouling organisms can clog water intake structures, such as pipes and screens, therefore reducing pumping capabilities for power and water treatment plants, costing industries, companies, and communities. Recreation-based industries and activities have also been impacted; docks, breakwalls, buoys, boats, and beaches have all been heavily colonized. Quaggas are able to colonize both hard and soft substrata so their negative impacts on native freshwater mussels, invertebrates, industries and recreation are unclear. Many of the potential impacts of Dreissena are unclear due to the limited time scale of North American colonization. Nonetheless, it is clear that the genus Dreissena is highly polymorphic and has a high potential for rapid adaptation to extreme environmental conditions by the evolution of allelic frequencies and combinations, possibly leading to significant long-term impacts on North American waters (Mills et al. 1996). Dreissena rostriformis bugensis lacks the keeled shape that allows D. polymorpha to attach so tenaciously to hard substrata; though, D. rostriformis bugensis is able to colonize hard and soft substrata (Mills et al. 1996). The ability to colonize different substratas could suggest that D. rostriformis bugensis is not limited to deeper water habitats and that it may inhabit a wider range of water depths where they have been found at depths up to 130 m in the Great Lakes (Mills et al. 1996, Claxton and Mackie 1998).

Remarks: Hybridization between the two introduced dreissenid species was an initial concern. Zebra x quagga mussel hybrids were created by pooling gametes collected after exposure to serotonin in the laboratory, indicating that interspecies fertilization may be feasible (Mills et al. 1996). However, there is evidence for species-specific sperm attractants suggesting that interspecific fertilization may be rare in nature. Thus, if hybridization does occur, these hybrids will constitute a very small proportion of the dreissenid community (Mills et al. 1996). There is evidence to suggest that the apparent ability of Dreissena rostriformis bugensis to outcompete Dreissena polymorpha is due to the high mtility of the species (D'Hont et al. 2021).

Redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) have been shown in experimental enclosers in Sweetwater Reservoir, CA to feed upon and control population sizes of quagga mussels (Wong et al. 2013).


References: (click for full references)

Abdell-Fattah, S. 2011. Aquatic Invasive Species Early Detection and Rapid Response- Assessment of Chemical Response Tools. International Joint Commission, Great Lakes Regional Office. [pers. comm]

Aikens, R. 2014. – Public Information Officer, Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, Arizona. [pers. comm.]

Auer, M.T., L.M. Tomlison, S.N. Higgins, S.Y. Malkin, E.T. Howell, and H.A. Bootsma. 2010. Great Lakes Cladophora in the 21st century: same algae—different ecosystem. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36(2):248-255.

Baldwin, W. 2014. – Volunteer, National Park Service, Lake Mead National Recreational Area. [pers. comm]

Barbiero, R. P., M. Balcer, D. C. Rockwell, and M. L. Tuchman. 2009. Recent shifts in the crustacean zooplankton community of Lake Huron. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66:816–828.

Barbiero, R.P., K. Schmude, B.M. Lesht, C.M. Riseng, G.J. Warren, and M.L. Tuchman. 2011. Trends in Diporeia populations across the Laurentian Great Lakes, 1997-2009. Journal of Great Lakes Research 37:9-17.

Beggel, S. Cerwenka, A.F., Brandner, J., Geist, J., 2015. Shell morphological versus genetic identification of quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) and zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Aquat. Invasions 10: 93–99.

Bially, A., and H.J. MacIsaac. 2000. Fouling mussels (Dreissena spp.) colonize soft sediments in Lake Erie and facilitate benthic invertebrates. Freshwater Biology 43:85-97.

Birkett, K., S. J. Lozano, and L. G. Rudstam. 2015. Long-term trends in Lake Ontario’s benthic macroinvertebrate community from 1994–2008. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management 18:76–88.

Boegehold, A.G., N.S. Johnson, L.L. Ram, and D.R. Kashian.  2018.  Cyanobacteria reduce quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) spawning and fertilization success.  Freshwater Science 37(3)510-518.

Boelman, S.F., F.M. Neilson, E.A. Dardeau, and T. Cross, jr. 1997. Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Control Handbook for Facility Operators, First Edition. Miscellaneous Paper EL-97-1, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Bowen, K. L., A. J. Conway, and W. J. S. Currie. 2018. Could dreissenid veligers be the lost biomass of invaded lakes? Freshwater Science 37:315–329.

Brown, J. E., and C. A. Stepien. 2010. Population genetic history of the dreissenid mussel invasions: expansion patterns across North America. Biological Invasions 12:3687–3710.

