Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Phragmites australis listed in key words.

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REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
20314 Journal Article Able, K.W., and S.M. Hagan. 2000. Effects of common reed (Phragmites australis) invasion on marsh surface macrofauna: response of fishes and decapod crustaceans. Estuaries 23(5):633-646.
20315 Journal Article Able, K.W., and S.M. Ragan. 2003. Impact of common reed, Phragmites australis, on essential fish habitat: influence on reproduction, embryological development, and larval abundance of mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus). Estuaries 26(1):40-50.
27562 Report Ailstock, M.S. 2004. Summary of common questions concerning Phragmites control. United States Army Corps of Engineers.
20326 Journal Article Ailstock, M.S., C.M. Norman, and P.J. Bushmann. 2001. Common reed Phragmites australis: control and effects upon biodiversity in freshwater nontidal wetlands. Restoration Ecology 9(1):49-59.
20327 Journal Article Albay, M., and R. Akcaalan. 2003. Comparative study of periphyton colonisation on common reed (Phragmites australis) and artificial substrate in a shallow lake, Manyas, Turkey. Hydrobiologia 596-509(1-3):531-540.
28653 Report Alger Conservation District. 2015. Annual report. Alger Conservation District, Munising, MI.
20330 Journal Article Ali, N.A., M.P. Bernal, and M. Ater. 2002. Tolerance and bioaccumulation of copper in Phragmites australis and Zea mays. Plant and Soil 239(1):103-111.
20335 Journal Article Amsberry, L., M.A. Baker, P.J. Ewanchuk, and M.D. Bertness. 2000. Clonal integration and the expansion of Phragmites australis. Ecological Applications 10(4):1110-1118.
27877 News Anonymous. 2015. Return of the natives at Times Beach. Buffalo, NY. Created on 07/19/2015. Accessed on 08/18/2015.
20344 Journal Article Arkebauer, T.J., J.P. Chanton, S.B. Verma, and J. Kim. 2001. Field measurements of internal pressurization in Phragmites australis (Poaceae) and implications for regulation of methane emissions in a midlatitude prairie wetland. American Journal of Botany 88(4):653-658.
20345 Journal Article Armstrong, J., and W. Armstrong. 2001. Rice and Phragmites: effects of organic acids on growth, root permeability, and radial oxygen loss to the rhizosphere. American Journal of Botany 88(8):1359-1370.
20346 Journal Article Asaeda, T., and L.H. Nam. 2002. Effects of rhizome age on the decomposition rate of Phragmites australis rhizomes. Hydrobiologia 485(1-3):205-208.
20347 Journal Article Asaeda, T., J. Manatunge, T. Fujino, and D. Sovira. 2003. Effects of salinity and cutting on the development of Phragmites australis. Wetlands Ecology and Management 11(3):127-140.
35914 Report Avers, B., R. Fahlsing, E. Kafcas, J. Schafer, T. Collin, L. Esman, E. Finnell, A. Lounds, R. Terry, J. Hazelman, and J. Hudgins. 2007. A guide to the control and management of invasive Phragmites. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Lansing.
27561 Book Avers, B., R. Fahlsing, E. Kafcas, J. Schafer, T. Collin, L. Esman, E. Finnell, A. Lounds, R. Terry, J. Hazelman, J. Hudgins, K. Getsinger, and D. Scheun. 2014. A Guide to the Control and Management of Invasive Phragmites. third edition. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, Lansing, MI.
20358 Journal Article Baran, M., Z. Varadyova, S. Kracmar, and J. Hedbavny. 2002. The common reed (Phragmites australis) as a source of roughage in ruminant nutrition. Acta Veterinaria Brno 71(4):445-449.
20364 Journal Article Bart, D., and J.M. Hartman. 2000. Environmental determinants of Phragmites australis expansion in a new jersey salt marsh: an experimental approach. Oikos 89(1):59-69.
10713 Journal Article Blossey, B. 1999. Before, during and after: the need for long-term monitoring in invasive plant species management. Biological Invasions 1:301-311.
27563 Report Blossey, B. 2007. Development of biological controls for Phragmites australis. Grant C-06-26. New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), New York, NY.
27564 Book Chapter Blossey, B., M. Schwarzlander, P. Hafliger, R. Casagrande, and L. Tewksbury. 2002. 9 Common Reed. Page 413 in Driesche, F.V., B. Blossey, M. Hoodle, S. Lyon, and R. Reardon, eds. Biological Control of Invasive Plants in the Eastern United States. Volume FHTET-2002-04. United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team. Morgantown, WV.
31633 Journal Article Bolton, R. M., and R. J. Brooks. 2010. Impact of the seasonal invasion of Phragmites australis (Common Reed) on turtle reproductive success. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 9(2):238-243.
