The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.

Gambusia geiseri
Gambusia geiseri
(Largespring Gambusia)
Native Transplant

Copyright Info
Gambusia geiseri Hubbs and Hubbs in Hubbs and Springer, 1957

Common name: Largespring Gambusia

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Hubbs et al. (1991); Page and Burr (1991).

Size: 4.4 cm.

Native Range: Springs in the San Marcos and Guadalupe River systems, central Texas (Lee et al. 1980 et seq.; Hubbs et al. 1991; Page and Burr 1991).

Native range data for this species provided in part by NatureServe NS logo
Hydrologic Unit Codes (HUCs) Explained
Interactive maps: Point Distribution Maps

Nonindigenous Occurrences:

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Gambusia geiseri are found here.

StateFirst ObservedLast ObservedTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
TX1937201111Concho; Elm-Sycamore; Independence; Landreth-Monument Draws; Lower Devils; Lower Pecos; Lower Trinity; Middle Colorado; South Concho; Toyah; Upper Devils

Table last updated 7/22/2024

† Populations may not be currently present.

Means of Introduction: Stocks from San Marcos, Texas, were introduced into Comanche Springs and Balmorhea area in 1937 and 1956, respectively (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1982). Dates of other introductions are not known. Introductions into the springs at Balmorhea were separate introductions as the springs are not connected (Hubbs, personal communication). Hendrickson and Brooks (1991) indicated that G. geiseri was stocked into at least one site for conservation purposes, but the authors did not provide details or information on the locality.

Status: Locally established in Texas in the Balmorhea area springs. Extirpated at Comanche Springs which periodically becomes dry (Hubbs, personal communication).

Impact of Introduction: This species reportedly competes with another spring-dwelling species, the endangered Pecos gambusia G. nobilis and is considered a potential threat to that species' existence (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1982).

References: (click for full references)

Hendrickson, D. A., and J. E. Brooks. 1991. Transplanting short-lived fishes in North American deserts: review, assessment, and recommendations. Pages 283-298 in W. L. Minckley and J. E. Deacon, editors. Battle against extinction: native fish management in the American West. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ.

Hubbs, C., R. J. Edwards, and G. P. Garrett. 1991. An annotated checklist of freshwater fishes of Texas, with key to identification of species. Texas Journal of Science, Supplement 43(4):1-56.

Lee, D. S., C. R. Gilbert, C. H. Hocutt, R. E. Jenkins, D. E. McAllister, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC.

Page, L. M., and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1982. Pecos gambusia (Gambusia nobilis) recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, NM. iii + 41 pp.

FishBase Summary

Author: Leo Nico, and Pam Fuller

Revision Date: 8/24/2011

Peer Review Date: 8/24/2011

Citation Information:
Leo Nico, and Pam Fuller, 2024, Gambusia geiseri Hubbs and Hubbs in Hubbs and Springer, 1957: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?SpeciesID=848, Revision Date: 8/24/2011, Peer Review Date: 8/24/2011, Access Date: 7/23/2024

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/23/2024].

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