References: (click for full references)
Alewife explosion. 1967, July 7. TIME. 90(1):66. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,899581,00.html
Ball, S.C., T.B. Mihuc, L.W. Myers, and J.D. Stockwell. 2015. Ten-fold decline in Mysis diluviana in Lake Champlain between 1975 and 2012. Journal of Great Lakes Research 41(2):502-509.
Bean, T.H. 1882. Movements of young alewives (Pomolobus sp.) in Colorado River, Texas. Pp. 69-70 in S. F. Baird, editor. Report of the Commissioner of Fishes and Fisheries for 1881. Volume I. U.S. Commision of Fish and Fisheries, Washington, DC.
Becker, G.C. 1983. Fishes of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. 1052 pp. http://digital.library.wisc.edu/1711.dl/EcoNatRes.FishesWI
Bence, J.R., N.E. Dobiesz, C.P. Madenijan, R. Argyle, J.N. Bowlby, and R.M. Claramut. 2008. Top-down effects of open-water salmonine predators in the Great Lakes. Quantitative Fisheries Center, QFC Technical Report T2008-07.
Bergstedt, R.A., and R. O'Gorman. 1989. Distribution of alewives in southeastern Lake Ontario in autumn and winter: a clue to winter mortalities. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 118(6):687-692.
Boel, M., J. Brodersen, A. Koed, H. Baktoft, and D.M. Post. 2018. Incidence and phenotypic variation in alewife alter the ontogenetic trajectory of young-of-the-year largemouth bass. Oikos 127(12):1800-1811.
Bogue, M.B. 2000. Fishing the Great Lakes?: An Environmental History, 1783-1933. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015050317729&view=1up&seq=7.
Boscarino, B.T., S. Oyagi, E.K. Stapylton, K.E. McKeon, N.O. Michels, S.F. Cushman, and M.E. Brown. 2020. The influence of light, substrate, and fish on the habitat preferences of the invasive bloody red shrimp, Hemimysis anomala. Journal of Great Lakes Research 46(2):311-322.
Bouc, K. 1987. The fish book. Nebraskaland Magazine 65(1):1-130.
Boutin, C., T. Dobbie, D. Carpenter, and C.E. Hebert. 2011. Effects of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus Less.) on island vegetation, seedbank, and soil chemistry: evaluating island restoration potential. Restoration Ecology 19(6):720-727.
Bronte, C.R., M.P. Ebener, D.R. Schreiner, D.S. DeVault, M.M. Petzold, D.A. Jensen, C. Richards, and S.J. Lorenzo. 2003. Fish community change in Lake Superior, 1970-2000. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences(60):1552-1574.
Brown, E.H. 1968. Population characteristics and physical condition of alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, in a massive dieoff in Lake Michigan, 1967. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report No. 13. Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Ann Arbor, MI, 20 pp.
Burr, B.M., and L.M. Page. 1986. Zoogeography of fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin. Pages 287-324 in C. H. Hocutt, and E. O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Burr, B.M., and M.L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission Scientific and Technical Series 4. 398 pp.
Christie, W.J. 1972. Lake Ontario: effects of exploitation, introductions, and eutrophication on the salmonid community. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 29:913-929.
Clearwater, S.J., C.W. Hickey, and M.L. Martin. 2008. Overview of potential piscicides and molluscicides for controlling aquatic pest species in New Zealand. Science & Technical Publishing, New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand.
Colby, P.J. 1973. Response of the alewives, Alosa pseudoharengus, to environmental change. Pages 163-198 in Walter Chavin, ed. Responses of fish to environmental changes. Charles C. Thomas. Springfield, IL.
Crowder, L.B. 1980. Alewife, rainbow smelt and native fishes in Lake Michigan: competition or predation? Environmental Biology of Fishes 5(3):225-233.
Crowder, L.B. 1984. Character displacement and habitat shift in a native cisco in southeastern Lake Michigan: Evidence for competition? Copeia 1984(4):878-883.
Crowder, L.B., and F.P. Binkowski. 1983. Foraging behaviors and the interactions of Alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, and bloater, Coregonus hoyi. Environmental Biology of Fishes 8: 105-113.
Cudmore-Vokey, B. and E.J. Crossman. 2000. Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2500: v + 39 pp.
