Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records.

Results also available in CSV (click to export table to spreadsheet)
Ref IDTypeAuthorDateTitle
14769 Journal ArticleAdams, M.J.2000Pond Permanence and the Effects of Exotic Vertebrates on Anurans.
12117 OtherAnonymous1997output from Bishop Museum, Hawai`i database provided by Carla Kishinami, collections manager (disk with DBase IV file attached).
18636 Journal ArticleBallinger, R.E., J.W. Meeker, and M. Thies2000A Checklist and Distribution Maps of the Amphibians and Reptiles of South Dakota.
12120 Journal ArticleBanta, B.H., and D. Morafka1966An annotated check list of the recent amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the city and county of San Francisco, California.
12111 OtherBlack, K.1978Amphibians and Reptiles of Saguaro National Monument, Rincon Mountian Unit.
951 Journal ArticleBradley, W.G., and J.E. Deacon1967The biotic communities of southern Nevada.
18379 Journal ArticleBunnell, J.F., and R.A. Zampella2008Native Fish and Anuran Assemblages Differ between Impoundments with and without Non-native Centrarchids and Bullfrogs.
12176 OtherCalifornia Academy of Sciences.1998output from the California Academy of Sciences database provided by Jens Vindum, collection manager.
20826 DatabaseCalifornia Academy of Sciences.2011California Academy of Sciences - Ichthyology Collection Database.
25916 DatabaseCalifornia Academy of Sciences.2013California Academy of Sciences herpetology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
27296 ReportCalifornia Department of Fish and Wildlife, Fisheries Branch.2014Implications of importing American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus = Rana catesbeiana) into California.
704 BookCardoza, J.E., G.S. Jones, T.W. French, and D.B. Halliwell.1993Exotic and translocated vertebrates of Massachusetts. Fauna of Massachusetts Series No. 6.
32196 Web PageCaribherp2000Amphibians and Reptiles of the Puerto Rican Bank
13519 Journal ArticleCarpenter, N.M., M.L. Casazza, and G.D. Wylie2002Rana Catesbeiana (Bullfrog) Diet.
24369 DatabaseCenter for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health.2019EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system
12067 Journal ArticleChiszar, D., D. Theodoratus, and H.M. Smith1995Geographic distribution. Rana catesbeiana.
14751 Journal ArticleChristiansen, J.L.2001Non-native Amphibians and Reptiles in Iowa.
12162 Book ChapterCobb, J.N.1902Commercial fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands.
31530 Thesis or DissertationCooper, M.2017Movement, habitat, and home range of introduced bullfrogs (Lithobates Catesbeianus) on Mad River gravel ponds (Humboldt Co., Ca, USA), with implications for hydro-modification as a method of management
13518 Journal ArticleCross, C.L., and S.L. Gerstenberger2002Rana Catesbeiana (American Bullfrog) Diet.
21031 OtherDeLorme.2001Arizona Atlas and Gazetteer.
12109 OtherDemlong, M.1997personal communication (herpetologist, Phoenix Zoo, 455 N Galvin Parkway, Phoenix, AZ 85008 602-273-1341).
12087 Journal ArticleFleharty, E.D.1967Comparative ecology of Thamnophis elegans, T. cyrtopsis, and T. rufipunctatus in New Mexico.
25898 DatabaseFlorida Museum of Natural History2013Florida Museum of Natural History herpetology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
18221 OtherFriends of the Los Angeles River.2008State of the River 2 - the fish study.
19676 Journal ArticleFuller, T.E., K.L. Pope, D.T. Ashton, and H.H. Welsh, Jr2011Linking the distribution of an invasive amphibian (Rana catesbeiana) to habitat conditions in a managed river system in northern California.
42338 Journal ArticleFunk, C.W., T.S. Garcia, G.A. Cortina, and R.H. Hill2010Population genetics of introduced bullfrogs, Rana (Lithobates) catesbeianus, in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, USA
26212 DatabaseGBIF2013Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Database.
12069 Journal ArticleHayes, M., and F. Cliff1982A checklist of the herpetofauna of Butte county, the Butte sink and Sutter Buttes, California.
