Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Xenopus laevis listed in key words.

Results also available in (click to export table to spreadsheet)

REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
37974 Web Page 2020. Keeping an eye out for invasive, nonnative wildlife species: African clawed frog (Xenopus Laevis). Created on 08/24/2020. Accessed on 04/28/2022.
42211 Journal Article Amaya, E., M.F. Offield, and R.M. Grainger. 1998. Frog genetics: Xenopus tropicalis jumps into the future. Trends in Genetics 14(7):253-255.
12101 Journal Article Bacchus, S.T., K. Richter, and P. Moler. 1993. Geographic distribution: Xenopus laevis (African Clawed Frog). USA: Colorado: Summit Co. Herpetological Review 24(2):65.
37939 Journal Article Barbosa, F., C. Both, and M.B. Araujo. 2017. Invasive American bullfrogs and African Clawed Frogs in South America: High Suitability of Occurrence in Biodiversity Hotspots. Zoological Studies 56(28):1-10.
699 Book Behler, J.L., and F.W. King. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Alfred A Knopf, NY.
595 Journal Article Bell, M.A. 1978. Fishes of the Santa Clara system, southern California. Contributions in Science, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County 295:1-20.
37647 Journal Article Blow J.J. and R.A. Laskey. 1986. Initiation of DNA replication in nuclei and purified DNA by a cell­-free extract of Xenopus eggs. Cell 47(4):577-587.
16073 News Brennan, P. 2007. Tough Frog Heads South. The Orange County Register. Wednesday, May 2, 2007:1.
13180 Journal Article Bury, R.B., and R.A. Luckenbach. 1976. Introduced amphibians and reptiles in California. Biological Conservation 1976(10):1-14.
12176 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
25916 Database California Academy of Sciences. 2013. California Academy of Sciences herpetology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA. Created on 04/20/2012. Accessed on 04/09/2013.
42226 Journal Article Cannatella, D.C., and L. Trueb. 1988. Evolution of Pipoid Frogs: Morphology and Phylogenetic Relationships of Pseudhymenochirus. Journal of Herpetology 22(4):439-456.
704 Book Cardoza, J.E., G.S. Jones, T.W. French, and D.B. Halliwell. 1993. Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts. Fauna of Massachusetts Series No. 6. 2nd edition. Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, Westborough, MA.
26942 Book Carolina Biological Supply Company. 2007. Carolina Reptiles and Amphibians: Care and Culture. 2nd edition. Carolina Biological Supply Company, Burlington, NC.
24369 Database Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. 2019. EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system. The University of Georgia, Tifton, GA. Accessed on 01/27/2019.
13395 Book Channing, A. 2001. Amphibians of Central and Southern Africa (just the section on Xenopus laevis). Comstock Publishing Associates, Cornell University Press.
37322 Journal Article Courant, J., Secondi, J., Vollette, J., Herrel, A., Thirion, J-M. 2018. Assessing the impacts of the invasive frog, Xenopus laevis, on amphibians in western France. Amphibia-Reptilia 24 Apr 2018:1-9.
39653 Journal Article de Villiers, F.A., M. de Kock, and G.J. Measy. 2016. Controlling the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis to conserve the Cape platanna Xenopus gilli in South Africa. Conservation Evidence 13:17.
32240 Journal Article DiGiacopo, D.G., Meindl, G.A., Ryan, S., Jaeger, J., Wersebe, M., Martin, A., Robinson, S.A., Graham, G., Palmer, A.R., Setteducate, A., Murray, I., Prior, K., and J. Hua. 2018. Interaction between invasive plant leaf litter and NaCl on two model amphibians. Biological Invasions NA:1-13.
26736 Journal Article Eggert, C., and A. Fouquet. 2006. A preliminary biotelemetric study of a feral invasive Xenopus laevis population in France. Alytes 23(3-4):144-149.
12141 Journal Article Ernst, C.H., S.C. Belfit, S.W. Sekscienski, and A.F. Laemmerzahl. 1997. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Ft. Belvoir and Northern Virginia. Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Sociey 33(1):1-62.