35686 Journal Article Bourgeau-Chavez, L.L., et al. 2013. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support. Journal of Great Lakes Research 39.
28735 Journal Article Braun, H.A., K.P. Kowalski, and K. Hollins. 2016. Applying the collective impact approach to address non-native species: a case study of the Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative. Biological Invasions Published online(22 April 2016):10 pp.
28751 Journal Article Brisson, J., E. Paradis, and M. Bellavance. 2008. Evidence of sexual reproduction in the invasive common reed (Phragmites australis subsp. australis; Poaceae) in Eastern Canada: A possible consequence of Global Warming. Rhodora 110(942):22-230.
22440 Journal Article Burba, G.G., S.B. Verma, and J. Kim. 1999. A comparative study of surface energy fluxes of three communities (Phragmites australis, Scirpus acutus, and open water) in a prairie wetland ecosystem. Wetlands 19(2):451-457.
24369 Database Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. 2019. EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system. The University of Georgia, Tifton, GA. Accessed on 01/27/2019.
35915 Journal Article Chambers, R.M., L.A. Meyerson, and K. Saltonstall. 1999. Expansion of Phragmites australis into tidal wetlands of North America. Aquatic Botany 64(3-4):261-273.
20433 Journal Article Chanton, J.P., T.J. Arkebauer, H.S. Harden, and S.B. Verma. 2002. Diel variation in lacunal CH4 and CO2 concentration and delta C-13 in Phragmites australis. Biogeochemistry 59(3):287-301.
27662 Journal Article Chesier, J.C., J.D. Madsen, R.M. Wersal, P.D. Gerard, and M.E. Welch. 2012. Evaluating the potential for differential susceptibility of common reed (Phragmites australis) Haplotypes I to M to Aquatic Herbicides. Invasive Plant Science and Management 5(101-105).
20445 Journal Article Cizkova, H., and J. Lukavska. 1999. Rhizome age structure of three populations of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.: biomass and mineral nutrient concentrations. Folia Geobotanica and Phytotaxonomica 34(2):209-220.
20446 Journal Article Cizkova, H., J. Lukavska, K. Priban, J. Kopecky, and H. Brabcova. 1996. Carbohydrate levels in rhizomes of Phragmites australis at an oligotrophic and a eutrophic site: a preliminary study. Folia Geobotanica and Phytotaxonomica 31(1):111-118.
20447 Journal Article Cizkova, H., J.A. Strand, and J. Lukavska. 1996. Factors associated with reed decline in a eutrophic fishpond, Rozmberk (South Bohemia, Czech Republic). Folia Geobotanica and Phytotaxonomica 31(1):73-84.
18080 Database Clayton, W.D., M.S Vorontsova K.T. Harman, and H. Williamson. 2006. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. Accessed on 05/10/2016.
20451 Journal Article Clevering, O.A. 1998. Effects of litter accumulation and water table on morphology and productivity of Phragmites australis. Wetlands Ecology and Management 5(4):275-287.
20459 Journal Article Confer, S.R., and W.A. Niering. 1992. Comparison of created and natural freshwater emergent wetlands in Connecticut (USA). Wetlands Ecology and Management 2(3):143-156.
36207 Journal Article Cook, C.E., A.M. McCluskey, A.M., and R.M. Chambers. 2018. Impacts of invasive Phragmites australis on diamondback terrapin nesting in Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries and Coasts 41(4):966-973.
30498 Thesis or Dissertation Drescher, B. 2017. An Ecological Examination of Johnson Bayou (Pass Christian, MS) With a Reproductive Histological Analysis of Rangia Cuneata, and a Comparative Morphological Study of the Foot and Shell of Rangia cuneata and Polymesoda caroliniana. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS.
34974 Web Page Dumke, J.D. and K. Nixon. 2019. St. Louis County AIS Introduction Risk Assessment Tool. Created on 12/01/2019. Accessed on 11/18/2020.
28080 Database Environmental Assessment Program. 2018. Washington State Lakes Environmental Data Version 1.0. Washington State Department of Ecology, Lacey, WA. Accessed on 12/18/2018.
20526 Journal Article Farnsworth, E.J., and L.A. Meyerson. 1999. Species composition and inter-annual dynamics of a freshwater tidal plant community following removal of the invasive grass, Phragmites australis. Biological Invasions 1(2-3):115-127.
20530 Journal Article Fey, A., G. Benckiser, and J.C.G. Ottow. 1998. Emissions of nitrous oxide from a constructed wetland using a groundfilter and macrophytes in waste-water purification of a dairy farm. Biology and Fertility of Soils 29(4):354-359.
