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The Nonindigenous Occurrences section of the NAS species profiles has a new structure. The section is now dynamically updated from the NAS database to ensure that it contains the most current and accurate information. Occurrences are summarized in Table 1, alphabetically by state, with years of earliest and most recent observations, and the tally and names of drainages where the species was observed. The table contains hyperlinks to collections tables of specimens based on the states, years, and drainages selected. References to specimens that were not obtained through sighting reports and personal communications are found through the hyperlink in the Table 1 caption or through the individual specimens linked in the collections tables.




Craspedacusta sowerbyi
Craspedacusta sowerbyi
(freshwater jellyfish)
Coelenterates-Hydrozoans
Exotic
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Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester, 1880

Common name: freshwater jellyfish

Synonyms and Other Names: peach blossom fish (China); Craspedacusta sowerbii (Lankester, 1880)

Taxonomy: available through www.itis.govITIS logo

Identification: Craspedacusta sowerbyi is a hydrozoan (Phylum Cnidaria, Class Hydrozoa), which is most easily identified when it takes the form of a small, bell-shaped jellyfish, known as a hydromedusa.  The hydromedusa measures about 5–25 mm in diameter, and is translucent with a whitish or greenish tinge (Peard, 2002; Pennak, 1989).  It possesses five opaque-white canals, which form the gastrovascular cavity; four are radial and one is medially dorsoventral.  Tentacles of varying lengths protrude from the upper margin of the velum, arranged with three to seven short tentacles between longer ones (Pennak, 1989; Slobodkin and Bossert, 1991).  Freshwater jellyfish exhibit four very long tentacles, each parallel to a radial canal at the edge of the velum.  Shorter tentacles facilitate feeding, while the longer ones give stability for swimming.  The total number of tentacles varies from 50 to 500 (Pennak, 1989).  Conspicuous swarms of hydromedusae appear sporadically, but are only one part of the animal's life cycle.  Craspedacusta sowerbyi more often exist as microscopic podocysts (dormant "resting bodies"), frustules (larvae produced asexually by budding), planulae (larvae produced sexually by the hydromedusae), or as sessile polyps, which attach to stable surfaces and can form colonies consisting of two to four individuals and measuring 5 to 8 mm (Angradi, 1998; Acker and Muscat, 1976; Pennak, 1989; Peard, 2002).

Size: hydromedusa is 5–25 mm in diameter

Native Range: Craspedacusta sowerbyi is indigenous to the Yangtze River valley in China, where it can be found in both the upper and lower river valley (Slobodkin and Bossert, 1991). 

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Nonindigenous Occurrences: Craspedacusta sowerbyi was first described from specimens collected in 1880, from water-lily tanks in Regents Park, London.  Competing descriptions were published simultaneously by Lankester and by Allman, who called the species Limnocodium victori (Slobodkin and Bossert, 1991). Polyps discovered in Philadelphia were initially described as a separate species, but were later determined to be a form of C. sowerbyi (Boulenger and Flower, 1928).

Excluding the colder states of Alaska, Montana, North and South Dakota, and Wyoming, freshwater jellyfish has been recorded throughout the United States (Deacon and Haskell, 1967; DeVries, 1992; Eldredge, 1994; Peard, 2002).  It is most common in the eastern temperate states (DeVries, 1992).

Freshwater jellyfish are now common in temperate climates almost globally, occurring frequently in North and South America, Eurasia and Australia (Acker and Muscat, 1976; Pennak, 1989).  Although it has been recorded in tropical locations, including the Hawaiian island of Maui, the states of  Nuevo Leon and Sinaloa, Mexico and the Natal Midlands, South Africa, its extent and status in tropical climates is not well known (Edmondson, 1940; Guajardo et al., 1987; Rayner, 1988; Eldredge, personal communication, 2002, Moreno-Leon, personal communication, 2007).

Great Lakes Region: Craspedacusta sowerbyi was discovered in the Huron River near Ann Arbor, MI, in 1933, and in Lake Erie shortly thereafter (Mills et al., 1993).  It has since been recorded in Lake Huron and Lake St. Clair, as well as dozens of inland lakes and streams throughout the region, in the states of IL, IN, MI, MN, NY, OH, PA, and WI.  In Canada, freshwater jellyfish have been known in Quebec since 1955 and in Ontario since 1980 (Peard, 2002).