28271 Journal Article Evans, B.J., T.F. Carter, E. Greenbaum, V. Gvoždík, D.B. Kelley, P.J. McLaughlin, O.S.G. Pauwels, D.M. Portik, E.L. Stanley, R.C. Tinsley, M.L. Tobias, and D.C. Blackburn. 2015. Genetics, morphology, advertisement calls, and historical records distinguish six new polyploid species of African Clawed Frog (Xenopus, Pipidae) from West and Central Africa. PLoS ONE 10(12):1-51.
26706 Journal Article Faraone, F.P., F. Lillo, G. Giacalone, and M.L. Valvo. 2008. The large invasive population of Xenopus laevis in Sicily, Italy. Amphibia-Reptilia 29:405-412.
15681 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
25898 Database Florida Museum of Natural History. 2013. Florida Museum of Natural History herpetology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal, Florida Museum of Natural History, Gainesville, FL. Accessed on 04/09/2013.
26734 Journal Article Fouquet, A., and G.J. Measey. 2006. Plotting the course of an African clawed frog invasion in Western France. Animal Biology 56(1):95-102.
26212 Database GBIF. 2013. Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Database. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed on 05/01/2013.
37345 Web Page Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). 2010. Xenopus laevis. Created on 05/26/2010. Accessed on 03/18/2016.
42237 Thesis or Dissertation Goodman, C.M. 2020. The potential for spread of a novel invader, the tropical clawed frog (Xenopus tropicalis), in Florida. Unpublished M.S. thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
35681 Journal Article Goodman, C.M., G.F.M. Jongsma, J.E. Hill, E.L. Stanley, Q.M. Tuckett, D.C. Blackburn, and C.M. Romagosa. 2021. A case of mistaken identity: genetic and anatomical evidence reveals the cryptic invasion of Xenopus tropicalis in Central Florida. Journal of Herpetology 55(1):62-69.
16126 News Harper, J. 2007. Animal activist call for deaths of pesky frogs. The Washington Times. March 15, 2007.
42223 Journal Article Hellsten, U., R.M. Harland, M.J. Gilchrist, D. Hendrix, J. Jurka, V. Kapitonov, I. Ovcharenko, N.H. Putnam, S. Shu, L. Taher, I.L. Blitz, B. Blumberg, D.S. Dichmann, I. Dubchak, E. Amaya, J.C. Detter, R. Fletcher, D.S. Gerhard, D. Goodstein, T. Graves, J.V. Grigoriev, J. Grimwood, T. Kawashima, E. Lindquist, S.M. Lucas, P.E. Mead, T. Mitros, H. Ogino, Y. Ohta, A.V. Poliakov, N. Pollet, J. Robert, A. Salamov, A.K. Sater, J. Schmutz, A. Terry, P.D. Vize, W.C. Warren, D. Wells, A. Wills, R.K. Wilson, L.B. Zimmerman, A.M. Zorn, R. Grainger, T. Grammer, M.K. Khokha, P.M. Richardson, and D.S. Rokhsar. 2010. The genome of the western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis. Science 328(5978):633-636.
42229 Journal Article Herrel, A., and C. Bonneaud. 2012. Temperature dependence of locomotor performance in the tropical clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis. Journal of Experimental Biology 215(14):2465-2470.
29350 Journal Article Hill, J.E., K.M. Lawson, and Q.M. Tuckett. 2017. First record of a reproducing population of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 in Florida (USA). BioInvasions Records 6(1):87-94.
12114 Journal Article Howland, J.M. 1996. Herps of Arizona. The Desert Monitor 27(1):12-17.
14474 News Jouvenal, J. 2005. Environmentalists say frog threatens native park species. The San Francisco Examiner. 2005 (June 12).
659 Journal Article King, W., and T. Krakauer. 1966. The exotic herpetofauna of Southeast Florida. Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Sciences 29(2):144-154.
38969 Journal Article Kruger, N., J. Measey, A. Herrel, and J. Secondi. 2019. Anti-predator strategies of the invasive African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, to native and invasive predators in western France. Aquatic Invasions 14(3):433-443.
23803 Journal Article Krysko, K.L., J.P. Burgess, M.R. Rochford, C.R. Gillette, D. Cueva, K.M. Enge, L.A. Somma, J.L. Stabile, D.C. Smith, J.A. Wasilewski, G.N. Kieckhefer, III, M.C. Granatosky, and S.V. Nielsen. 2011. Verified non-indigenous amphibians and reptiles in Florida from 1863 through 2010: Outlining the invasion process and identifying invasion pathways and stages. Zootaxa 3028:1-64.