12156 Journal ArticleHayes, M.P., and F.C. Schaffner1986Life history notes: Rana catesbeiana predation.
12178 Journal ArticleHeard, M.1904A California frog ranch.
14916 Journal ArticleHecnar, S.J., and R.T. M'Closkey2002Changes in the composition of a Ranid Frog Community Following Bullfrog Extinction.
39853 Journal ArticleHolgerson, M.A., A. Duarte, M.P. Hayes, M.J. Adams, J.A. Tyson, K.A. Douville, and A.L. Strecker2019Floodplains provide important amphibian habitat despite multiple ecological threats
39854 Journal ArticleHowell, P.E., E. Muths, B.H. Sigafus, and B.R. Hossack2020Survival estimates for the invasive American bullfrog
12102 ReportHubbard, J.P., and C.G. Schmitt.1977A preliminary study of the bullfrog in southwestern New Mexico.
24851 DatabaseiMapInvasives.2016Oregon iMapInvasives
12155 Journal ArticleJennings, M.R.1987Life history notes: Rana catesbeiana feeding.
12163 Journal ArticleJennings, M.R., and M.P. Hayes1985Pre-1900 overharvest of California red-legged frogs (Rana aurora draytonii): the inducement for bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) introduction.
20819 OtherJohnson, P.2011Colorado American bullfrog collections.
12164 Book ChapterJordan, D.S., and B.W. Evermann.1902Preliminary report on an investigation of the fishes and fisheries of the Hawaiian Islands.
12151 Journal ArticleKiesecker, J.M., and A.R. Blaustein1997Population differences in responses of red-legged frogs (Rana aurora) to introduced bullfrogs.
13520 Journal ArticleKing, K.A., J.C. Rorabaugh, and J.A. Humphrey2002Rana Catesbeiana (Bullfrog) diet.
13527 BookKoch, E.D., and C.R. Peterson.1995Amphibians and Reptiles of Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks.
27297 BookKraus, F.2009Alien reptiles and amphibians: A scientific compendium and analysis.
19203 Journal ArticleKupferberg, S.J.1994Exotic larval bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) as prey for native garter snakes: functional and conservation implications.
12150 Journal ArticleKupferberg, S.J.1997Bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) invasion of a California river: the role of larval competition.
405 BookLampman, B.H.1946The coming of the pond fishes
14756 Journal ArticleLannoo, M.J., K. Lang, T. Waltz, and G.S. Phillips1994An altered amphibian assesmblage: Dickinson County, Iowa, 70 years after Frank Blanchard's survey.
12024 BookLazell, J.D. Jr.1976This Broken Archipelago: Cape Cod and the Islands, Amphibians and Reptiles.
15976 BookLemm, Jeffrey M.2006Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the San Diego Region.
18906 Journal ArticleLindsdale, J.M.1940Amphibians and Reptiles in Nevada.
20840 DatabaseLos Angeles County Museum of Natural History.2011Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History - Ichthyology Collection.
16605 Journal ArticleMaret, T.J. , J.D. Snyder, and J.P. Collins2006Altered drying regime controls distribution of endangered salamanders and introduced predators.
27547 NewsMcKenzie, S.2014Massive bullfrog caught in small Alberni-area pond.
12105 BookMcKeown, S.1996A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians in the Hawaiian Islands.
24069 Web PageMinnesota Department of Natural Resources2006Minnesota Frog & Toad Calling Survey.
27189 BookMoriarty, JJ., and C.D. Hall.2014Amphibians and reptiles in Minnesota
29152 DatabaseNational Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution2016NMNH Extant Specimen and Observation Records
12061 Journal ArticleNeck, R.W.1980Geographic distribution. Rana catesbeiana.
12089 OtherOvertree, Lynn.1997voluntary nonindigenous species reporting form.
16600 Journal ArticlePearl, C.A. , M.P. Hayes, R. Haycock, J.D. Engler, and J. Bowerman2005Observations of Interspecific Amplexus Between Western North American Ranid Frogs and the Introduced American Bullfoog (Rana catesbeiana) and an Hypothesis Concerning Breeding Interference.
26614 Journal ArticleRose, J.P., O.J. Miano, and B.D. Todd2013Trapping efficiency, demography, and density of an introduced population of northern watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon, in California.