Burks, R.L., N.C. Tuchman, and C.A. Call. 2002. Colonial aggregates: effects of spatial position on zebra mussel responses to vertical gradients in interstitial water quality. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21(2):64-75.

Brown, E. – Colorado Invasive Species Coordinator, Colorado Parks and Wildlife, Denver, Colorado.

Bykova, O., A. Laursen, V. Bostan, J. Bautista, and L. McCarthy. 2006. Do zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) alter lake water chemistry in a way that favours Microcystis growth? Science of the Total Environment 371:362-372.

Carrick, H. J., E. Butts, D. Daniels, M. Fehringer, C. Frazier, G. L. Fahnenstiel, S. Pothoven, and H. A. Vanderploeg. 2015. Variation in the abundance of pico, nano, and microplankton in Lake Michigan: Historic and basin-wide comparisons. Journal of Great Lakes Research 41:66–74.

Cave, C. S., and K. B. Strychar. 2015. Decline of Diporeia in Lake Michigan: Was disease associated with invasive species the primary factor? International Journal of Biology 7: 93-99.

Claudi, R., and G.L. Mackie. 1994. Practical Manual for Zebra Mussel Monitoring and Control. Chapter 1. Biology of the Zebra Mussel. Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 227 pp.

Claudi, R., and T. Prescott. 2007a. Assessment of the potential impact of quagga mussels on Hoover Dam and recommendations for monitoring and control. Prepared for U.S. Bureau of Reclamation-Lower Colorado Dams Region. Available: http://www.usbr.gov/lc/region/programs/quagga/HooverReport.pdf

Claudi, R., and T. Prescott. 2007b. Assessment of the potential impact of quagga mussels on Davis Dam and Parker Dam and recommendations for monitoring and control. Prepared for U.S. Bureau of Reclamation-Lower Colorado Dams Region. Available: http://www.usbr.gov/lc/region/programs/quagga/ParkerDavisReport.pdf

Claxton, W.T., and G.L. Mackie. 1998. Seasonal and depth variations in gametogenesis and spawning of Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis in eastern Lake Erie. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:2010-2019.

Claxton, W.T., A.B. Wilson, G.L. Mackie, and E.G. Boulding. 1998. A genetic and morphological comparison of shallow- and deep-water populations of the introduced dreissenid bivalve Dreissena bugensis. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76(7):1269-1276.

Connelly, N.A., C.R. O’Neill Jr, B.A. Knuth, and T.L. Brown. 2007. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities. Environmental Management 40:105-112.

Conroy, J.D., W.J. Edwards, R.A. Pontius, D.D. Kane, H. Zhang, J.F. Shea, J.N. Richey, and D.A. Culver. 2005. Soluble nitrogen and phosphorous excretion of exotic freshwater mussels (Dreissena spp.): potential impacts for nutrient remineralisation in western Lake Erie. Freshwater Biology 50:1146-1162.

Costa, R., D. C. Aldridge, and G. D. Moggridge. 2011. Preparation and evaluation of biocide-loaded particles to control the biofouling zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. Chemical Engineering Research and Design 89:2322–2329.

Craft, C.D., and C.A. Myrick. 2011. Evaluation of quagga mussel veliger thermal tolerance: Final Report - January 2011 Research Season. 21 pp.

Dalton, L. 2014. – Utah Aquatic Nuisance Species Coordinator, Utah Division of Wildlife Resources, Salt Lake City, Utah. [pers. comm]

D'Hont, A., A. Gittenberger, A.J. Hendriks, and R.S. Leuven. 2021. Dreissenids’ need for speed: mobility as a driver of the dominance shift between two invasive Ponto-Caspian mussel species. Aquatic Invasions 16(1):113-138. https://doi.org/10.3391/ai.2021.16.1.08.

Domm, S., R. W. McCauley, and E. Kott. 1993. Physiological and taxonomic separation of two dreissenid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 50:2294-2298.

Evans, M.A., G. Fahnenstiel, and D. Scavia. 2011. Incidental oligotrophication of North American Great Lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 45:3297-3303.

Fahnenstiel, G., S. Pothoven, H. Vanderploeg, D. Klarer, T. Nalepa, and D. Scavia. 2010a. Recent changes in primary production and phytoplankton in the offshore region of southeastern Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36:20-29.

Fahnenstiel, G., T. Nalepa, S. Pothoven, H. Carrick, and D. Scavia. 2010b. Lake Michigan lower food web: long-term observations and Dreissena impact. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36:1-4.