Table 1. States with nonindigenous occurrences, the earliest and latest observations in each state, and the tally and names of HUCs with observations†. Names and dates are hyperlinked to their relevant specimen records. The list of references for all nonindigenous occurrences of Craspedacusta sowerbyi are found here.

StateYear of earliest observationYear of last observationTotal HUCs with observations†HUCs with observations†
Alabama1995201119Cahaba; Guntersville Lake; Locust; Lower Coosa; Lower Tallapoosa; Lower Tombigbee; Middle Alabama; Middle Coosa; Middle Tallapoosa; Mobile Bay; Mobile-Tensaw; Mulberry; Noxubee; Perdido Bay; Pickwick Lake; Sipsey Fork; Upper Black Warrior; Upper Choctawhatchee; Wheeler Lake
Arizona199920106Hassayampa; Havasu-Mohave Lakes; Lower Colorado; Rillito; Upper Santa Cruz; Yuma Desert
Arkansas1981201721Beaver Reservoir; Buffalo; Bull Shoals Lake; Cache; Dardanelle Reservoir; Elk; Frog-Mulberry; Illinois; Little Missouri; Little Red; Lower Arkansas-Maumelle; Lower Black; Lower Red-Ouachita; Lower St. Francis; McKinney-Posten Bayous; Middle White; North Fork White; Ouachita Headwaters; Upper Ouachita; Upper Saline; Upper White-Village
California1997201732Aliso-San Onofre; Butte Creek; Central California Coastal; Central Coastal; Clear Creek-Sacramento River; Cow Creek; Coyote; Fresno River; Honcut Headwaters-Lower Feather; Lower American; Lower Klamath; Lower Sacramento; Middle Fork Feather; Middle San Joaquin-Lower Chowchilla; Monterey Bay; North Fork American; Paynes Creek-Sacramento River; Russian; Sacramento Headwaters; San Pablo Bay; Suisun Bay; Upper Bear; Upper Cosumnes; Upper Dry; Upper Eel; Upper Merced; Upper Mokelumne; Upper Putah; Upper San Joaquin; Upper Stanislaus; Upper Tuolumne; Upper Yuba
Colorado195520052Clear; St. Vrain
Connecticut199920168Farmington; Housatonic; Lower Connecticut; Pawcatuck-Wood; Quinebaug; Quinnipiac; Shetucket; Thames
Delaware199920052Brandywine-Christina; Broadkill-Smyrna
Florida1980201516Crystal-Pithlachascotee; Escambia; Florida Southeast Coast; Hillsborough; Kissimmee; Little Manatee; Lower Choctawhatchee; Lower St. Johns; Oklawaha; Peace; Sarasota Bay; Southern Florida; St. Andrew-St. Joseph Bays; Tampa Bay; Upper St. Johns; Vero Beach
Georgia1981200522Broad; Conasauga; Cumberland-St. Simons; Etowah; Kinchafoonee-Muckalee; Little; Little Satilla; Lower Ochlockonee; Middle Chattahoochee-Lake Harding; Middle Flint; Middle Savannah; Ocoee; Oostanaula; Tugaloo; Upper Chattahoochee; Upper Coosa; Upper Flint; Upper Ocmulgee; Upper Oconee; Upper Savannah; Upper Tallapoosa; Withlacoochee
Hawaii194019401Hawaii
Idaho199720156Boise-Mores; Kootenai-Pend Oreille-Spokane; Lower Boise; Lower Salmon; Middle Salmon-Chamberlain; Pend Oreille Lake
Illinois199320128Big Muddy; Chicago; Kankakee; Lower Illinois-Senachwine Lake; Lower Ohio; Lower Ohio-Bay; Saline; Spoon
Indiana1998201627Chicago; Driftwood; Eel; Eel; Flatrock-Haw; Highland-Pigeon; Iroquois; Kankakee; Little Calumet-Galien; Lower East Fork White; Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon; Lower White; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Middle Wabash-Busseron; Middle Wabash-Deer; Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion; Mississinewa; Muscatatuck; Patoka; Silver-Little Kentucky; St. Joseph; St. Joseph; Tippecanoe; Upper East Fork White; Upper Wabash; Upper White; Whitewater