20532 Journal Article Findlay, S., P. Groffman, and S. Dye. 2003. Effects of Phragmites australis removal on marsh nutrient cycling. Wetlands Ecology and Management 11(3):157-165.
20533 Journal Article Findlay, S.E.G., S. Dye, and K.A. Kuehn. 2002. Microbial growth and nitrogen retention in litter of Phragmites australis compared to Typha angustifolia. Wetlands 22(3):616-625.
28690 Database Fofonoff, P.W., G.M. Ruiz, B. Steves, and J.T. Carlton. 2016. National Exotic Marine and Estuarine Species Information System. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Washington, D.C. Accessed on 05/11/2016.
23381 Report Folsom, B.L., and M. Van der Werff. 1988. Role of contaminant uptake in the potential use of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. on confined disposal facilities. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
20556 Journal Article Gaino, E., and M. Rebora. 2003. Ability of mobile cells of the freshwater sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (Porifera, Demospongiae) to digest diatoms. Italian Journal of Zoology 70(1):17-22.
20557 Journal Article Gaino, E., M. Rebora, C. Corallini, and T. Lancioni. 2003. The life-cycle of the sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (L.) living on the reed Phragmites australis in an artificially regulated lake. Hydrobiologia 495(1-3):127-142.
20558 Journal Article Gaino, E., T. Lancioni, G. La Porta, and B. Todini. 2004. The consortium of the sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis (L.) living on the common reed Phragmites australis in Lake Piediluco (central Italy). Hydrobiologia 520(1-3):165-178.
26212 Database GBIF. 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Database. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed on 05/01/2013.
27606 Report Getsinger, K.D., L.S. Nelson, L.A.M. Glomski, E. Kafcas, J. Schafer, S. Kogge, and M. Nurse. 2007. Control of Phragmites in a Michigan Great Lakes Marsh- Final Report. United States Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS.
28757 Database Global Invasive Species Database. Compiled by: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 2011. Phragmites australis. Accessed on 04/05/2011.
35916 Journal Article Granéli, W. 1984. Reed Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steudel as an energy source in Sweden. Biomass 4(3):183-208.
28752 Web Page Great Lakes Phragmites Collaborative: Great Lakes Commission. 2015.
22906 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
28753 Web Page Gucker, C.L. 2008. Phragmites australis. In: Fire Effects Information System,. Accessed on 05/23/2016.
20598 Journal Article Güsewell, S. 2003. Management of Phragmites australis in Swiss fen meadows by mowing in early summer. Wetlands Ecology and Management 11(6):433-445.
20599 Journal Article Güsewell, S., and F. Klötzli. 2000. Assessment of aquatic and terrestrial reed (Phragmites australis) stands. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8(6):367-373.
20600 Journal Article Güsewell, S., C. Le Nédic, and A. Buttler. 2000. Dynamics of common reed (Phragmites australis Trin.) in Swiss fens with different management. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8(6):375-389.
28754 Journal Article Haslam, S.M. 1971. The development and establishment of young plants of Phragmites communis. Annals of Botany 35:1059-1072.
28755 Journal Article Haslam, S.M. 1972. Biological flora of the British Isles. Phragmites communis. Journal of Ecology 60:585-610.
20621 Journal Article Havens, K.J., W.I. Priest, and H. Berquist. 1997. Investigation and long-term monitoring of Phragmites australisa within Virginia's constructed wetland sites. Environmental Management 21(4):599-605.
27663 Journal Article Hazelton, E.L.G., T.J. Mozdzer, D.M. Burdick, K.M. Kettenring, and D.F. Whigham. 2014. Phragmites australis management in the United States: 40 years of methods and outcomes. AoB Plants 6(plu001).
20628 Journal Article Hellings, S.E., and J.L. Gallagher. 1992. The effects of salinity and flooding on Phragmites australis. Journal of Applied Ecology 29(1):41-49.
28357 Database Howell, J. and D.D. Taylor. 2015. Kansas and Kentucky invasive aquatic plants 2015.
24851 Database iMapInvasives. 2016. Oregon iMapInvasives. Oregon Biodiversity Information Center, Portland, OR. Accessed on 04/09/2015.
27712 Database iMapInvasives. 2019. New York iMapInvasives. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY. Created on 07/08/2015. Accessed on 07/08/2015.
28756 Web Page Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR). 2016. Aquatic Invasive Species – Plants. Accessed on 05/19/2016.
23504 Journal Article Kankaala, P., A. Ojala, and T. Käki. 2004. Temporal and spatial variation in methane emissions from a flooded transgression shore of a boreal lake. Biogeochemistry 68(3):297-311.