Gorman, AM, T. MacDougall, K. Anderson, J. Boase, C. Castiglione, C., Knight. R. Kraus, S. Mackey, J. Markham, E. Roseman, E. Rutherford, E. Wimer, Y. Zhao, L. Mason, S. Pandit, and P. Kocovsky.  2011.  Report of the Lake Erie Habitat Task Group.  Great Lakes Fishery Commission. http://www.glfc.org/pubs/lake_committees/erie/HTG_docs/annual_reports/HTG_AnnualReport2011.pdf

Grigorovich, I. A., T. R. Angradi, and C. A. Stepien. 2008a. Occurrence of the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) and the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Upper Mississippi River System. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 23(3):429-435.

Grigorovich, I.A., A.V. Korniushin, D.K. Gray, I.C. Duggan, R.I. Colautti, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2003. Lake Superior: an invasion coldspot? Hydrobiologia 499:191-210.

Grigorovich, I.A., J.R. Kelly, J.A. Darling, and C.W. West. 2008b. The quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior Basin.  Journal of Great Lakes Research 34(2): 342-350.

Grime, T., 1995. The Great Lakes' Other Mussel Menance! University of Guelph, Canada. http://www.uoguelph.ca/research/publications/Assets/HTML_MAGS/oasis/environ4.html

Hecky, R.E., R.E.H. Smith, D.R. Barton, S.J. Guilford, W.D. Taylor, M.N. Charlton, and T. Howell. 2004. The nearshore phosphorous shunt: a consequence of ecosystem engineering by dreissenids in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 61:1285-1293.

Karatayev, A. Y., L. E. Burlakova, and D. K. Padilla. 2015. Zebra versus quagga mussels: a review of their spread, population dynamics, and ecosystem impacts. Hydrobiologia 746:97–112. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10750-014-1901-x

Karatayev, A.Y., L.E. Burlakova, C. Pennuto, J. Ciborowski, V.A. Karatayev, P. Juette, and M. Clapsadl. 2014. Twenty five years of changes in Dreissena spp. populations in Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 40(3):550-559. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0380133014000938#.

Kennedy, V.S. 2002. Swimming and Settlement Behavior in the Quagga Mussel. Maryland Sea Grant. http://www.mdsg.umd.edu/programs/research/projects/past/R_ZM-03/index.php

Kerfoot, W.C., F. Yousef, S.A. Green, J.W. Budd, D.J. Schwab, and H.A. Vanderploeg. 2010. Approaching storm: disappearing winter bloom in Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36:30-41.

Kerambrun, E., Delahaut, L., Geffard, A., David, E. 2018. Differentiation of sympatric zebra and quagga mussels in ecotoxicological studies: A comparison of morphometric data, gene expression, and body metal concentrations. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 154:321-328

Lederer, A.M., J. Janssen, T. Reed, and A. Wolf. 2008. Impacts of the introduced round goby (Apollonia melanostoma) on Dreissenids (Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis) and on macroinvertebrate community between 2003 and 2006 in the littoral zone of Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 34(4):690-697.

Limburg, K.E., V.A. Luzadis, M. Ramsey, K.L. Schulz, and C.M. Mayer. 2010. The good, the bad, and the algae: perceiving ecosystem services and disservices generated by zebra and quagga mussels. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36:86-92.

Lund, K., K. B. Cattoor, E. Fieldseth, J. Sweet, and M. A. McCartney. 2018. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) eradication efforts in Christmas Lake, Minnesota. Lake and Reservoir Management 34:7–20.

MacIsaac, H.G. 1994. Comparative growth and survival of Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena bugensis, exotic mollusks introduced to the Great Lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research 20(4):783-790.

Macksasitorn, S., J. Janssen, and K.A. Gray. 2015. PCBs refocused: Correlation of PCB conentrations in Green Bay legacy sediments with adjacent lithophilic, invasive biota. Journal of Great Lakes Research 41:215-221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2014.12.021

Makarewicz, J.C., P. Bertram, and T.W. Lewis. 2000. Chemistry of the offshore surface waters of Lake Erie: pre- and post-Dreissena introduction (1983-1993). Journal of Great Lakes Research 26(1):82-93.

Marsden, J.E., A.P. Spidle, and B. May. 1996. Review of genetic studies of Dreissena spp. American Zoolology 36:259-270.

May, B., and J.E. Marsden. 1992. Genetic identification and implications of another invasive species of dreissenid mussel in the Great Lakes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 49:1501-1506.

McKenna, J. E., M. Chalupnicki, D. Dittman, and J. M. Watkins. 2017. Simulation of rapid ecological change in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 43:871–889.

Meehan, S., B. Gruber, and F. E. Lucy. 2014. Zebra mussel control using Zequanox® in an Irish waterway. Management of Biol Invasions 5:279–286.