Iowa199919991Winnebago
Kansas199919993Little Arkansas; Lower Kansas; Upper Kansas
Kentucky1916201624Barren; Big Sandy; Blue-Sinking; Highland-Pigeon; Kentucky Lake; Licking; Little Sandy; Lower Cumberland; Lower Green; Lower Kentucky; Lower Levisa; Lower Ohio; Lower Ohio-Little Pigeon; Middle Fork Kentucky; North Fork Kentucky; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Rolling Fork; Salt; Silver-Little Kentucky; Tradewater; Upper Cumberland; Upper Cumberland-Lake Cumberland; Upper Green; Upper Kentucky
Louisiana199920043Amite; Cross Bayou; Lower Ouachita
Maine1963200513East Branch Penobscot; Fish; Lower Androscoggin; Lower Kennebec; Lower Penobscot; Maine Coastal; Mattawamkeag; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Piscataquis; Presumpscot; Saco; St. Croix; West Branch Penobscot
Maryland199920059Conococheague-Opequon; Gunpowder-Patapsco; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; Monocacy; Nanticoke; North Branch Potomac; Patuxent; Severn
Massachusetts1998201013Blackstone; Cape Cod; Charles; Chicopee; Concord; Farmington; Housatonic; Merrimack River; Middle Connecticut; Miller; Narragansett; Nashua; Quinebaug
Michigan1933201725Au Sable; Betsie-Platte; Black; Black-Macatawa; Boardman-Charlevoix; Brule; Cheboygan; Clinton; Flint; Huron; Kalamazoo; Lake Huron; Lake St. Clair; Lone Lake-Ocqueoc; Lower Grand; Manistee; Muskegon; Ontonagon; Pere Marquette-White; Pine; Raisin; St. Joseph; Thornapple; Tittabawassee; Upper Grand
Minnesota1999201611Buffalo-Whitewater; Cloquet; Kettle; Leech Lake; Little Fork; Lower Minnesota; Lower St. Croix; Rainy Headwaters; St. Louis; Vermilion; Zumbro
Mississippi199920063Bogue Chitto; Tallahatchie; Upper Tombigbee
Missouri1991201617Big; Blackwater; Bull Shoals Lake; Cahokia-Joachim; Lake of the Ozarks; Lower Gasconade; Lower Missouri-Crooked; Lower Missouri-Moreau; Lower Osage; Niangua; Peruque-Piasa; Pomme De Terre; Sac; Spring; Upper Black; Upper Gasconade; Whitewater
Nebraska200320074Big Papillion-Mosquito; Middle Platte-Buffalo; Middle Platte-Prairie; Wood
Nevada196719992Lake Mead; Long-Ruby Valleys
New Hampshire199720108Contoocook; Merrimack River; Middle Connecticut; Nashua; Pemigewasset; Piscataqua-Salmon Falls; Saco; Winnipesaukee River
New Jersey198320168Cohansey-Maurice; Great Egg Harbor; Hackensack-Passaic; Lower Delaware; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Mullica-Toms; Raritan
New Mexico199919992Caballo; Pecos Headwaters
New York1934201724Ausable River; Black; Conewango; Grass; Hackensack-Passaic; Housatonic; Hudson-Wappinger; Lake Champlain; Lake Erie; Lower Hudson; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Mohawk; Oneida; Oswegatchie; Raisin River-St. Lawrence River; Raquette; Rondout; Sacandaga; Salmon-Sandy; Saugatuck; Seneca; Upper Delaware; Upper Hudson; Upper Susquehanna
North Carolina1999201718Coastal Carolina; Haw; Lower Cape Fear; Lower Dan; Lower Little Tennessee; Lower Neuse; Lower Yadkin; Middle Neuse; Pamlico; South Yadkin; Tuckasegee; Upper Broad; Upper Cape Fear; Upper Catawba; Upper French Broad; Upper Little Tennessee; Upper Neuse; Waccamaw