23148 Journal Article Karunaratne S., and T. Asaeda. 2002. Mathematical modeling as a tool in aquatic ecosystem management. Journal of Environmental Engineering 128(4):352-359.
35917 Journal Article Kettenring, K.M., S. de Blois, and D.P. Hauber. 2012. Moving from a regional to a continental perspective of Phragmites australis invasion in North America. AoB Plants pls040:18 pp.
27608 Book Kiviat, E. 2010. Phragmites Management Sourcebook for the Tidal Hudson River and Northeastern States. Hudsonia, Ltd, Annadale, NY.
23432 Journal Article Kohzu, A., K. Matsui, T. Yamada, A. Sugimoto, and N. Fujita. 2003. Significance of rooting depth in mire plants: evidence from natural (15) N abundance. Ecological Research 18(3):257-266.
23633 Journal Article Koppitz, H., and H. Kühl. 2000. To the importance of genetic diversity of Phragmites australis in the development of reed stands. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8(6):403-414.
27878 News Kornacki, A., C. Forgette, T. Friona, L. Glomski, J. Shearer, and G. Dick. 2014. Restoring quality habitat and combating invasive plants at Times Beach. International Joint Commission (IJC). Detroit, MI. Created on 09/30/2014. Accessed on 08/18/2015.
35919 Thesis or Dissertation Krause, L.H., C. Rietsma, and E. Kiviat. 1996. Terrestrial insects associated with Lythrum salicaria, Phragmites australis, and Typha angustifolia in a Hudson River Tidal Marsh. Unpublished M.S. thesis. State University of New York College, New Paltz.
23034 Journal Article Kühl, H. 2000. Increasing the efficiency of reed plantations on stressed lake and river shores by using special clones of Phragmites australis. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8(6):415-424.
23199 Journal Article Kuusemets, V., and K. Lõhmus. 2005. Nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation and biomass production by Scirpus sylvaticus and Phragmites australis in a horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 40(6-7):1167-1175.
22990 Journal Article Lakatos, G., M. Kiss, and I. Mészáros. 1999. Heavy metal content of common reed (Phragmites australis/Cav./Trin. ex Steudel) and its periphyton in Hungarian shallow standing waters. Hydrobiologia 415:47-53.
30163 Journal Article Lambert, A.M., T.L. Dudley, and K. Saltonstall. 2010. Ecology and Impacts of the Large-Statured Invasive Grasses Arundo donax and Phragmites australis in North America. Invasive Plant Science and Management 3(4):489-494.
28769 Journal Article Lambertini,C., I.A. Mendelssohn, M.H.G Gustafsson, B. Oleson, T. Riis, B.K Sorrel, and H. Brix. 2012. Tracing the origin of Gulf Coast Phragmites (Poaceae): A story of long-distnace dispersal and hybridization. American Journal of Botany 99(3):538-551.
23696 Journal Article Lenssen, J.P.M., F.B.J. Menting, W.H. Van der Putten, and C.W.P.M. Blom. 2000. Variation in species composition and species richness within Phragmites australis dominated riparian zones. Plant Ecology 147(1):137-146.
22947 Journal Article Leonard, L.A., P.A. Wren, and R.L. Beavers. 2002. Flow dynamics and sedimentation in Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis marshes of the Chesapeake Bay. Wetlands 22(2):415-424.
28167 Database Les, D.H., and R.S. Capers. 2012. George Safford Torrey Herbarium (CONN). University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.
23063 Journal Article Lippert, I., H. Rolletschek, H. Kuhl, and J.G. Kohl. 1999. Internal and external nutrient cycles in stands of Phragmites australis: a model for two ecotypes. Hydrobiologia 409:343-348.
10742 Journal Article Lowenberg, G. 1998. What are our options? Education, control efforts & what comes next. Conservation Notes of the New England Wild Flower Society 2(3):27-30.
23235 Journal Article Lynch, E.A., and K. Saltonstall. 2002. Paleoecological and genetic analyses provide evidence for recent colonization of native Phragmites australis populations in a Lake Superior wetland. Wetlands 22(4):637-646.
36857 News M. Andrews. 2021. Rend Lake will remain closed for invasive species eradication. KFVS 12. Cape Girardeau, MO. Created on 08/31/2021. Accessed on 09/03/2021.
37671 Journal Article Markle, C.E., G. Chow-Fraser and P. Chow-Fraser. 2018. Long-term habitat changes in a protected area: Implications for herpetofauna habitat management and restoration. PLOS ONE 13(2):e0192134.
28759 Journal Article Marks, M., B. Lapin, and J. Randall. 1994. Phragmites australis (P. communis): Threats, management, and monitoring. Natural Areas Journal 14:285-294.