Czypinski, G.D., A.K. Bowen, M.T. Weimer, and A. Dextrase. 2002. Surveillance for ruffe in the Great Lakes, 2001. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ashland, WI.
Dahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott. 1971. The freshwater fishes of Georgia. Bulletin of the Georgia Academy of Science 29:1-64.
DeBruyne, R.L., T.L. DeVault, A.E. Duerr, D.E. Capen, F.E. Pogmore, J.R. Jackson, and L.G. Rudstam. 2012. Spatial and temporal comparisons of double-crested cormorant diets following the establishment of alewife in Lake Champlain, USA. Journal of Great Lakes Research 38(Supplement 1):123-130.
Denoncourt, R.F., T.B. Robbins, and R. Hesser. 1975. Recent introductions and reintroductions to the Pennsylvania fish fauna of the Susquehanna River drainage above Conowingo Dam. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science 49:57-58.
Dettmers, J.M., C.I. Goddard, and K.D. Smith. 2014. Management of alewife using Pacific Salmon in the Great Lakes: Whether to manage for economics or the ecosystem? Fisheries 37(11):495-501. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/03632415.2012.731875.
DiMaggio, M.A., T.S. Breton, L.W. Kenter, C.G. Diessner, A.I. Burgess, and D.L. Berlinsky. 2016. The effects of elevated salinity on river herring embryo and larval survival. Environmental Biology of Fishes 99(5):451-461.
Dufour, E., T.O. Hook, W.P. Patterson, and E.S. Rutherford. 2008. High-resolution isotope analysis of young alewife Alosa pseudoharengus otoliths: assessment of temporal resolution and reconstruction of habitat occupancy and thermal history. Journal of Fish Biology 73(10):2434-2451.
Eck, G.W., and L. Wells. 1987. Recent changes in Lake Michigan’s fish community and their probably causes, with emphasis on the role of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 44(Supp. 2):53-60.
Eddy, S., and J.C. Underhill. 1974. Northern fishes, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi Valley, 3rd edition. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.
Edsall, T.A. 1970. The effect of temperature on the rate of development and survival of alewife eggs and larvae. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 99(2):376-380.
Elrod, J.H. 1983. Seasonal food of juvenile lake trout in U.S. waters of Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 9(3):396-402.
Elrod, J.H., N. Busch, B.L. Griswold, C.P. Schneider, and D.R. Wolfert. 1981. Food of white perch, rock bass and yellow perch in eastern Lake Ontario. New York Fish and Game Journal 28(2):191-201. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1000142.
Emery, L. 1985. Review of fish introduced into the Great Lakes, 1819-1974. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report, volume 45. 31 pp.
Etnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville, TN.
Evans, M.S. 1990. Large-lake responses to declines in the abundance of a major fish planktivore - the Lake Michigan example. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 47:1738-1754.
Fitzsimons, J.D., S.B. Brown, D.C. Honeyfield, and J.G. Hnath. 1999. A review of early mortality syndrome (EMS) in Great Lakes salmonids: relationship with thiamine deficiency. Ambio 28(1):9-15.
Grady, W. 2007. The Great Lakes : the natural history of a changing region. Greystone Books, Vancouver, BC. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=g1u9BwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP6&ots=jiBvHBmDWB&sig=m8EiIePR5H_xKV_yz3TDTVFjOfo#v=onepage&q&f=false.
Hansen, M.J., and M.E. Holey. 2002. Ecological factors affecting the sustainability of chinook and coho salmon populations in the Great Lakes, especially Lake Michigan. Pages 155-180 in W.W. Taylor, K.D. Lynch, and M. L. Jones, eds. Sustaining North American Salmon: Perspectives Across Regions and Disciplines.
Hartel, K.E. 1992. Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters. Occasional Reports of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Fish Department, Cambridge, MA. 2 September. pp. 1-
Hauser, M. 1998. Champlain Canal fish barrier study. Aquatic Nuisance Species Digest 2(3):26-27.
Heinrich, J.W. 1981. Culture, feeding, and growth of alewives hatched in the laboratory. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 43(1):3-7.