Ohio1933201027Auglaize; Black-Rocky; Cedar-Portage; Cuyahoga; Grand; Hocking; Lake Erie; Little Miami; Little Scioto-Tygarts; Lower Great Miami; Lower Maumee; Lower Scioto; Mahoning; Middle Ohio-Laughery; Muskingum; Ohio Brush-Whiteoak; Paint; Raccoon-Symmes; Sandusky; Shenango; Tuscarawas; Upper Great Miami; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; Upper Scioto; Walhonding; Whitewater
Oklahoma1930200714Cache; Deep Fork; Illinois; Kiamichi; Lake O' The Cherokees; Lake Texoma; Lower North Canadian; Middle North Canadian; Middle Washita; Mountain Fork; Muddy Boggy; Robert S. Kerr Reservoir; Upper Little; West Cache
Oregon199920053Lower Rogue; South Umpqua; Upper Willamette
Pennsylvania1957200540Bald Eagle; Brandywine-Christina; Chautauqua-Conneaut; Clarion; Conemaugh; Connoquenessing; Conococheague-Opequon; Crosswicks-Neshaminy; Kiskiminetas; Lackawaxen; Lehigh; Lower Allegheny; Lower Delaware; Lower Juniata; Lower Monongahela; Lower Susquehanna; Lower Susquehanna-Penns; Lower Susquehanna-Swatara; Lower West Branch Susquehanna; Mahoning; Middle Allegheny-Redbank; Middle Allegheny-Tionesta; Middle Delaware-Mongaup-Brodhead; Middle Delaware-Musconetcong; Monocacy; Owego-Wappasening; Raystown; Schuylkill; Shenango; Sinnemahoning; Tioga; Upper Allegheny; Upper Delaware; Upper Juniata; Upper Ohio; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; Upper Susquehanna; Upper Susquehanna-Lackawanna; Upper Susquehanna-Tunkhannock; Youghiogheny
Rhode Island199520032Narragansett; Pawcatuck-Wood
South Carolina196020057Black; Coastal Carolina; Lower Catawba; Saluda; Tyger; Upper Broad; Upper Savannah
Tennessee1999201314Caney; Emory; Guntersville Lake; Lower Clinch; Middle Tennessee-Chickamauga; Obey; Ocoee; Pickwick Lake; Red; South Fork Forked Deer; South Fork Holston; Stones; Upper Clinch; Watts Bar Lake
Texas1987200522Amistad Reservoir; Austin-Travis Lakes; Buffalo-San Jacinto; Cibolo; Denton; Hubbard; Lake O' the Pines; Llano; Lower Colorado-Cummins; Lower Neches; Lower Sabine; Lower Trinity-Tehuacana; Lower West Fork Trinity; Medina; Middle Sabine; Navasota; San Marcos; Spring; Upper Angelina; Upper Guadalupe; Upper Trinity; West Galveston Bay
Vermont199920058Hudson-Hoosic; Mettawee River; Missiquoi River; Otter Creek; St. Francois River; Upper Connecticut; Waits; Winooski River
Virginia1999201520Albemarle; Appomattox; Blackwater; Lower James; Lower Potomac; Lower Rappahannock; Middle James-Buffalo; Middle James-Willis; Middle Potomac-Anacostia-Occoquan; Middle Potomac-Catoctin; North Fork Holston; North Fork Shenandoah; Pamunkey; Powell; Rapidan-Upper Rappahannock; Rivanna; Shenandoah; South Fork Shenandoah; Upper Levisa; Upper Roanoke
Washington199720174Colville; Lower Columbia-Clatskanie; Puget Sound; Upper Spokane
West Virginia1978201320Cacapon-Town; Cheat; Coal; Conococheague-Opequon; Elk; Gauley; Greenbrier; Little Kanawha; Little Muskingum-Middle Island; Lower Guyandotte; Middle New; North Branch Potomac; Raccoon-Symmes; Twelvepole; Upper Guyandotte; Upper Kanawha; Upper Monongahela; Upper Ohio-Shade; Upper Ohio-Wheeling; West Fork
Wisconsin1969201723Bad-Montreal; Baraboo; Beartrap-Nemadji; Black-Presque Isle; Castle Rock; Flambeau; La Crosse-Pine; Lake Dubay; Lower Chippewa; Lower St. Croix; Menominee; Middle Rock; Namekagon; Oconto; Peshtigo; Red Cedar; Upper Chippewa; Upper Fox; Upper Fox; Upper Rock; Upper St. Croix; Upper Wisconsin; Wolf

