Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Pacifastacus leniusculus listed in key words.

Results also available in (click to export table to spreadsheet)

REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
15802 Journal Article 2006. Predicting the distribution of invasive crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in a Kusiro Moor marsh (Japan) using classification and regression trees. Ecological Research 21:271-277.
24786 Journal Article Abrahamsson, S.A.A., and C.R. Goldman. 1970. Distribution, density and production of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana in Lake Tahoe, California - Nevada. Oikos 21:83-91.
32568 Journal Article Alderman, D. J. 1996. Geographical spread of bacterial and fungal diseases of Crustaceans. Reviews of the Science and Technology Office for International Epizootiology 15:603-632.
40050 Journal Article Anderson, L.G., J. Bojko, K.S. Bateman, P.D. Stebbing, G.D. Stentiford, and A.M. Dunn. 2021. Patterns of infection in a native and an invasive crayfish across the UK. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 184:107595.
39849 Web Page Anonymous. 2010. Pacifastacus leniusculus. Accessed on 01/27/2023.
41106 Journal Article Brown, N.E.M., and T.W. Therriault. 2022. The hidden risk of keystone invaders in Canada: A case study using non-indigenous crayfish. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 79(9):1479-1496.
15794 Journal Article Bubb, D.H., M.C. Lucas, and T.J. Thorn. 2002. Winter movements and activity of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in an upland river, determined by radio telemetry. Hydrobiologia 483:111-119.
26266 Database California Department of Fish and Game. 2009. California Aquatic Non-native Organism Database (CANOD). California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response. Created on 03/08/2011. Accessed on 07/20/2011.
32733 Journal Article Capurro, M., L. Galli, M. Mori, S. Salvidio, and A. Arillo. 2007. The signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852)[Crustacea: Decapoda: Astacidae], in the Brugneto Lake (Liguria, NW Italy). The beginning of the invasion of the river Po watershed. Aquatic Invasions 2(1):17-24.
40020 Journal Article Carvalho, F., C. Pascoal, F. Cássio, A. Teixeira, and R. Sousa. 2022. Combined per-capita and abundance effects of an invasive species on native invertebrate diversity and a key ecosystem process. Freshwater Biology 67(5):828-841.
40070 Journal Article Carvalho, F., R. Sousa, F. Cássio, and C. Pascoal. 2022. Temperature and interspecific competition alter the impacts of two invasive crayfish species on a key ecosystem process. Biological Invasions 24:3757-3768.
40031 Journal Article Chadwick, D.D.A., E.G. Pritchard, P. Bradley, C.D. Sayer, M.A. Chadwick, L.J.B. Eagle, and J.C. Axmacher. 2020. A novel ‘triple drawdown’ method highlights deficiencies in invasive alien crayfish survey and control techniques. Journal of Applied Ecology 58(2):316-326.
39266 Journal Article Chucholl, C., F. Chucholl, L.S. Epp, and A. Brinker. 2022. Management of invasive, plague-carrying signal crayfish by physical excluion barriers. Management of Biological Invasions 13(1):147-167.
40017 Journal Article Chucholl, F., and C. Chucholl. 2021. Differences in the functional responses of four invasive and one native crayfish species suggest invader-specific ecological impacts. Freshwater Biology 66(11):2051-2063.
40007 Journal Article Chucholl, F., F. Fiolka, G. Segelbacher, and L.S. Epp. 2021. eDNA Detection of Native and Invasive Crayfish Species Allows for Year-Round Monitoring and Large-Scale Screening of Lotic Systems. Frontiers in Environmental Science 9:639380.
10319 Report Cohen, A.N., and J.T. Carlton. 1995. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in a United States Estuary, A Case Study of the Biological Invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. A report for the United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC and The National Sea Grant College Program Connecticut Sea Grant.
