Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records.

Results also available in CSV (click to export table to spreadsheet)
Ref IDTypeAuthorDateTitle
24147 DatabaseAnonymous2005Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus) distribution records according to USNM catalogue records.
29862 OtherAnonymous.2017Invasive green crab found at Dungeness Spit.
38019 NewsAssociated Press2022First invasive European green crab found in Hood Canal
1666 ReportBalcom, Nancy C.1997Proceedings of the second northeastern conference on nonindigenous aquatic nuisance species.
41353 NewsBanse, T.2023Shellfish growers in Northwest's oyster capital want 'blitz' against invasive green crabs 
13651 ReportBoyd, M.J., T.J. Mulligan, F.J. Shaughnessy.2002Non-indigenous marine species of Humboldt Bay, California.
25918 DatabaseCalifornia Academy of Sciences.2013California Academy of Sciences invertebrate zoology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
26266 DatabaseCalifornia Department of Fish and Game.2009California Aquatic Non-native Organism Database (CANOD).
17200 DatabaseCheckoway, A. (MIT Sea Grant's Citizen Science Initiative).2007Hemigrapsus sanguineus and Carcinus maenas off the Coast of Maine.
10319 ReportCohen, A.N., and J.T. Carlton.1995Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in a United States Estuary, A Case Study of the Biological Invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta.
14793 ReportEstelle, V.B.2000Trapping results of green crabs (Carcinus maenas) in Elkhorn Slough.
25935 DatabaseField Museum of Natural History.2013Field Museum of Natural History invertebrate collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
26212 DatabaseGBIF2013Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Database.
18378 Journal ArticleGillespie, Graham E.2007Distribution of non-indigenous intertidal species on the Pacific Coast of Canada.
35567 Journal ArticleGrosholz, E., G. Ashton, M. Bradley, C. Brown, L. Ceballos-Osuna, A. Chang, C. de Rivera, J. Gonzalez, M. Heineke, M. Marraffini, and L.McCann2021Stage-specific overcompensation, the hydra effect, and the failure to eradicate an invasive predator. , 118(12).
33731 Journal ArticleGrosholz, E.D.2005Recent biological invasion may hasten invasional meltdown by accelerating historical introductions
9260 Journal ArticleGrosholz, E.D., and G.M. Ruiz1995Spread and potential impact of the recently introduced European green crab, Carcinus maenas, in central California.
25960 DatabaseHarvard University2013Museum of Comparative Zoology specimen collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
27712 DatabaseiMapInvasives.2019New York iMapInvasives
13207 Journal ArticleLohrer, A.M., and R.B. Whitlatch2002Interactions among aliens: Apparent replacement of one exotic species by another.
9176 Conference ProceedingsLohrer, A.M., and R.B. Whitlatch.1997Ecological studies on the recently introduced Japanese shore crab (Hemigrapsus sanguineus), in eastern Long Island Sound.
1836 Journal ArticleMaryland Sea Grant.1996An endless invasion? Green crabs, New England invaders, move west.
1375 NewsMcCabe, M.1994Scientists warn about Bay invader.
38229 NewsMiller, R.2022For the first time, live invasive green crabs have been found in Alaska
39069 NewsMiller, R.2022Months after first sighting, Metlakatla is now catching dozens of invasive green crabs a day
9261 Journal ArticleMiller, Todd W.1996First record of the green crab, Carcinus maenas, in Humboldt Bay, California.
42799 Journal ArticleRo, H., A.E. Fowler, C.L. Wood, and A.M.H. Blakeslee2022Trematode parasites have minimal effect on the behavior of invasive green crabs
13201 Journal ArticleRuiz, G.M., P.W. Fofonoff, J.T. Carlton, M.J. Wonham, and A.H. Hines2000Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes, and biases
37742 ReportState of Washington, Office of Governor Jay Inslee2022Emergency Proclamation by govenor, 22-20: Green Crab Infestation
40924 Journal ArticleStephen, B.J., and M. Begley-Irish2023Intertidal green crab survey over a ten-year period on a Maine cobble beach
14257 Web PageU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.2005National Wildlife Refuge System Invasive Species.
18728 DatabaseUnited States Environmental Protection Agency.2017STORET database
28986 Web PageWagner, M.2016Invasive green crab found on San Juan Island by citizen science volunteers.
13576 Web PageWashington Department of Fish and Wildlife.1998Non-indigenous marine species of Washington State and adjacent waters.
24167 Web PageWashington Department of Fish and Wildlife.2001Aquatic Nuisance Species, European Green Crab.
14215 Web PageWashington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.2001Aquatic nuisance species, European Green Crab.
37745 NewsWetzel, C.2022Nearly 70,000 invasive green crabs were captured in Washington State last fall
13206 Conference ProceedingsWhitlatch, R.B., and R.W. Osman.2000Geographical distributions and organism-habitat associations of shallow-water introduced marine fauna in New England.
26018 DatabaseYale University2013Yale Peabody Museum invertebrate zoology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [2/23/2024].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.