14165 Journal Article Kuperman, B.I., V.E. Matey, R.N. Fisher, E.L. Ervin, M.L. Warburton, L. Bakhireva, and C.A. Lehman. 2004. Parasites of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, in southern California, U.S.A. Comparative Parasitology 71(2):229-232.
12153 Journal Article Lafferty, K.D., and C.J. Page. 1997. Predation on the endangered tidewater goby, Eucyclogobius newberryi, by the introduced African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, with notes on the frog's parasites. Copeia 1997(3):589-592.
13769 News Lagos, M. 2004. Biologists Strive to get a Jump on Prolific Frogs. Los Angeles Times. 2004 (May 17).
1503 Journal Article Laudenslayer, W.F., Jr., W.E. Grenfell, Jr., and D.C. Zeiner. 1991. A check-list of the amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals of California. California Fish and Game 77(3):109-141.
15976 Book Lemm, Jeffrey M. 2006. Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the San Diego Region. University of California Press.
37320 Report Leyva, E. 1979. Una rana Africana invade California. Geomundo: Editorial Americana, S.A.
26731 Journal Article Lillo, F., C. Dufresnes, F.P. Faraone, M.L. Valvo, and M. Stock. 2013. Identification and potential origin of invasive clawed frogs Xenopus (Anura: Pipidae) in Sicily based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. Italian Journal of Zoology 80(4):1-8.
26704 Journal Article Lillo, F., F. Marrone, A. Sicilia, G. Castelli, and B. Zava. 2005. An invasive population of Xenopus laevis (Daudin, 1802) in Italy. Herpetozoa 18:63-64.
26732 Journal Article Lillo, F., F.P. Faraone, and M.L. Valvo. 2011. Can the introduction of Xenopus laevis affect native amphibian populations? Reduction of reproductive occurrence in presence of the invasive species. Biological Invasions 13:1533-1541.
42325 Journal Article Lin, Z., Y. Hong, S. Chen, Q. Zhang, L. Han, W. Tu, Y. Du, S. Gu, Z. Yuan, S. Hu, and X. Liu. 2023. Emerging non-native amphibians require immediate prevention management in a megacity of South China. Bioinvasion Records 12(3):731-744.
12179 Journal Article Livo, L.J., G.A. Hammerson, and H.M. Smith. 1998. Summary of Amphibians and Reptiles Introduced into Colorado. Northwestern Naturalist 79(1):1-11.
37966 Journal Article Lobos, G. 2020. Vulnerability of Xenopus laevis to Gambusia holbrooki: Can the larval phase of the African clawed frog be the Achilles heel in its invasive potential? Aquatic Invasions 15(3):529-541.
13396 Journal Article Lobos, G., and C. Garin. 2002. Xenopus laevis (African Clawed Frog) Behavior. Herpetological Review 33(2):132.
14159 Journal Article Lobos, G., and F.M. Jaksic. 2005. The Ongoing Invasion of African Clawed Frogs (Xenopus laevis) in Chile: Cause of Concern. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:429-439.
37351 Journal Article Lobos, G., and G.J. Measey. 2002. Invasive Populations of Xenopus laevis (Daudin) in Chile. Herpetological Journal 12:163-168.
37343 Journal Article Makpo, J.K. 2005. The Fecundity And Preferred Breeding Period Of The African Clawed Toad Xenopus Laevis From Rockwater Fish Farm, Jos Plateau State. Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia 3(2):229-236.
37352 Journal Article McCoid, M.J. 1980. Observations of Feral Populations of Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) in Southern California. Bulletin of Southern California Academy of Science 79(2):82-86.
12154 Journal Article McCoid, M.J., and T.H. Fritts. 1980. Notes on the diet of a feral population of Xenopus laevis (Pipidae) in California. Southwestern Naturalist 25:272-275.
13435 Journal Article McCoid, M.J., and T.H. Fritts. 1989. Growth and Fatbocy Cycles in Feral Populations of the African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), in California with Comments on Reproduction. The Southwestern Naturalist 34(4):499-505.