31236 Journal Article Cowart, D.A., K.G.H. Breedveld, M.J. Ellis, J.M. Hull, and E.R. Larson. 2018. Environmental DNA (eDNA) applications for the conservation of imperiled crayfish (Decapoda: Astacidea) through monitoring of invasive species barriers and relocated populations. Journal of Crustacean Biology 38(3):257-266.
32569 Journal Article Crawford, L., W.E. Yeomans, and C.E. Adams. 2006. The impact of introduced signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus on stream invertebrate communities. Aquatic Conservation 16(611-626):611-626.
40053 Journal Article Daniels, J.A., and P.S. Kemp. 2022. Personality-dependent passage behaviour of an aquatic invasive species at a barrier to dispersal. Animal Behaviour 192:63-74.
41108 Journal Article Deidun, A., A. Sciberras, J. Formosa, B. Zava, G. Insacco, M. Corsini-Foka, and K.A. Crandall. 2018. Invasion by non-indigenous freshwater decapods of Malta and Sicily, central Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Crustacean Biology 38(6):748-753.
40018 Journal Article Dobler, A.H., and J. Geist. 2021. Impacts of native and invasive crayfish on three native and one invasive freshwater mussel species. Freshwater Biology 67(2):389-403.
26961 Journal Article Dunoyer, L., L. Dijoux, L. Bollache, and C. Lagrue. 2014. Effects of crayfish on leaf litter breakdown and shredder prey: are native and introduced species functionally redundant? Biological Invasions 16:1545-1555.
32570 Journal Article Findlay, J., F. Findlay, W. Riley, M. Lucas. 2015. Signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) predation upon Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) eggs. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 25:250-258.
32744 Journal Article Flint. 1975. Growth in a population of crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus from a subalpine lacustrine environment. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 32(12):2443-2440.
28504 Report Fong, D., and J.A. Howell. 2006. Distribution and abundance of California Giant Salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus) and Signal Crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in the Upper Redwood Creek Watershed, Marin County, California: USGS Open-File Report 2006-1066. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA.
41109 Journal Article Fořt, M., M.S. Hossain, A. Kouba, M. Buřič, and P. Kozák. 2019. Agonistic interactions and dominance establishment in three crayfish species non-native to Europe. Limnologica 74:73-79.
32746 Journal Article Furst, M. 1977. Introduction of Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana) into Sweden: methods, results, and management. Freshwater Crayfish 3:229-248.
40006 Journal Article Galib, S.M., J. Sun, D.R. Gröcke, and M.C. Lucas. 2022. Ecosystem effects of invasive crayfish increase with crayfish density. Freshwater Biology 67(6):1005-1019.
40052 Journal Article Galib, S.M., J. Sun, S.D. Twiss, and M.C. Lucas. 2022. Personality, density and habitat drive the dispersal of invasive crayfish. Scientific Reports 12:1114.
40016 Journal Article Galib, S.M., J.S. Findlay, and M.C. Lucas. 2020. Strong impacts of signal crayfish invasion on upland stream fish and invertebrate communities. Freshwater Biology 66(2):223-240.
32639 Journal Article Gallardo, B., and D.C. Aldridge. 2013. Evaluating the combined threat of climate change and biological invasions on endangered species. Biological Conservation 160:225-233.
31284 Journal Article Girdner, S.F., A.M. Ray, M.W. Buktenica, D.K. Hering, J.A. Mack, and J.W. Umek. 2018. Replacement of a unique population of newts (Taricha granulosa mazamae) by introduced signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in Crater Lake, Oregon. Biological Invasions 20(3):721-740.
42009 Web Page Global Invasive Species Database. 2023. Species profile Pacifastacus leniusculus. Accessed on 07/11/2023.
30934 News Goldfarb, B. 2015. Invasive crayfish in Oregon devastate native newts. High Country News. Created on 09/02/2015. Accessed on 01/24/2018.
32738 Journal Article Goldman, C.R., and J.C. Rundquist. 1977. A comparative ecological study of the California crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana), from two subalpine lakes (Lake Tahoe and Lake Donner). Freshwater Crayfish 3:51-80.