Table last updated 5/25/2018

† Populations may not be currently present.


Ecology: Craspedacusta sowerbyi occupies a range of freshwater habitats.  In its native range, it typically inhabits shallow pools along the Yangtze River, sometimes coexisting with a related species, C. sinensis, which occurs in the upper river valley (Slobodkin and Bossert, 1991).  In this environment, changing conditions in the main river system expose jellyfish to fluctuating water levels, temperatures and plankton populations. Where it is introduced, C. sowerbyi is most commonly found in shallow, slow moving or stagnant artificial water bodies such as ornamental ponds, reservoirs, gravel pits, and quarries (Pennak, 1956; DeVries, 1992; Peard, 2002).  It has also been reported in large river systems, including the Allegheny, Ohio and Tennessee River systems, natural lakes, aquaria, and ornamental ponds (Beckett and Turanchik, 1980; DeVries, 1992; Peard, 2002). A study by Caputo et al. 2018, demonstrated that higher turbidity or increase in color of the water ‘‘brownification’’ would provide more favorable conditions for the invasion process of this hydroid.

Craspedacusta sowerbyi is able to reproduce both sexually and asexually.  Mature hydromedusae reproduce sexually by broadcasting gametes into the water.  Fertilized eggs grow into ciliated planulae (larvae), which then settle and metamorphose into the polyp form.  Polyps are capable of budding to produce hydromedusae, as well as either daughter polyps that remain attached to the parent, forming a colony, or frustule larvae which move to new locations before metamorphosing into new polyps (Pennak, 1989; Slobodkin and Bossert, 1991; Peard, 2002). 

Hydromedusae are produced only sporadically, and a given location may go several years between blooms (Peard, 2002).  Blooms are thought to be temperature dependent, requiring water of at least 25° C, and are most common in summer and fall (Kato and Hirabayashi, 1991; Dodson and Cooper, 1983; Anonymous, 1997; McGaffin, 1997; Peard, 2002).  Other factors that may affect hydromedusa blooms include zooplankton populations, alkalinity, and calcium carbonate (Acker and Muscat, 1976; Koryak and Clancy, 1981; McCullough et al., 1981; Angradi, 1998). The more cold tolerant polyp form may have a wider distribution than the hydromedusa form, but because it is inconspicuous and easily overlooked, its range is difficult to determine (Kato and Hirabayashi, 1991; Angradi, 1998).  Polyps overwinter by contracting into resting bodies called podocysts, which are essentially dormant cellular balls surrounded by a protective chitin-like membrane that allows them to withstand more extreme conditions than the active forms (Peard, 2002).  When conditions are favorable, the podocysts grow into polyps again.

Like other cnidarians, C. sowerbyi is an opportunistic predator, feeding on small organisms that come within its reach.  Both polyp and hydromedusa forms use nematocysts (stingers) to capture prey.  Polyps are able to camouflage themselves by secreting a sticky mucous that adheres particles to their body (Pennak, 1989; Peard, 2002).

Means of Introduction: Initially, C. sowerbyi was probably transported with ornamental aquatic plants, especially water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), from its native region in China (Slobodkin and Bossert, 1991). An introduction at Fena Lake, Guam may have accompanied introduction of tilapia following dam construction in 1952.  The first sightings of C. sowerbyi at Fena Lake were in 1970 (Belk and Hotaling, 1971).  In the United States, polyps and resting bodies are probably translocated accidentally with stocked fish and aquatic plants or by waterfowl  (Angradi, 1998; Wynett and Wynett, pers. comm. 1998).  Pennak (1956) noted that new reservoirs and ponds (less than 40 years) exhibited the majority of hydromedusa blooms known at that time.

Status: Craspedacusta sowerbyi is apparently established throughout most of the United States.  Since the first record in 1880, it has been recorded in 44 states and the District of Columbia (Pennak, 1989; DeVries, 1992; Peard, 2002).   In Colorado, only two populations have been reported, so the species may not be established there (Pennak, 1956; DeVries, 1992; Peard, 2009). The presence of C. sowerbyi in Maui, Hawaii was confirmed in 1938, however its status in Hawaii is unknown.  There have been no documented observations of C. sowerbyi in Hawaii for at least 15 years (Edmondson, 1940; Eldredge, personal communication 2002). 