Mida, J.L., D. Scavia, G.L Fahnenstiel, S.A. Pothoven, H.A. Vanderploeg, and D.M. Dolan. 2010. Long-term and recent changes in southern Lake Michigan water quality with implications for present trophic status. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36:42-49.

Mills, E.L., G. Rosenberg, A.P. Spidle, M. Ludyanskiy, Y. Pligin, and B. May. 1996. A review of the biology and ecology of the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis), a second species of freshwater dreissenid introduced to North America. American Zoology 36:271-286.

Mills, E.L., J.R. Chrisman, B. Baldwin, R.W. Owens, R. O'Gorman, T. Howell, E.F. Roseman, and M.K. Raths. 1999. Changes in the dressenid community in the Lower Great Lakes with emphasis on Southern Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 25(1):187-197.

Molloy, D.P. 1998. The potential for using biological control technologies in the management of Dreissena spp. Journal of Shellfish Research 17(1):177-183.

Molloy, D.P. 2002. Biological control of zebra mussels. Proceedings of the Third California Conference on Biological Control. University of California, Davis.

Mueting, S.A., and S.L. Gerstenberger. 2010. Mercury concentrations in quagga mussels, Dreissena bugensis, from Lake Mead, Mohave, and Havasu. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 84:497-501.

Nalepa, T. 2014. - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Ann Arbor, MI [pers. comm]

Nalepa, T.F. 2010. An overview of the spread, distribution, and ecological impacts of the quagga mussel, Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, with possible implications to the Colorado River system. In: Melis et al. (eds.), Proceedings, Colorado River Basin Science and Resource Management Symposium, Scottsdale, AZ, November 18-20, 2008. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2010-5135. pp.113-121. Available: http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/pubs/fulltext/2010/20100039.pdf

Nalepa, T.F., D.L. Fanslow, A.J. Foley III, G.A. Lang, B.J. Eadie, and M.A. Quigley. 2006. Continued disappearance of the benthic amphipod Diporeia spp. in Lake Michigan: is there evidence for food limitation? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 63:872-890.

Nalepa, T.F., D.L. Fanslow, S.A. Pothoven, A.J. Foley III, and G.A. Lang. 2007. Long-term trends in benthic macroinvertebrate populations in Lake Huron over the past four decades. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33:421-436.

Nalepa, T.F., D.L. Fanslow, and G.A. Lang. 2009. Transformation of the offshore benthic community in Lake Michigan: recent shift from the native amphipod Diporeia spp. to the invasive mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis. Freshwater Biology 54:466-479.

Nalepa, TF, Fanslow, DL, Lang, GA, Mabrey, K, and Rowe, M. 2014. Tech Memo 164: Lake-wide benthic surveys in Lake Michigan in 1994-5, 2000, 2005, and 2010: Abundances of the Amphipod Diporeia spp. and abundances and biomass of the mussels Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis. 22 pp. NOAA Tech Memo, NOAA, GLERL.

Nalepa, T.F., D.L. Fanslow, and S.A. Pothoven. 2010. Recent changes in density, biomass, recruitment, size structure, and nutritional state of Dreissena populations in southern Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36:5-19.

Nalepa, T.F., C.M. Riseng, A.K. Elgin, and G.A. Lang. Abundance and Distribution of Benthic Macroinvertebrates in the Lake Huron System: Saginaw Bay, 2006-2009, and Lake Huron, including Georgian Bay and North Channel, 2007 and 2012. NOAA Technical Memorandum GLERL-172. NOAA, Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 54 pp. (2018)

Nichols, S.J. – Great Lakes Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey,  Ann Arbor, MI. [pers. comm]

Norton, D. 2014. – California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, California. [pers. comm]

Patterson, M.W.R., J.J.H. Ciborowski, and D.R. Barton. 2005. The distribution and abundance of Dreissena species (Dreissenidae) in Lake Erie, 2002. Journal of Great Lakes Reseach 31(Suppl. 2):223-237.

Pilcher, D. J., G. A. McKinley, J. Kralj, H. A. Bootsma, and E. D. Reavie. 2017. Modeled sensitivity of Lake Michigan productivity and zooplankton to changing nutrient concentrations and quagga mussels. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 122:2017JG003818.

Ram, J.L., Karim, A.S., Banno, F., Kashian, D.R. 2012. Invading the invaders: reproductive and other mechanisms mediating the displacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 56: 21–32, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07924259.2011.588015

Richman, L.A., and K. Somers. 2010. Monitoring metal and persistent organic contaminant trends through time using quagga mussels (Dreissena bugensis) collected from the Niagara River. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36(1):28-36.