38053 Journal Article Grabowski, M., K. Jażdżewski, and A. Konopacka. 2005. Alien crustacea in Polish waters (Part I) introduction and decapoda. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies 24:43-62.
32148 Journal Article Grandjean, F., J. Roques, C. Delaunay, A. Petrusek, T. Becking, and M. Collas. 2017. Status of Pacifastacus leniusculus and its role in recent crayfish plague outbreaks in France: improving distribution and crayfish plague infection patterns>. Aquatic Invasions 12(4):541-549.
40042 Journal Article Green, N., D. Andreou, M. Bentley, P. Stebbing, A. Hart, and J.R. Britton. 2022. Mechanical male sterilisation in invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus: persistence and functionality in captive and wild conditions. Knowledge & Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 423(20):10.
40011 Journal Article Greenhalgh, J.A., R.A. Collins, D.E. Edgley, M.J. Genner, J. Hindle, G. Jones, L. Loughlin, M. O'donnel, M.J. Sweet, and R.W. Battarbee. 2022. Environmental DNA-based methods detect the invasion front of an advancing signal crayfish population. Environmental DNA 4(3):596-607.
32573 Journal Article Griffiths, S. W., P. Collen, and J. D. Armstrong. 2004. Competition for shelter amongover-wintering signal crayfish and juvenile Atlantic salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 65(2):437-444.
14616 Journal Article Guan, R., and P.R. Wiles. 1997. Ecological impact of introduced crayfish on benthic fishes in a British lowland river. Conservation Biology 11(3):641-647.
42036 Journal Article Harlioğlu, M.M., and A.G. Harlioğlu. 2006. Threat of non-native crayfish introductions into Turkey: global lessons. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 16:171-181.
31058 Journal Article Hart, C. W. Jr. 1965. Three new entocytherid ostracods from the western United States, with new locality data for two previously described western entocytherids. Crustaceana 8(2):190-196.
25556 Journal Article Hein, C.L., M.J. Vander Zanden, and J.J. Magnuson. 2007. Intensive trapping and increased fish predation cause massive decline of an invasive crayfish. Freshwater Biology 52:1134-1146.
1856 Journal Article Hobbs, H.H., Jr. 1989. An illustrated checklist of the American crayfishes (Decapoda: Astacidae, Cambaridae, and Parastacidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 480:1-236.
40231 Book Chapter Holdich, D.M. 1999. The negative effects of established crayfish introductions. Pages 31-47 in Gherardi, F, ed. Crayfish in Europe as Alien Species. 1st edition. Routledge. London.
32745 Journal Article Holdich, D.M., J.D. Reynolds, C. Souty-Grosset, and P.J. Sibley. 2009. A review of the ever increasing threat to European crayfish from non-indigenous crayfish species. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 11:394-395.
30938 Journal Article Hudina, S., Kutleša, P., Trgovčić, K., and A. Duplić. 2017. Dynamics of range expansion of the signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) in a recently invaded region in Croatia. Aquatic Invasions 12(1):67-75.
30932 Journal Article Hudina, S., Zganec, K., and K. Hock. 2015. Differences in aggressive behaviour along the expanding range of an invasive crayfish: an important component of invasion dynamics. Biological Invasions 17:3101-3112.
32751 Report Ibbotson, A.T., and M. T. Furse. 1995. Literature review of the ecology of the signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and its impacts upon the white clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes. A report to the Environment Agency, Thames Region by the Institute of Feshwater Ecology.
33594 Journal Article Ikeda, K., H. Doi, S. Terui, A. Kato, T. Mitsuzuka, T. Kawai, and J.N. Negishi. 2019. Estimating native and invasive crayfish distributions in relation to culvert barriers with environmental DNA. Freshwater Science 38:629-641.