26737 Journal Article McCoid, M.J., and T.H. Fritts. 1993. Speculations on colonizing success of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), in California. South African Journal of Zoology 28(1):59-61.
37321 Journal Article Measey, G.J. 1998. Diet of feral Xenopus laevis (Daudin) in South Wales, U.K. Journal of Zoology 246:287-298.
42383 Journal Article Measey, G.J. 1998. Terrestrial prey capture in Xenopus laevis. Copeia 1998(1):787-791.
26806 Journal Article Measey, G.J., and A. Channing. 2003. Phylogeography of the genus Xenopus in southern Africa. Amphibia-Reptilia 24:321-330.
26707 Journal Article Measey, G.J., and R.C. Tinsley. 1998. Feral Xenopus laevis in South Wales. Herpetological Review 8:23-27.
25894 Journal Article Measey, G.J., D. Rödder, S.L. Green, R. Kobayashi, F. Lillo, G. Lobos, R. Rebelo, and J.-M. Thirion. 2012. Ongoing invasions of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis: a global review. Biological Invasions 14:2255-2270.
13390 Web Page Measey, J. 2001. Xenopus laevis.
37353 Journal Article Measy, G.J. 2000. Growth and ageing of feral Xenopus laevis (Daudin) in South Wales, U.K. Journal of Zoology (London) 254:547-555.
31159 Journal Article Moreira, F. D., Marques, R., Sousa, M., and R. Rebelo. 2017. Breeding in both lotic and lentic habitats explains the invasive potential of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) in Portugal. Aquatic Invasions 12(4):565-574.
29152 Database National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. 2016. NMNH Extant Specimen and Observation Records. National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, US. Created on 10/13/2016. Accessed on 10/28/2016.
37377 Report Page, A., W. Kirkpatrick. and M. Massam. 2008. RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR EXOTIC REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS INTRODUCED TO AUSTRALIA – African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) (Daudin, 1802). Australia Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, Australia.
27711 Journal Article Peralta-García, A., J. H. Valdez-Villavicencio, and P. Galina-Tessaro. 2014. African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) in Baja California: A confirmed population and possible ongoing invasion in Mexican watersheds. The Southwestern Naturalist 59(3):431-434.
37538 Journal Article Rebelo, A. and J. Measy. 2017. Assessing the Impacts of Invasive Amphibians. FrogLog 25(1):27-28.
26705 Journal Article Rebelo, R., P. Amaral, M. Bernardes, J. Oliveira, P. Pinheiro, and D. Leitão. 2010. Xenopus laevis (Daudin, 1802), a new exotic amphibian in Portugal. Biological Invasions 12:3383-3387.
37984 Report Reed Ojala-Barbour, R., R. Visser, T. Quinn, and M. Lambert. 2021. African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) Risk Assessment, Strategic Plan, and Past Management for Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.
37378 Report Reed, B.T. 2005. Guidance on the housing and care of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Research Animals Department - RSPCA, UK.
26941 Journal Article Robert, J., E. George, F.D.J. Andino, and G. Chen. 2011. Waterborne infectivity of the ranavirus Frog-Virus 3 in Xenopus laevis. Virology 417(2):410-417.
26940 Journal Article Robert, J., L. Abramowitz, J. Gantress, and H.D. Morales. 2007. Xenopus laevis: A possible vector of ranavirus infection? Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43(4):645-652.
40173 Journal Article Schmeller, D.S., A. Loyau, T. Dejean, and M. Claude. 2011. Using amphibians in laboratory studies: precautions against the emerging infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Laboratory Animals 45(1):25-30.
42236 Journal Article Secondi, J., T. Dejean, A. Valentini, B. Audebaud, and C. Miaud. 2016. Detection of a global aquatic invasive amphibian, Xenopus laevis, using environmental DNA. Amphibia-Reptilia 37:131-136.
26837 Journal Article Shapiro, H.A., and H. Zwarenstein. 1934. A rapid test for pregnancy on Xenopus laevis. Nature 133:762.
38198 Journal Article Soto, I., R.N. Cuthbert, C. Capinha, A. Turbelin, E.J. Hudgins, C. Diagne, F. Courchamps, & P.J. Haubrock. 2022. Global economic costs of herpetofauna invasions. Scientific Reports 12(10829):1-12.
