Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records.

Results also available in CSV (click to export table to spreadsheet)
Ref IDTypeAuthorDateTitle
37974 Web Page 2020Keeping an eye out for invasive, nonnative wildlife species: African clawed frog (Xenopus Laevis)
12101 Journal ArticleBacchus, S.T., K. Richter, and P. Moler1993Geographic distribution: Xenopus laevis (African Clawed Frog). USA: Colorado: Summit Co.
699 BookBehler, J.L., and F.W. King.1979The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians.
595 Journal ArticleBell, M.A.1978Fishes of the Santa Clara system, southern California.
16073 NewsBrennan, P.2007Tough Frog Heads South.
13180 Journal ArticleBury, R.B., and R.A. Luckenbach1976Introduced amphibians and reptiles in California.
12176 OtherCalifornia Academy of Sciences.1998output from the California Academy of Sciences database provided by Jens Vindum, collection manager.
25916 DatabaseCalifornia Academy of Sciences.2013California Academy of Sciences herpetology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
704 BookCardoza, J.E., G.S. Jones, T.W. French, and D.B. Halliwell.1993Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts. Fauna of Massachusetts Series No. 6.
24369 DatabaseCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.2019EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system
12141 Journal ArticleErnst, C.H., S.C. Belfit, S.W. Sekscienski, and A.F. Laemmerzahl1997The Amphibians and Reptiles of Ft. Belvoir and Northern Virginia.
25898 DatabaseFlorida Museum of Natural History2013Florida Museum of Natural History herpetology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
26212 DatabaseGBIF2013Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Database.
16126 NewsHarper, J.2007Animal activist call for deaths of pesky frogs.
12114 Journal ArticleHowland, J.M.1996Herps of Arizona.
14474 NewsJouvenal, J.2005Environmentalists say frog threatens native park species.
659 Journal ArticleKing, W., and T. Krakauer1966The exotic herpetofauna of Southeast Florida
23803 Journal ArticleKrysko, K.L., J.P. Burgess, M.R. Rochford, C.R. Gillette, D. Cueva, K.M. Enge, L.A. Somma, J.L. Stabile, D.C. Smith, J.A. Wasilewski, G.N. Kieckhefer, III, M.C. Granatosky, and S.V. Nielsen2011Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida from 1863 through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion pathways and stages.
14165 Journal ArticleKuperman, B.I., V.E. Matey, R.N. Fisher, E.L. Ervin, M.L. Warburton, L. Bakhireva, and C.A. Lehman2004Parasites of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in southern California, U.S.A.
12153 Journal ArticleLafferty, K.D., and C.J. Page1997Predation on the endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, by the introduced African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, with notes on the frog's parasites.
13769 NewsLagos, M.2004Biologists Strive to get a Jump on Prolific Frogs.
1503 Journal ArticleLaudenslayer, W.F., Jr., W.E. Grenfell, Jr., and D.C. Zeiner1991A check-list of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of California.
15976 BookLemm, Jeffrey M.2006Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the San Diego Region.
12179 Journal ArticleLivo, L.J., G.A. Hammerson, and H.M. Smith1998Summary of Amphibians and Reptiles Introduced into Colorado.
12154 Journal ArticleMcCoid, M.J., and T.H. Fritts1980Notes on the diet of a feral population of Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) in California.
13435 Journal ArticleMcCoid, M.J., and T.H. Fritts1989Growth and Fatbocy Cycles in Feral Populations of the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), in California with Comments on Reproduction.
29152 DatabaseNational Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution2016NMNH Extant Specimen and Observation Records
37984 ReportReed Ojala-Barbour, R., R. Visser, T. Quinn, and M. Lambert2021African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) Risk Assessment, Strategic Plan, and Past Management for Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife
12023 Journal ArticleSt. Amant, J.A., F.G. Hoover, and G.R. Stewart1973African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis laevis (Daudin), Established in California.
702 BookStebbins, R.C.1966A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians.
13656 BookStebbins, R.C.2003A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Third Edition.
12115 OtherSwann, D.1997phone conversation.
13254 BookTinsley, R.C., and H.R. Kobel (editors).1996The Biology of Xenopus.
786 ReportU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.1977Recovery plan for unarmored threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni, an endangered fish.
25944 DatabaseUeda, K., J. Belmonte, A. Shepard, P. Leary, and S.
13765 NewsYoung, M.2004Invasive frogs in San Francisco pond evade eradication efforts.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2023]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [12/4/2023].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.