Hendricks, M.L., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., C.H. Hocutt, and C.R. Gilbert. 1979. A preliminary checklist of the fishes of the Youghiogheny River. Chicago Academy of Sciences, Natural History Miscellanea 203:1-15.
Hewett, S., and D. Stewart. 1989. Zooplanktivory by Alewives in Lake Michigan: Ontogenetic, seasonal, and historical patterns. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 118:581-596.
Hlavek, R.R., and C.R. Norden. 1978. The reproductive cycle and fecundity of the alewife in Lake Michigan. Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 1:80-90.
Hocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1986. Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic Coastal Plain. Pages 161-212 in C.H. Hocutt, and E.O. Wiley, editors. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
Hook, T., E. Rutherford, D. Mason, and G. Carter. 2007. Hatch dates, growth, survival, and overwinter mortality of age-0 Alewives in Lake Michigan: implications for habitat-specific recruitment success. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 136:1298-1312.
Houde, A.L.S., P.J. Saez, C.C. Wilson, D.P. Bureau, and B.D. Neff. 2015. Effects of feeding high dietary thiaminase to sub-adult Atlantic salmon from three populations. Journal of Great Lakes Research 41(3):898-906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2015.06.009
Hutchinson, B.P. 1971. The effect of fish predation on the zooplankton of ten Adirondack lakes, with particular reference to the alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 100(2):325-335.
Janssen, J., and M.A. Luebke. 2004. Preference for rocky habitat by age-0 yellow perch and alewives. Journal of Great Lakes Research 30(1):93-99.
Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.
Johannsson, O.E., and R. O'Gorman. 1991. Roles of predation, food, and temperature in structuring the epilimnetic zooplankton populations in Lake Ontario, 1981–1986. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120(2):193-208.
Johannsson, O.E., E.L. Mills, and R. O'Gorman. 1991. Changes in nearshore and offshore zooplankton communities in Lake Ontario: 1981-1988. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 48(8):1546-1557. http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/pdf/10.1139/f91-183.
Johannsson, O.E., E.S. Millard, K.M. Ralph, D.D. Myles, D.M. Graham, W.D. Taylor, B.G. Giles, and R.E. Allen. 1998. The changing pelagia of Lake Ontario (1981 to 1995): A report of the DFO long-term biomonitoring (Bioindex) program. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. No. 2243. 278 pp.
Keeler, K.M., D.B. Bunnell, J.S. Diana, J.V. Adams, J.G. Mychek-Londer, D.M. Warner, D.L. Yule, and M.R. Vinson. 2015. Evaluating the importance of abiotic and biotic drivers on Bythotrephes biomass in Lakes Superior and Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 41:150-160.
Keilty, T.J. 1990. Evidence for Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) predation on the European cladoceran Bythotrephes cederstroemi in northern Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 16(2):330–333.
Kelly, J.M. 2001. Bait-bucket biology. Post Standard, Syracuse, NY (June 28, 2001).
Ketola, H.G., P.R. Bowser, G.A. Wooster, L.R. Wedge, and S.S. Hurst. 2000. Effects of thiamine on reproduction of Atlantic salmon and a new hypothesis for their extirpation in Lake Ontario. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129(2):607-612.
Kocik, J.F., and Jones, M.L. 1999. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes basin. In Great Lakes Fisheries Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective. Edited by W.W. Taylor and C. P. Ferreri. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, Mich. pp. 455-488.
Ladago, B.J., M.H. Futia, W.R. Andren, D.C. Honeyfield, K.P. Kelsey, C.L. Kozel, S.C. Riley, J. Rinchard, D.E. Tillitt, J.L. Zajicek, and J.E. Marsden. 2020. Thiamine concentrations in lake trout and Atlantic salmon eggs during 14 years following the invasion of alewife in Lake Champlain. Journal of Great Lakes Research 1:NA.
Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980 et seq. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, NC. (Cited as a work rather than as individual accounts in the interest of space).
Lepak, J.M., and C.E. Kraft. 2008. Alewife mortality, condition, and immune response to prolonged cold temperatures. Journal of Great Lakes Research 34(1):134-142.
Luo, M.K., C.P. Madenjian, J.S. Diana, M.S. Kornis, and C.R. Bronte. 2019. Shifting diets of Lake Trout in northeastern Lake Michigan. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 39:793–806.