30957 Journal Article Kaldre, K., Paaver, T., Hurt, M., F. Grandjean. 2017. First records of the non-indigenous signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) and its threat to noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) populations in Estonia. Biological Invasions 19(10):2771-2776.
40081 Journal Article King, A.C., R. Krieg, A. Weston, and A.K. Zenker. 2022. Using eDNA to simultaneously detect the distribution of native and invasive crayfish within an entire country. Journal of Environmental Management 302:113929.
40005 Journal Article Koivu-Jolma, M., R. Kortet, A. Vainikka, and V. Kaitala. 2023. Crayfish population size under different routes of pathogen transmission. Ecology and Evolution 13(1):e9647.
40068 Journal Article Kouba, A., B. Lipták, J. Kubec, M. Bláha, L. Veselý, P.J. Haubrock, F.J. Oficialdegui, H. Niksirat, J. Patoka, and M. Buřič. 2021. Survival, Growth, and Reproduction: Comparison of Marbled Crayfish with Four Prominent Crayfish Invaders. Biology 10(5):422.
40026 Journal Article Kouba, A., F.J. Oficialdegui, R.N. Cuthbert, M. Kourantidou, J. South, E. Tricarico, R.E. Gozlan, F. Courchamp, and P.J. Haubrock. 2022. Identifying economic costs and knowledge gaps of invasive aquatic crustaceans. Science of the Total Environment 813:152325.
40041 Journal Article Krieg, R., A. King, and A. Zenker. 2020. Measures to Control Invasive Crayfish Species in Switzerland: A Success Story? Frontiers in Environmental Science 8:609129.
39990 Journal Article Krieg, R., A. King, and A. Zenker. 2021. Barriers against invasive crayfish species in natural waters and fish passes - Practical experience. Global Ecology and Conservation 25:e01421.
39994 Journal Article Kuklina, I., B.Y. Altintas, P. Císař, P. Kozák,, and M. Buřič. 2022. Cardiac activity with acute exposure to sub-zero temperatures illustrates the survival mechanism of invasive crayfish. Limnologica 93:125962.
121 Book La Rivers, I. 1962. Fishes and fisheries of Nevada. Nevada State Print Office, Carson City, NV.
27323 Journal Article Larson, E.R., C.L. Abbott, N. Usio, N. Azuma, K.A. Wood, L. Herborg, and J.D. Olden. 2012. The signal crayfish is not a single species: cryptic diversity and invasions in the Pacific Northwest range of Pacifastacus leniusculus. Freshwater Biology 57:1823-1838.
40061 Journal Article Lemmers, P., F.P.L. Collas, R. Glystra, B.H.J.M Crombaghs, G. van der Velde, and R.S.E.W. Leuven. 2021. Risks and management of alien freshwater crayfish species in the Rhine-Meuse river district. Management of Biological Invasions 12(1):193-220.
32576 Book Chapter Lewis, S. D. 2002. Pacifastacus. Pages 511-540 in Holdich, D. M, ed. Biology of freshwater crayfish. Blackwell Science. Oxford.
41114 Journal Article Lidova, J., M. Buric, A. Kouba, and J. Velisek. 2019. Acute toxicity of two pyrethroid insecticides for five non-indigenous crayfish species in Europe. Veterinarni Medicina 64(3):125-133.
15785 Journal Article Light, T. 2005. Behavioral effects of invaders: alien crayfish and native sculpin in a California stream. Biological Invasions 7:353-367.
1852 Journal Article Light, T., D.C. Erman, C. Myrick, and J. Clarke. 1995. Decline of the Shasta crayfish (Pacifastacus fortis Faxon) of northeastern California. Conservation Biology 9(6):1567-1577.
14617 Journal Article Lodge, D.M., C.A. Taylor, D.M. Holdich, and J. Skurdal. 2000. Nonindigenous crayfishes threaten North American freshwater biodiversity: lessons from Europe. Fisheries 25(8):7-19.