Rowe, M. D., E. J. Anderson, J. Wang, and H. A. Vanderploeg. 2015b. Modeling the effect of invasive quagga mussels on the spring phytoplankton bloom in Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 41:49–65.

Rowe, M. D., D. R. Obenour, T. F. Nalepa, H. A. Vanderploeg, F. Yousef, and W. C. Kerfoot. 2015a. Mapping the spatial distribution of the biomass and filter-feeding effect of invasive dreissenid mussels on the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in Lake Michigan. Freshwater Biology 60:2270–2285.

Snyder, F.L., M.B. Hilgendorf, and D.W. Garton. 1997. Zebra Mussels in North America: The invasion and its implications. Ohio Sea Grant, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. http://ohioseagrant.osu.edu/_documents/publications/FS/FS-045%20Zebra%20mussels%20in%20North%20America.pdf

Spidle, A. P., E. L. Mills, and B. May. 1995. Limits to tolerance of temperature and salinity in the quagga mussel (Dreissena bugensis) and the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:2108-2119.

Sprecher, S.L., and K.D. Getsinger. 2000. Zebra mussel chemical control guide. ERDC/EL TR-00-1, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS.

Therriault, T.W., M.F. Docker, M.I. Orlova, D.D. Heath, and H.J. MacIsaac. 2004. Molecular resolution of the family Dreissenidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with emphasis on Ponto-Caspian species, including first report of Mytolopsis leucophaeata in the Black Sea Basin. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30:479-489.

United States Army Corp of Engineers (U.S.A.C.E.). 2002. Zebra Mussel Information System. http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/zebra/zmis/. Accessed 26 July 2012.

Vanderploeg, H.A., J.R. Liebig, T.F. Nalepa, G.L. Fahnenstiel, and S.A. Pothoven. 2010. Dreissena and the disappearance of the spring phytoplankton bloom in Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36:50-59.

Vanderploeg, H. A., S. A. Pothoven, G. L. Fahnenstiel, J. F. Cavaletto, J. R. Liebig, C. A. Stow, T. F. Nalepa, C. P. Madenjian, and D. B. Bunnell. 2012. Seasonal zooplankton dynamics in Lake Michigan: disentangling impacts of resource limitation, ecosystem engineering, and predation during a critical ecosystem transition. Journal of Great Lakes Research 38:336–352.

Vigil, D. 2010 - California Department of Fish and Game, Blythe, California. [pers. comm]

Watkins, J.M., R. Dermott, S.J. Lozano, E.L. Mills, L.G. Rudstam, and J.V. Scharold. 2007. Evidence for remote effects of dreissenid mussels on the amphipod Diporeia: analysis of Lake Ontario benthic surveys, 1972-2003. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33:642-657.

Whitledge GW, Weber MM, DeMartini J, Oldenburg J, Roberts D, Link C, Rackl SM, Rude NP, Yung AJ, Bock LR, Oliver DC (2015) An evaluation Zequanox® efficacy and application strategies for targeted control of zebra mussels in shallow-water habitats in lakes. Management of Biological Invasions 6: 71–82, https://doi.org/10.3391/mbi.2015.6.1.06

Wilson, K.A., E.T. Howell, and D.A. Jackson. 2006. Replacement of zebra mussels by quagga mussels in the Canadian nearshore of Lake Ontario: the importance of substrate, round goby abundance, and upwelling frequency. Journal of Great Lakes Research 32:11-28.

Wong, W.H., Gerstenberger, S.L., Hatcher, M.D., Thompson, D.R., and D. Schrimsher. 2013. Invasive quagga mussels can be attenuated by redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) in the Southwestern United States. Biological Control 64(3):276-282. 

Zhulidov, A.V., A.V. Kozhara, G.H. Scherbina, T.F. Nalepa, A. Protasov, S.A. Afanasiev, E.G. Pryanichnikova, D.A. Zhulidov, T.Y. Gurtovaya, and D.F. Pavlov. 2010. Invasion history, distribution, and relative abundances of Dreissena bugensis in the old world: a synthesis of data. Biological Invasions 12:1923-1940.

Author: Benson, A.J., Richerson, M.M., Maynard, E., Larson, J., Fusaro, A., Bogdanoff, A.K., Neilson, M.E., and Ashley Elgin

Revision Date: 9/7/2023

Citation Information:
Benson, A.J., Richerson, M.M., Maynard, E., Larson, J., Fusaro, A., Bogdanoff, A.K., Neilson, M.E., and Ashley Elgin, 2024, Dreissena bugensis Andrusov, 1897: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/factsheet.aspx?speciesid=95, Revision Date: 9/7/2023, Access Date: 6/20/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/20/2024].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.