37673 Journal Article Martina, J.P., S.W. Currie, D.E. Goldberg and K.J. Elgersma. 2016. Nitrogen loading leads to increased carbon accretion in both invaded and uninvaded coastal wetlands. Ecosphere 7(9):e01459.
28760 Web Page Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR). 2016. Office of Water Resources: Lakes and Ponds Program. Accessed on 05/18/2016.
23259 Journal Article Máthé, C., M.M. Hamvas, I. Grigorszky, G. Vasas, E, Molnár, J.B. Power, M.R. Davey, and G. Borbély. 2000. Plant regeneration from embryogenic cultures of Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 63(1):81-84.
36122 Journal Article Meadows, R.E., and K. Saltonstall. 2007. Distribution of native and introduced Phragmites australis in freshwater and oligohaline tidal marshes of the Delmarva peninsula and southern New Jersey. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 134(1):99-107. 5674.
23215 Journal Article Meuleman, A.F.M., J.P. Beekman, and J.T.A. Verhoeven. 2002. Nutrient retention and nutrient-use efficiency in Phragmites australis stands after wastewater application. Wetlands 22(4):712-721.
30183 Journal Article Meyerson, L.A., A.M. Lambert, and K. Saltonstall. 2010. A Tale of Three Lineages : Expansion of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in the U .S. Southwest and Gulf Coast. Invasive Plant Science and Management 3:515-520.
28765 Journal Article Meyerson, L.A., C. Lambertini, M.K. McCormick, and D.F. Whigham. 2012. Hybridization of common reed in North America? The answer is blowing in the wind. AoB Plants 2012:pls022.
27609 Journal Article Meyerson, L.A., D.V. Viola, and R.N. Brown. 2010. Hybridization of invasive Phragmites australis with a native subspecies in North America. Biological Invasions 12:103-111.
22444 Journal Article Meyerson, L.A., K. Saltonstall, L. Windham, E. Kiviat, and S. Findlay. 2000. A comparison of Phragmites australis in freshwater and brackish marsh environments in North America. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8(2-3):89-103.
28761 Database Michigan Natural Resources Inventory (MNFI). 2016. Phragmites-Native or Not? Michigan State University Extension (MSU), East Lansing, MI. Accessed on 05/18/2016.
28967 Journal Article Middleton, B.A. 2016. Effects of salinity and flooding on post-hurricane regeneration potential in coastal wetland vegetation. American Journal of Botany 103(8):1420-1435.
37885 Database MI-EGLE. 2022. Unpublished MI-EGLE Monitoring Data (2 spreadsheets).
22801 Journal Article Monteiro, A., I. Moreira, and E. Sousa. 1999. Effect of prior common reed (Phragmites australis) cutting on herbicide efficacy. Hydrobiologia 415:305-308.
23698 Journal Article Moore, H.H., W.A. Niering, L.J. Marsicano, and M. Dowdell. 1999. Vegetation change in created emergent wetlands (1988-1996) in Connecticut (USA). Wetlands Ecology and Management 7(4):177-191.
22646 Journal Article Moreira, I., A. Monteiro, and E. Sousa. 1999. Chemical control of common reed (Phragmites australis) by foliar herbicides under different spray conditions. Hydrobiologia 415:299-304.
22537 Journal Article Moreira, I., T. Ferreira, A. Monteiro, L. Catarino, and T. Vasconcelos. 1999. Aquatic weeds and their management in Portugal: insights and the international context. Hydrobiologia 415:229-234.
23612 Journal Article Müller, U. 1999. The vertical zonation of adpressed diatoms and other epiphytic algae on Phragmites australis. European Journal of Phycology 34(4):487-496.
37819 Journal Article Muss, J.D., D.F. Austin, and J.R. Snyder. 2003. Plants of the Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida. The Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 130(2):119-142.
23159 Journal Article Oliveira, J.S., J.A. Femandes, C. Alves, J. Morais, and P. Urbano. 1999. Metals in sediment and water of three reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Stend.) stands. Hydrobiologia 415:41-45.
27610 Report Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). 2010. State of Resources Reporting: Phragmites in Ontario. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario, Canada.
22463 Journal Article Orson, R.A. 1999. A paleoecological assessment of Phragmites australis in New England tidal marshes: changes in plant community structure during the last few millennia. Biological Invasions 1(2-3):149-158.
22761 Journal Article Ostendorp, W., M. Dienst, and K. Schmieder. 2003. Disturbance and rehabilitation of lakeside Phragmites reeds following an extreme flood in Lake Constance (Germany). Hydrobiologia 506-509(1-3):687-695.
37674 Journal Article Packer, J.G., G.Ganf, C. Kueffer, J.M. Facelli and P. Pyšek. 2021. Endemic macrophyte is more plastic than two cosmopolitan species in fluctuating water levels and nutrient-enriched conditions. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 145(1):25-44.