40072 Journal Article Ludányi, M., E.T.H.M. Peeters, B. Kiss, A. Gáspár, I. Roessink, T. Magura, and Z. Müller. 2022. The current status of Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852) and their effect on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in Hungarian watercourses. Aquatic Invasions 17(4):543-559.
40058 Journal Article Marn, N., S. Hudina, I. Haberle, A. Dobrović, and T. Klanjšček. 2022. Physiological performance of native and invasive crayfish species in a changing environment: insights from Dynamic Energy Budget models. Conservation Physiology 10(1):coac031.
32769 Journal Article Meira, A., M. Lopes-Lima, S. Varandas, A. Teixeira, F. Arenas, and R. Sousa. 2019. Invasive crayfishes as a threat to freshwater bivalves: interspecific differences and conservation implications. Science of the Total Environment 649:938-948.
38656 Journal Article Meira, A., M. Lopes-Lima, S. Varandas, A. Teixeria, F. Arenas, and R. Sousa. 2019. Invasive crayfishes as a threat to freshwater bivalves: Interspecific differences and conservation implications. Science of The Total Environment 649:938-948.
30942 Journal Article Moorhouse, T. P., Poole, A. E., Evans, L. C., Bradley, D. C., and D. W. Macdonald. 2014. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species. Ecology and Evolution 4(4):494-504.
32577 Journal Article Moorhouse, T.P., A.E. Poole, L.C. Evans, D.C. Bradley, and D.W. Macdonald. 2014. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species. Ecology and Evolution 4(4):494-504.
32606 Journal Article Moorhouse, TP., A.E. Poole, L.C. Evans, D.C. Bradley, D.W. Macdonald. 2014. Intensive removal of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) from rivers increases numbers and taxon richness of macroinvertebrate species. Ecology and Evolution 4(4):494-504.
32578 Journal Article Moshiri, G.A. C.R. Goldman, G.L. Godshalk, and D. R. Mull. 1970. The effects of variations in oxygen tension on certain aspects of respiratory metabolism in Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana) (Crustacea: Decapoda). Physiological Zoology 43(1):23-29.
40046 Journal Article Mozsár, A., D. Árva, V. Józsa, K. Györe, B. Kajári, I. Czeglédi, T. Erős, A. Weiperth, and A. Specziár. 2021. Only one can remain? Environmental and spatial factors influencing habitat partitioning among invasive and native crayfishes in the Pannonian Ecoregion (Hungary). Science of The Total Environment 770:145240.
32452 Journal Article Oscoz, J., P. Tomds, and C. Duron. 2010. Review and new records of non-indigenous freshwater invertebrates in the Ebro River basin (Northeast Spain). Aquatic Invasions 5(3):263-284.
32595 Journal Article Peay, S. 2009. Invasive non-indigenous crayfish species in Europe: recommendations on managing them. Knowledge and Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 3:394-395.
29333 Journal Article Persson, M., L. Cerenius, and K. Soderhall. 1987. The influence of haemocyte number on the resistance of the freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus Dana, to the parasitic fungus Aphanomyces astaci. Journal of Fish Diseases 10(6):471-477.
40008 Journal Article Porco, D., S. Hermant, C.A. Purnomo, M. Horn, G. Marson, and G. Colling. 2022. eDNA-based detection of the invasive crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in streams with a LAMP assay using dependent replicates to gain higher sensitivity. Scientific Reports 12:6553.
40022 Journal Article Porco, D., S. Hermant, C.A. Purnomo, M. Horn, G. Marson, and G. Colling. 2022. Getting rid of ‘rain’ and ‘stars’: Mitigating inhibition effects on ddPCR data analysis, the case study of the invasive crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in the streams of Luxembourg. PLoS ONE 17(11):e0275363.
40001 Journal Article Pritchard, E.G., D.D.A. Chadwick, I.R. Patmore, M.A. Chadwick, P. Bradley, C.D. Sayer, and J.C. Axmacher. 2021. The ‘Pritchard Trap’: A novel quantitative survey method for crayfish. Ecological Solutions and Evidence 2(2):e12070.