37323 Journal Article Soto-Azat, C., Peñafiel-Ricaurte, A., Price, S.J., Sallaberry-Pincheira, N., Pía García, M., Alvarado-Rybak, M., Cunningham, A.A. 2016. Xenopus laevis and emerging amphibian pathogens in Chile. EcoHealth 13:775-783.
12023 Journal Article St. Amant, J.A., F.G. Hoover, and G.R. Stewart. 1973. African Clawed Frog, Xenopus laevis laevis (Daudin), Established in California. California Fish and Game 59(2):151-153.
702 Book Stebbins, R.C. 1966. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.
13656 Book Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston.
12115 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
13392 Journal Article Thompson, D.E., and R.L. Franks. 1979. Xenopus. Caronlina Tips 42(2):4-8.
13393 Book Thompson, D.E., and R.L. Franks. 1978. Xenopus care and culture. Carolina Biological Supply Company.
31161 Journal Article Tinsley, R. C., Stott, L. C., Viney, M. E., Mable, B. K., and M. C. Tinsley. 2015. Extinction of an introduced warm-climate alien species, Xenopus laevis, by extreme weather events. Biological Invasions 17:3183-3195.
37350 Web Page Tinsley, R., L. Minter, J. Measey, K. Howell, A. Veloso, H. Nunez, A. Romano. 2009. Xenoopus laevis. Accessed on 03/18/2016.
26708 Journal Article Tinsley, R., L. Stott, J. York, A. Everard, S. Chapple, J. Jackson, M. Viney, M.C. Tinsley. 2012. Acquired immunity protects against helminth infection in a natural host population: long-term field and laboratory evidence. International Journal for Parasitology 42:931-938.
37326 Book Chapter Tinsley, R.C. 1996. Parasites of Xenopus. Page 440 in R.C. Tinsley and H.R. Kobel, eds. The Biology of Xenopus. Clarendon Press for The Zoological Society of London. Oxford, U.K.
13254 Book Tinsley, R.C., and H.R. Kobel (editors). 1996. The Biology of Xenopus. The Zoological Society of London, Oxford.
42234 Journal Article Tobias, M.L., B.J. Evans, and D.B. Kelley. 2011. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs. Behaviour 148(4):519-549.
39655 Report Touré, T.A., A.R. Backlin, amd R.N. Fisher. 2004. Eradication and Control of the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) on Irvine Ranch Land Reserve, Orange County, California 2003. U.S. Geological Survey.
786 Report U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1977. Recovery plan for unarmored threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni, an endangered fish. USFWS.
25944 Database Ueda, K., J. Belmonte, A. Shepard, P. Leary, and S. Loarie. 2021. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA. Accessed on 11/23/2021.
42382 Journal Article Videler, J.J., and J.T. Jorna. 1985. Functions of the Sliding Pelvis in Xenopus laevis. Copeia 1985(1):251-254.
31160 Journal Article Vimercati, G., Davies, S. J., Hui, C., and J. Measey. 2017. Does restricted access limit management of invasive urban frogs? Biological Invasions 19(12):3659-3674.
26227 Journal Article Vredenburg, V.T., S.A. Felt, E.C. Morgan, S.V.G. McNally, S. Wilson, and S.L. Green. 2013. Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Xenopus Collected in Africa (1871-2000) and in California (2001-2010). PLoS ONE 8(5):e63791.
42481 Journal Article Weldon, C., L.H. du Preez, A.D. Hyatt, R. Muller, and R. Speare. 2004. Origin of the amphibian chytrid fungus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10(12):2100-2105.
37325 Web Page Wikipedia. 2016. African clawed frog. Accessed on 03/08/2016.
37346 Web Page Willigan, E. 2001. Introduced Species Summary Project - Xenopus laevis.­burg/invasion_bio/inv_spp_summ/xenopus_laevis.htm. Created on 10/20/2001. Accessed on 03/08/2016.
31466 Journal Article Wilson, E. A., T. L.Dudley, and C. J. Briggs. 2018. Shared behavioral responses and predation risk of anuran larvae and adults exposed to a novel predator. Biological Invasions 20(2):475-485.
13765 News Young, M. 2004. Invasive frogs in San Francisco pond evade eradication efforts. 2004 (May 10).


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2023]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [12/4/2023].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.