Impact of Introduction: The impact of this widespread jellyfish is unclear.  Dodson and Cooper (1983) proposed Craspedacusta sowerbyi's preference for predatory zooplankton, such as the rotifer Asplanchna, could influence relative zooplankton species structure.   Spadinger and Maier (1999) agreed with theorized affects on zooplankton communities finding that C. sowerbyi hydromedusae prefer larger zooplankton (0.4–1.4 mm) and vigorous prey such as copepods.  Under laboratory conditions and in 4 mm of water, C. sowerbyi polyps apparently killed and fed on striped bass larvae (Dendy, 1978).  Dumont (1994) speculated that C. sowerbyi may consume fish eggs, but Spadinger and Maier (1999) note that it is generally not considered an important predator of eggs or small fish . Crayfish are considered the only important predator of the hydromedusa phase (Pennak, 1989; Slobodkin and Bossert, 1991). 

Remarks: Freshwater jellyfish is not considered dangerous to humans.  Although its stings can paralyze macroinvertebrates and small fish, its small nematocysts are not likely to penetrate human skin (Peard, 2002).

Populations of C. sowerbyi are frequently all male or all female, making sexual reproduction rare (Pennak, 1989).

Pennak (1989) gives several useful line drawing of C. sowerbyi.  For an illustrated description of the lifecycle, see Thorp and Covich (1991), or visit Sexual Reproduction in Freshwater Jellyfish (Sasaki, 1999) or www. jellyfish.iup.edu/images/cycle.jpg (Peard, 2009).

References: (click for full references)

Acker, T.S., and A.M. Muscat. 1976. The ecology of Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester, a freshwater hydrozoan. American Midland Naturalist 95:323-336.

Angradi, T.R. 1998.Observations of freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester (Trachylina: Petasidae), in a West Virginia Reservoir. Brimleyana: The Journal of the North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences 25:35-42.

Anonymous. 1997. Freshwater jellyfish discovered in Idaho by Girl Scouts. Idaho Statesman. http://www.garf.org/freshjelly/html

Beckett, D.C., and E.J. Turanchik. 1980. Occurrence of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester in the Ohio River. Ohio Journal of Science 32:323-324.

Belk, D., and D. Hotaling. 1971. Guam record of the freshwater medusa Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Micronesia 7:229-230.

Boulenger, C.L., and W.U. Flower. 1928. The Regents Park medusa Craspedacusta sowerbyi and its identity with C. (Microhydra) ryderi. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 66:1005-1015.

Caputo, L., P. Huovinen, R. Sommaruga, and I. Gomez. 2018. Water transparency affects the survival of the medusa stage of the invasive freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii. Hydrobiologia 817(1):179-191.

Deacon, J.E., and W.L. Haskell. 1967. Observations on the ecology of the freshwater jellyfish in Lake Mead, Nevada. American Midland Naturalist 78(1):155-166.

Dendy, J.S. 1978. Polyps of Craspedacusta sowerbyi as predators on young striped bass. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 40(1):5-6.

DeVries, D.R. 1992. The freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbyi: a summary of its life history, ecology and distribution. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 7:7-16.

Dodson, S.I., and S.D. Cooper. 1983. Trophic relationships of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowebyi Lankester 1880. Limnology and Oceanography 28(2):345-351.

Dumont, H.J. 1994. The distribution and ecology of the fresh- and brackish-water medusae of the world. Hydrobiologia 272:1-12.

Edmondson, C.H. 1940. Fresh-water jellyfish in Hawaii. Science 91(2361):313-314.

Eldredge, L.G. 1994. Perspectives in Aquatic Exotic Species Management in the South Pacific Islands. Vol. I. Introductions of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific Islands. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 127 pp.

Eldredge, L.G. 2002. Personal communication. Invertebrate Zoologist, Bishop Museum, 1525 Bernice Street, Honolulu, Hawai'i 96817.

Guajaro, M.G., H.V. Sanchez, and Y. Salvador-Contreras. 1987. The first records of Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester for Nuevo Leon, NE of Mexico, and Cordylophora lacustria Allman for fresh water in Mexico.  Collected at Presa Rodrigo Gomerza and Rio San Juan repectively. Publicaciones Biologica Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon 2(2):51-54.

Jankowski, T. 2004. Predation of freshwater jellyfish on Bosmina: the consequences for population dynamics, body size, and morphology. Hydrobiologia 530/531:521-528.