Madenjian, C.P., R.O. O’Gorman, D.B. Bunnell, R.L. Argyle, E.F. Roseman, D.M. Warner, J.D. Stockwell, and M.A. Stapanian. 2008. Adverse effects of alewives on Laurentian Great Lakes fish communities. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 28(1):263-282.
Madura, P.T., and H.P. Jones. 2016. Invasive species sustain double-crested cormorants in southern Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research 42(2):413-420.
Marsden, J.E., and M. Hauser. 2009. Exotic species in Lake Champlain. Journal of Great Lakes Research 35:250-265.
McCauley, R.W., and F.P. Binkowski. 1982. Thermal tolerance of the alewife. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 111(3):389-391.
Miller, R.R. 1957. Origin and dispersal of the alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus, and the gizzard shad, Dorosoma cepedianum, in the Great Lakes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 86:97-111.
Mills, E.L., J.M. Casselman, R. Dermott, J.D. Fitzsimons, G. Gal, K.T. Holeck, J.A. Hoyle, O.E. Johannsson, B.F. Lantry, J.C. Makarewicz, E.S. Millard, I.F. Munawar, M. Munawar, R. O’Gorman, R.W. Owens, L.G. Rudstam, T. Schaner, and T.J. Stewart. 2005. A synthesis of ecological and fish community changes in Lake Ontario, 1970-2000. Great Lakes Fishery Commission Technical Report No. 67. 92 pp.
Mills, E.L., R. O'Gorman, J. DeGisi, et al. 1992. Food of the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in Lake Ontario before and after the establishment of Bythotrephes cederstroemi. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49(10):2009-2019.
Minckley, W.L. 1973. Fishes of Arizona. Arizona Fish and Game Department. Sims Printing Company, Inc., Phoenix, AZ.
Morris, J., L. Morris, and L. Witt. 1974. The Fishes of Nebraska. Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, Lincoln, NE. 98 pp.
Mumby, J.A., S.M. Larocque, T.B. Johnson, T.J. Stewart, J.D. Fitzsimons, B.C. Weidel, M.G. Walsh, J.R. Lantry, M.J. Yuille, and A.T. Fisk. 2018. Diet and trophic niche space and overlap of Lake Ontario salmonid species using stable isotopes and stomach contents. Journal of Great Lakes Research 44(6):1383-1392.
O'Gorman, R. 1974. Predation by Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) on Young-of-the-Year Alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Great Lakes. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 36(4):223-224.
O'Gorman, R., C. Madenjian, E. Roseman, A. Cook, and O. Gorman. 2013. Alewife in the Great Lakes: old invader - new millenium. Pages 705-732 in W.W. Taylor, A.J. Lynch, and N.J. Leonard, eds. Great Lakes Policy and Management: A Binational Perspective. Volume 1. 2nd edition. Michigan State University Press. East Lansing, MI.
O'Gorman, R., and C.P. Schneider. 1986. Dynamics of alewives in Lake Ontario following a mass mortality. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115(1):1-14.
O'Gorman, R., and T.J. Stewart. 1999. Ascent, dominance, and decline of the alewife in the Great Lakes: Food web interactions and management strategies. Pages 489-513 in Taylor, W.W., and C.P. Ferreri, eds. Great Lakes fishery policy and management: A binational perspective. 1st edition. Michigan State University Press. East Lansing, MI.
Odell, T.T. 1934. The life history and ecological relationships of the alewife (Pomolobus Pseudoharengus - Wilson) in Seneca Lake, New York. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 64(1):118-126.
Otto, R.G., M.A. Kitchel, and J. Rice. 1976. Lethal and preferred temperatures of the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in Lake Michigan. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 105(1):96-106.
Page, L.M., and B.M. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes of North America North of Mexico. The Peterson Field Guide Series, volume 42. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
Page, L.M., and C.A. Laird. 1993. The identification of the nonnative fishes inhabiting Illinois waters. Report prepared by Center for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, for Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield. Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 1993(4). 39 pp.
Phillips, G.L., W.D. Schmid, and J.C. Underhill. 1982. Fishes of the Minnesota Region. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN.
Pollock, W. - Tennessee Wildlife resources Agency, Nashville, Tennessee. Response to USGS/BRD-G non-indigenous questionnaire. 1992.