22759 Journal Article Pyke, C.R., and K.J. Havens. 1999. Distribution of the invasive reed Phragmites australis relative to sediment depth in a created wetland. Wetlands 19(1):283-287.
37229 Database Reitsma, J. 2021. BLM - National Invasive Species Information Management System - Plants. U.S. Geological Survey.
22662 Journal Article Rice, D., J. Rooth, and J.C. Stevenson. 2000. Colonization and expansion of Phragmites australis in upper Chesapeake Bay tidal marshes. Wetlands 20(2):280-299.
22828 Journal Article Richburg, J.A., W.A. Patterson, and F. Lowenstein. 2001. Effects of road salt and Phragmites australis invasion on the vegetation of a western Massachusetts calcareous lake-basin fen. Wetlands 21(2):247-255.
22630 Journal Article Roberts, J. 2000. Changes in Phragmites australis in south-eastern Australia: a habitat assessment. Folia Geobotanica and Phytotaxonomica 35(4):353-362.
36123 Journal Article Robichaud, C.D., and R.C. Rooney. 2017. Long-term effects of a Phragmites australis invasion on birds in a Lake Erie coastal marsh. Journal of Great Lakes Research 43(3):141-149.
37657 Journal Article Rohal, C.B., C. Cranney, and K.M. Kettenring. 2019. Abiotic and Landscape Factors Constrain Restoration Outcomes Across Spatial Scales of a Widespread Invasive Plant. Frontiers in Plant Science 10:481.
37658 Journal Article Roley, S.S., J.L. Tank, M.R. Grace and P.L.M. Cook. 2018. The influence of an invasive plant on denitrification in an urban wetland. Freshwater Biology 63(4):353-365.
23024 Journal Article Rolletschek, H., A. Bumiller, R. Henze, and J.G. Kohl. 1998. Implications of missing efflux sites on convective ventilation and amino acid metabolism in Phragmites australis. New Phytologist 140(2):211-217.
23251 Journal Article Rolletschek, H., A. Rolletschek, T. Hartzendorf, and J.G. Kohl. 2000. Physiological consequences of mowing and burning of Phragmites australis stands for rhizome ventilation and amino acid metabolism. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8(6):425-433.
22829 Journal Article Rolletschek, H., and T. Hartzendorf. 2000. Effects of salinity and convective rhizome ventilation on amino acid and carbohydrate patterns of Phragmites australis populations in the Neusiedler See Region of Austria and Hungary. New Phytologist 146(1):95-105.
36124 Journal Article Roman, C.T., W.A. Niering, and R.S. Warren. 1984. Salt marsh vegetation change in response to tidal restriction. Environmental Management 8(2):141-149.
23417 Journal Article Rooth, J.E., and J.C. Stevenson. 2000. Sediment deposition patterns in Phragmites australis communities: implications for coastal areas threatened by rising sea-level. Wetlands Ecology and Management 8(2-3):173-183.
27611 Journal Article Rudrappa, T., Y.S. Choi, D.F. Levia, D.R. Legates, K.H. Lee, and H.P. Bais. 2009. Phragmites australis root secreted phytotoxin undergoes photo-degradation to execute severe phytotoxicity. Plant Signaling and Behavior 4(6):506-513.
22713 Journal Article Saltonstall, K. 2002. Cryptic invasion by a non-native genotype of the common reed, Phragmites australis, into North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(4):2445-2449.
23338 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
28762 Web Page Saltonstall, K. 2005. Weeds Gone Wild: Alien Plant Invaders of Natural Areas. Accessed on 05/18/2016.
30162 Journal Article Saltonstall, K., A. Lambert, and L.A. Meyerson. 2010. Genetics and Reproduction of Common (Phragmites australis) and Giant Reed (Arundo donax). Invasive Plant Science and Management 3(4):495-505.
27612 Journal Article Saltonstall, K., and D. Hauber. 2007. Notes on Phragmites australis (Poaceae: Arundinoideae) in North America. Journal of Botanical Research Institute of Texas 1:385-388.
28766 Journal Article Saltonstall, K., H.E. Castillo, and B. Blossey. 2012. Confirmed field hybridization of native and introduced Phragmites australis (Poaceae) in North America. American Journal of Botany 101(1):211-215.
37655 Journal Article Sani, A., I.L. Abdullahi and M. Bilkisu. 2018. Ecological interaction of Typha And Phragmites aquatic weeds species in ‘Kadawa’ reservior, Kano River irrigation system. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology 8(4):243-247.