12116 Conference ProceedingsRosen, P.C., C.R. Schwalbe, D.A. Parizek, Jr., P.A. Holm, and C.H. Lowe.1995Introduced aquatic vertebrates in the Chiricahua region: effects on declining native ranid frogs.
25983 DatabaseRoyal Ontario Museum2013Royal Ontario Museum herpetology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
12066 Journal ArticleRybak, J.A., H.M. Smith, and D. Chiszar1995Geographic distribution. Rana catesbeiana.
31679 Journal ArticleSchalk, C.M., C.G. Montan╦ťa, K. Kralman, D.J. Leavitt2018Functional distance and establishment of non-native species with complex life cycles
17280 ReportSchmidt, C.A., C.A. Drost, and W.L. Halvorson.2006Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Montezuma Castle National Monument.
12145 ReportSchwalbe, C.R., and P.C. Rosen.1988Preliminary report on effects of bullfrogs on wetland herptofauna in southeastern Arizona. In: R.C. Szaro, K.E. Severson, and D.R. Patton (editors), Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America.
27060 Journal ArticleSepulveda, A.J., M. Layhee, D. Stagliano, J. Chaffin, A. Begley, and B. Maxwell2015Invasion of American bullfrogs along the Yellowstone River.
20915 DatabaseSmithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History.2011National Museum of Natural History Vertebrate Zoology Ichthyology Collection
770 BookSoltz, D.L., and R.J. Naiman.1978The natural history of native fishes in the Death Valley system. Science Series 30.
19201 Journal ArticleSparks, D.W., A.G. Burr, M.N. Bass, and G.A. Liggett1999New county distribution records of amphibians and reptiles from southwestern Kansas.
702 BookStebbins, R.C.1966A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians.
12093 Journal ArticleStorer, T.I.1922The eastern bullfrog in California.
12072 Journal ArticleStorer, T.I.1925A Synopsis of the amphibia of California.
12177 Journal ArticleStorer, T.I.1933Frogs and their commercial uses.
12068 Journal ArticleStuart, J.N., and C.W. Painter1993Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog). Cannibalism.
12115 OtherSwann, D.1997phone conversation.
16728 ReportSytsma, M.D., J.R. Cordell, J.W. Chapman, and R.C. Draheim.2004Lower Columbia River Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Survey 2001-2004. Final Technical Report: Appendices.
17275 ReportSytsma, M.D., J.R. Cordell, J.W. Chapman, and R.C. Draheim.2004Lower Columbia River Aquatic Nonindigenous Species Survey 2001-2004. Final Technical Report.
19775 NewsThe Associated Press.2011Officials trying to get rid of nonnative bullfrogs from Yellowstone River in Billings.
23820 DatabaseThe University of Kansas Natural History Museum.2011University of Kansas Natural History Museum Fish Collection Database.
14257 Web PageU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.2005National Wildlife Refuge System Invasive Species.
25944 DatabaseUeda, K., J. Belmonte, A. Shepard, P. Leary, and S.
18728 DatabaseUnited States Environmental Protection Agency.2017STORET database
25961 DatabaseUniversity of New Mexico2013Museum of Southwestern Biology amphibian and reptile collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
26580 DatabaseUniversity of Texas at El Paso2013University of Texas at El Paso Centennial Museum vertebrate collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
39919 Journal ArticleUrbina, J., E.M. Bredeweg, T.S. Garcia, and A.R. Blaustein2018Host–pathogen dynamics among the invasive American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) and chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)
14749 Journal ArticleVitt, L.J., and R.D. Ohmart1978Herpetofauna of the lower Colorado River: Davis Dam to the Mexican border.
15816 BookWerner, J.K., B.A. Maxell, P. Hendricks, and D.L. Flath.2004Amphibians and Reptiles of Montana.
13528 BookWright, A.H., and A.A. Wright.1949Handbook of Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada.
15682 OtherWylie, G.D.2004Bullfrogs are significant predators of giant garter snake young of the year.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2023]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [12/6/2023].

Contact us if you are using data from this site for a publication to make sure the data are being used appropriately and for potential co-authorship if warranted.

For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.