40076 Journal Article Radtke, G., R. Bernaś, P. Dębowski, D. Ulikowski, and A. Kapusta. 2021. Three crayfish species of different origin in a medium-sized river system: a new state of affairs. Knowledge & Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 422(26):8.
9262 Journal Article Riegel, J.A. 1959. The systematics and distribution of crayfishes in California. California Fish and Game 45(1):29-50.
40000 Journal Article Rodríguez-Valido, C.A., M.F. Johnson, S.J. Dugdale, V. Cutts, H.G. Fell, E.A. Higgins, S. Tarr, C.M. Templey, and A.C. Algar. 2020. Thermal sensitivity of feeding and burrowing activity of an invasive crayfish in UK waters. Ecohydrology 14(1):e2258.
40065 Journal Article Sanders, H., and D.N. Mills. 2022. Predation preference of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) on native and invasive bivalve species. River Research and Applications 38(8):1469-1480.
32582 Web Page Schuster, G. A., C. A. Taylor, and J. Cordeiro. 2015. Pacifastacus leniusculus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, version 2015.1. Accessed on 11/05/2018.
32583 Web Page Schuster, G. A., C. A. Taylor, and J. Cordeiro. 2015. Pacifastacus leniusculus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, version 2015.1. Accessed on 11/08/2018.
32741 Journal Article Shimizu, S.J., and C.R. Goldman. 1983. Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana) production in the Sacramento River. Freshwater Crayfish 5:210-228.
39238 Journal Article Sieber, N., H. Hartikainen, R. Krieg, A. Zenker, and C. Vorburger. 2022. Parasite DNA detection in water samples enhances crayfish plague monitoring in asymptomatic invasive populations. Biological Invasions 24:281-297.
40010 Journal Article Sint, D., B. Kolp, O.R. Rubbmark, L. Füreder, and M. Traugott. 2021. The amount of environmental DNA increases with freshwater crayfish density and over time. Environmental DNA 4(2):417-424.
32584 Book Souty-Grosset, C., D. M. Holdich, P. Y. Noël, J. D. Reynolds, and P. Haffner. 2006. Atlas of crayfish in Europe. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Paris, France.
42008 Book Chapter Taylor, C.A. 2002. Taxonomy and conservation of native crayfish stocks. Pages 236-257 in Holdich, D.M, ed. Biology of freshwater crayfish. Blackwell Science. Oxford.
32080 Journal Article Taylor, N.G., and A.M. Dunn. 2018. Predatory impacts of alien decapod Crustacea are predicted by functional responses and explained by differences in metabolic rate. Biological Invasions 20(10):2821-2837.
26984 Journal Article Twardochleb, L.A., J.D. Olden, and E.R. Larson. 2013. A global meta-analysis of the ecological impacts of nonnative crayfish. Freshwater Science 32(4):1367-1382.
40024 Journal Article Weiperth, A., M. Bláha, B. Szajbert, R. Seprős, Z. Bányai, J. Patoka, and A. Kouba. 2020. Hungary: a European hotspot of non-native crayfish biodiversity. Knowledge & Management of Aquatic Ecosystems 421(43):14.
32748 Journal Article Westman, K. 1973. Cultivation of the American crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Freshwater Crayfish 1:211-220.
32743 Journal Article Wheatly, M.G., and B.R. McMohon. 1983. Respiration and ionoregulation in the euryhaline crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus on exposure to high salinity: an overview. Freshwater Crayfish 5:43-55.
33100 Journal Article Wittwer, C., S. Stoll, M. Thines, and C. Norwak. 2019. eDNA-based crayfish plague detection as practical tool for biomonitoring and risk assessment of A. astaci-positive crayfish populations. Biological Invasions 21(4):1075-1088.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2023]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [10/3/2023].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.