23315 Journal Article Scarton, F., J.W. Day, and A. Rismondo. 2002. Primary production and decomposition of Sarcocornia fruticosa (L.) Scott and Phragmites australis Trin. ex Steudel in the Po Delta, Italy. Estuaries 25(3):325-336.
35544 Journal Article Sesin, V., C.M. Davy, M.E. Dorken, J.M. Gilbert and J.R. Freeland. 2021. Variation in glyphosate effects and accumulation in emergent macrophytes. Management of Biological Invasions 12(1):66-84.
28763 Journal Article Silliman B.R., T. Mozder, C. Angelini, J.E. Brunage, P. Esselink, J.P. Bakker, K.B. Gedan. 2014. Livestock as Potential Biological Control Agent for an Invasive Wetland Plant. PeerJ 2e:567.
16075 Database Smithsonian Institution. 2019. United States National Herbarium (US). Department of Botany, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Accessed on 04/17/2021.
22743 Journal Article Sorrell, B.K., H. Brix, H-H. Schierup, and B. Lorenzen. 1997. Die-back of Phragmites australis: influence on the distribution and rate of sediment methanogenesis. Biogeochemistry 36(2):173-188.
23064 Journal Article Soukup, A., O. Votrubova, and H. Cizkova. 2000. Internal segmentation of rhizomes of Phragmites australis: protection of the internal aeration system against being flooded. New Phytologist 145(1):71-75.
31508 Database South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks. 2018. Aquatic invasive species by waterbody. South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks, Pierre, SD. Created on 09/14/2015. Accessed on 11/15/2018.
27613 Book Swearingen, J., and K. Saltonstall. 2010. Phragmites Field Guide: Distinguishing Native and Exotic Forms of Common Reed (Phragmites australis) in the United States. National Park Service (NPS) Plant Conservation Alliance, Weeds Gone Wild.
23610 Journal Article Szabo, E. 2003. The use of the tetrazolium reduction test for the detection of the terminal electron transport system (ETS) activity in decomposing reed (Phragmites australis /Cav./ Trin. ex Steud.) rhizome. International Journal of Limnology 39(1):63-70.
28764 Journal Article Tewksbury, L., R. Casagrande, B. Blossey, P. Hafliger, and M. Schwarzlander. 2002. Potential for Biological Control of Phragmites australis in North America. Biological Control 23:191-212.
28178 Database The New York Botanical Garden. 2018. William and Lynda Steere Herbarium (NY). SEINet Data Portal. Accessed on 04/30/2021.
23171 Journal Article Tischer, S., and T. Hubner. 2002. Model trials for phytoremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated sites by the use of different plant species. International Journal of Phytoremediation 4(3):187-203.
23214 Journal Article Toet, S., M. Bouwman, A. Cevaal, and J.T.A. Verhoeven. 2005. Nutrient removal through autumn harvest of Phragmites australis and Thypha latifolia shoots in relation to nutrient loading in a wetland system used for polishing sewage treatment plant effluent. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 40(6-7):1133-1156.
22923 Journal Article Toomey, M.B., D. McCabe, and J.E. Marsden. 2002. Factors affecting the movement of adult zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). Journal of the North American Benthological Society 21(3):468-475.
37531 Database Tucker, A. 2019. EDRR plant Survey, raw data. The Nature Conservancy.
37530 Report Tucker, A., G. Annis, L. Chadderton and E. Elgin. 2019. Port of Milwaukee 2018 aquatic plant survey results. The Nature Conservancy, MI, USA.
37529 Report Tucker, A., G. Annis, L. Chadderton and E. Elgin. 2019. Detroit River at Gibraltar, MI 2018 aquatic plant survey results. The Nature Conservancy, MI, USA.
37527 Report Tucker, A., W.L. Chadderton, G. Annis, E. Elgin. 2019. Interstate aquatic invasive species prevention, early detection, and response: Aquatic plant survey mothods development and site assessment. MI DEQ, MI, USA.
35441 Database U-M Library Digital Collections. 2021. University of Michigan Herbarium Catalog Collection. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Accessed on 02/12/2021.
27602 Database United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA NRCS). 2010. PLANTS Database. Accessed on 05/13/2016.
27614 Web Page United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 2007. Phragmites: Questions and Answers. Accessed on 09/07/2011.
28774 Database University of Michigan-Dearborn. 2016. Native American Ethnobotany Database. Accessed on 05/31/2016.
22744 Journal Article Van Der Nat, F.-F.W.A., J.J. Middelburg, D. Van Meteren, and A. Wielemakers. 1998. Diel methane emission patterns from Scirpus lacustris and Phragmites australis. Biogeochemistry 41(1):1-22.