Jankowski, T., T. Strauss, and H.T. Ratte. 2005. Trophic interactions of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii. Journal of Plankton Research 27(8):811-823.

Kato, K.I., and S. Hirabayashi. 1991. Temperature condition initiating medusa bud formation and the mode of appearance in a freshwater hydroid, Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Zoological Science, Tokyo 8(6):1107.

Koryak, M., and P.J. Clancy. 1981. Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester (Hydrozoa) medusoid generation in two western Pennsylvania impoundments. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 55:43-44.

Ma, Xiping, and J. E. Purcell. "Temperature, Salinity, and Prey Effects on Polyp versus Medusa Bud Production by the Invasive Hydrozoan Moerisia Lyonsi." Marine Biology 147.1 (2005): 225-34. Web.

McCullough, J.D., M.F. Taylor, and J.L. Jones. 1981. The occurrence of the freshwater medusa Craspedacusta sowerbyi in Nacogdoches Reservoir, Texas and associated physical-chemical conditions. Texas Journal of Science 33:17-23.

McGaffin, P. 1997. Freshwater jellyfish found in lake. HeraldNet Local News.

Mills, E.L., J.H. Leach, J.T. Carlton, and C.L. Secor. 1993. Exotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19(1):1-54.

Moreno-Leon, M.A. 2007. Personal communication. Director General, Bufete Ambiental y de Negocios Del Noroeste SC.

Payne, F. 1924. A study of the freshwater medusae, Craspedacusta ryderi. Journal of Morphology 38:397-430.

Peard, T. 2002. Freshwater Jellyfish! Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA. 25 pp.  http://www.jellyfish.iup.edu/

Pennak, R.W. 1956. The fresh-water jellyfish Craspedacusta in Colorado with some remarks on its ecology and morphological degeneration. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 75:324-331.

Pennak, R.W. 1989. Coelentera. In: Fresh-water Invertebrates of the United States: Protozoa to Mollusca, 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 110-127.

Rayner, N.A. 1988. First record of Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester (Cnidaria: Limnomedusae) from Africa. Hydrobiologia 162(1):73-78.

Sasaki, G. 1999. Sexual reproduction in freshwater jellyfish (Craspedacusta sowerbyi). Micscape Magazine, online at Microscopy-UK.  http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/indexmag.html?http://www.microscopy-uk.org.uk/mag/artdec99/fwjelly2.html

Slobodkin, L.B., and P.E. Bossert. 1991. The Freshwater Cnidaria or Coelenterates. In: Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich, eds. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 135-136.

Smith, A.S., and J.E. Alexander. 2008. Potential effects of the freshwater jellyfish Craspedacusta sowerbii on zooplankton community abundance. Journal of Plankton Research 30(12):1323-1327.

Spadinger, R., and G. Maier. 1999. Prey selection and diel feeding of the freshwater jellyfish, Craspedacusta sowerbyi. Freshwater Biology 41:567-573.

Stefani, F., B. Leoni, A. Marieni, and L. Garibaldi. 2010. A new record of Craspedacusta sowerbii, Lankester 1880 (Cnidaria, Limnomedusae) in Northern Italy. Journal of Limnology 69(1):189-192.

Thorp, J.H., and A.P. Covich, eds. 1991. Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates. Academic Press, San Diego. 911 p.

Wynett, C., and D. Wynett. 1998. Personal communication. Land owner, Switzerland County, IN.

Author: McKercher, E., O; Connell, D., Fuller, P., Liebig, J., Larson, J., Makled, T.H., Fusaro, A., and Daniel, W.M.

Revision Date: 5/29/2018

Citation Information:
McKercher, E., O; Connell, D., Fuller, P., Liebig, J., Larson, J., Makled, T.H., Fusaro, A., and Daniel, W.M., 2018, Craspedacusta sowerbyi Lankester, 1880: U.S. Geological Survey, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL, https://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.aspx?speciesID=1068, Revision Date: 5/29/2018, Access Date: 6/20/2018

This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.

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URL: https://nas.er.usgs.gov
Page Contact Information: Pam Fuller - NAS Program (pfuller@usgs.gov)
Page Last Modified: Wednesday, May 23, 2018

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The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2018]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/20/2018].

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