Pothoven, S.A., T.O. Höök, T.F. Nalepa, M.V. Thomas, and J. Dyble. 2013. Changes in zooplankton community structure associated with disappearance of invasive alewife in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron. Aquatic Ecology 47:1-12.
Rand, P.S., D.J. Stewart, B.F. Lantry, L.G. Rudstam, O.E. Johannsson, A.P. Goyke, S.B. Brandt, R. O’Gorman, and G.W. Eck. 1995. Effect of lake-wide planktivory by the pelagic prey fish community in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 52:1546-1563.
Ridgway, M.S., D.A. Hurley, and K.A. Scott. 1990. Effects of winter temperature and predation on the abundance of Alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 16(1):11-20.
Rohde, F.C, R.G. Arndt, J.W. Foltz, and J.M. Quattro. 2009. Freshwater Fishes of South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press, Columbia, SC. 430 pp.
Roth, B.M., N.E. Mandrak, R.R. Hrabik, G.G. Sass, and J. Peters. 2013. Fishes and decapod crustaceans of the Great Lakes basin in W.W. Taylor, A.J. Lynch, and N.J. Leonard, eds. Great Lakes fisheries policy and management: a binational perspective. Second edition. Michigan State University Press. East Lansing, MI.
Shapiro, J., V. Lamarra, and M. Lynch. 1975. Biomanipulation: an ecosystem approach to lake restoration. In P. L. Brezonik, and J. L. Fox, eds. Proceedings of a Symposium on Water Quality Management Through Biological Control. Univ. Florida, Gainesville. 85-96.
Simonin, P.W., D.L. Parrish, L.G. Rudstam, P.J. Sullivan, and B. Pientka. 2012. Native rainbow smelt and nonnative alewife distribution related to temperature and light gradients in Lake Champlain. Journal of Great Lakes Research 38(Supplement 1):115-122.
Smith, S.H. 1970. Species interactions of the alewife in the Great Lakes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 99(4):754-765.
Smith, P.W. 1979. The Fishes of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL.
Smith, C.L. 1985. The Inland Fishes of New York State. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY. 522 pp.
Snyder, R.J., and T.M. Hennessey. 2003. Cold tolerance and homeoviscous adaptation in freshwater alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 29(2):117-126.
Spotila, J.R., K.M. Terpin, et al. 1979. Temperature requirements of fishes from eastern Lake Erie and the upper Niagara River: a review of the literature. Environmental Biology of Fishes 4(3):281-307.
Stauffer, J.R., Jr., J.M. Boltz, and L.R. White. 1995. The Fishes of West Virginia. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.
Tillitt, D.E., J.L. Zajicek, S.B. Brown, L.R. Brown, J.D. Fitzsimons, D.C. Honeyfield, M.E. Holey, and G.M. Wright. 2005. Thiamine and thiaminase status in forage fish of salmonines from Lake Michigan. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 17:13-25.
Tilmant, J.T. 1999. Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System. National Park Service. 50 pp.
Todd, T.N. 1986. Artificial propagation of coregonines in the management of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Archiv für Hydrobiologie–Beiheft Ergebnisse der Limnologie 22:31-50.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 2008. Predicting future introductions of nonindigenous species to the Great Lakes. EPA/600/R-08/066F. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Washington, DC, 138 pp. http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm?deid=190305
Wells, L. 1968. Seasonal depth distribution of fish in southeastern Lake Michigan. Fishery Bulletin 67(1):1-15. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Seasonal-depth-distribution-of-fish-in-southeastern-Wells/e1816a2e8a4a93a687a8fb660a598cc62115afcb.
Whitehead, J.P. 1985. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 7. Clupeoid Fishes of the World (Suborder Clupeoidei). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the herrings, sardines, pilchards, sprats, anchovies and wolf-herrings. Part 1 - Chirocentridae, Clupeidae and Pristigasteridae. FAO Fisheries Synopsis (125) Vol. 7, Pt. 1:303 pp.
This information is preliminary or provisional and is subject to revision. It is being provided to meet the need for timely best science. The information has not received final approval by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is provided on the condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from the authorized or unauthorized use of the information.