23697 Journal Article van Dokkum, H.P., D.M.E. Slijkerman, L. Rossi, and M.L. Costantini. 2002. Variation in the decomposition of Phragmites australis litter in a monomictic lake: the role of gammarids. Hydrobiologia 482(1-3):69-77.
23183 Journal Article Vandevyvere, I., and L. De Bruyn. 1998. Morphological and histochemical analysis of galls of Lipara lucens (Diptera, Chloropidae) on Phragmites australis (Poaceae). Canadian Journal of Botany 76(8):1374-1384.
23473 Journal Article Varga, I. 2003. Structure and changes of macroinvertebrate community colonizing decomposing rhizome litter of common reed at Lake Fert[odblac]/Neusiedler See (Hungary). Hydrobiologia 506-509(1-3):413-420.
37943 Database Warman, M.J. 2021. 2020 aquatic invasive plant survey in the Lake Erie Basin, Ohio. Cleveland Metroparks, Cleveland, OH. Accessed on 02/05/2021.
23335 Journal Article Warren, R.S., P.E. Fell, J.L. Grimsby, E.L. Buck, G.C. Rilling, and R.A. Fertik. 2001. Rates, patterns, and impacts of Phragmites australis expansion and effects of experimental phragmites control on vegetation, macroinvertebrates, and fish within tidelands of the lower Connecticut River. Estuaries 24(1):90-107.
23398 Journal Article Warren, R.S., P.E. Fell, R. Rozsa, A.H. Brawley, A.C. Orsted, E.T. Olson, V. Swamy, and W.A. Niering. 2002. Salt marsh restoration in Connecticut: 20 years of science and management. Restoration Ecology 10(3):497-513.
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20804 Journal Article Weinstein, M.P., and J.H. Balletto. 1999. Does the common reed, Phragmites australis, affect essential fish habitat? Estuaries 22(3B):793-802.
23595 Journal Article Weinstein, M.P., S.Y. Litvin, K.L. Bosley, C.M. Fuller, and S.C. Wainright. 2000. The role of tidal salt marsh as an energy source for marine transient and resident finfishes: a stable isotope approach. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 129(3):797-810.
22979 Journal Article Weis, J.S., L. Windham, C. Santiago-Bass, and P. Weis. 2002. Growth, survival, and metal content of marsh invertebrates fed diets of detritus from Spartina alterniflora Loisel. and Phragmites australis Cav. Trin. ex Steud. from metal-contaminated and clean sites. Wetlands Ecology and Management 10(1):71-84.
22481 Journal Article Wiessner, A., P. Kuschk, M. Kastner, and U. Stottmeister. 2002. Abilities of helophyte species to release oxygen into rhizospheres with varying redox conditions in laboratory-scale hydroponic systems. International Journal of Phytoremediation 4(1):1-15.
22799 Journal Article Wijte, A.H.B.M., and J.L. Gallagher. 1996. Effect of oxygen availability and salinity on early life history stages of salt marsh plants. I. Different germination strategies of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany 83(10):1337-1342.
22800 Journal Article Wijte, A.H.B.M., and J.L. Gallagher. 1996. Effect of oxygen availability and salinity on early life history stages of salt marsh plants. II. Early seedling development advantage of Spartina alterniflora over Phragmites australis (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany 83(10):1343-1350.
23165 Journal Article Windham, L. 1999. Microscale spatial distribution of Phragmites australis (common reed) invasion into Spartina patens (salt hay)-dominated communities in brackish tidal marsh. Biological Invasions 1(2-3):137-148.
22670 Journal Article Windham, L. 2001. Comparison of biomass production and decomposition between Phragmites australis (common reed) and Spartina patens (salt hay grass) in brackish tidal marshes of New Jersey, USA. Wetlands 21(2):179-188.
20808 Journal Article Windham, L., and R.G. Lathrop. 1999. Effects of Phragmites australis (common reed) invasion on aboveground biomass and soil properties in brackish tidal marsh of the Mullica River, New Jersey. Estuaries 22(4):927-935.
28767 Journal Article Wu, C.A., L.A. Murray, and K. Heffernan. 2015. Evidence for natural hybridization between native and introduced lineages of Phragmites australis in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. American Journal of Botany 102(5):805-812.
23669 Journal Article Xu, S., A.C. Leri, S.C.B. Myneni, and P.R. Jaffe. 2004. Uptake of bromide by two wetland plants (Typha latifolia L. and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud). Environmental Science and Technology 38(21):5642-5648.
22832 Journal Article Zemlin, R., H. Kühl, and J.-G. Kohl. 2000. Effects of seasonal temperature on shoot growth dynamics and shoot morphology of common reed (Phragmites australis). Wetlands Ecology and Management 8(6):447-457.


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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2022]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [5/26/2022].

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