Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Myriophyllum heterophyllum listed in key words.

Results also available in (click to export table to spreadsheet)

REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
17277 Database 2008. The George Safford Torrey Herbarium Database. University of Connecticut.
5107 Report Anonymous. 1989. Weed watchers-an association to halt the spread of exotic aquatic plants. NHDES Technical Bulletin NHDES-WSPCD-1989-6. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, NH.
15864 Web Page Anonymous. 2006. New Milfoil Infestation Found in Maine-New Hampshire Border Lake. (accessed on October 31, 2006).
17932 Web Page Anonymous. 2007. Invasive aquatic plants found in Connecticut lakes and ponds from 2004 to 2006. (accessed 23 June 2008).
17210 Report Anonymous. 2007. Powwow Pond, Kingston & E. Kingston, New Hampshire aquatic vegetation survey. Lycott Environmental Inc. (accessed on 8 January 2008).
18134 Web Page Anonymous. 2008. Alliance Report - state favors herbicide treatment for Danforth Pond nilfoil. (accessed 8 September 2008).
18170 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
18121 News Anonymous. 2008. Quick response to milfoil attack a good sign. Kennebec Journal, Augusta, ME. 2008 (August 10). (accessed 9 September 2008).
18802 News Anonymous. 2009. Crews Take To Lake To Kill Invasive Weed. WFSB; Hartford, CT . 2009 (August 4).
18866 News Anonymous. 2009. New invasive plant species found in Lake Champlain. New England Cable News, Newton, MA. 2009 (September 21).
27888 News Anonymous. 2015. LEA eradicating milfoil from the Songo River. Sun Journal. Lewiston, ME. Created on 08/22/2015. Accessed on 08/22/2015.
28878 Report Aquatic Control Technology. 2015. Sudbury River Assessment Report, December 2015. Town of Framingham, Framingham, MA.
18643 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
30402 News Associated Press. 2017. Invasive Aquatic Plant Found in Maine's Long Lake. Maine Public. Portland, ME. Created on 08/15/2017. Accessed on 08/16/2017.
18133 News Beale, S. 2008. Goffstown lake has worst milfoil infestation in state. NewHampshirecom, Goffstown News, Manchester, NH. 2008 (August 27). (accessed 8 September 2008).
28150 News Blessing, R. 2015. Scientist: Gardner Lake in overall good shape. The Bulletin. Norwich, CT. Created on 11/12/2015. Accessed on 11/13/2015.
30808 News Bosse, G. 2017. Grant Bosse: Two if by sea; invasion of the Granite State. New Hampshire Union Leader. Manchester, NH. Created on 11/27/2017. Accessed on 11/28/2017.
13282 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
32642 News Brindley, E. 2019. Only one invasive plant species remains in Lower Bolton Lake. Journal Inquirer. Manchester, CT. Created on 03/28/2019. Accessed on 03/30/2019.
18166 News Brooks, D. 2008. State does battle with invasive aquatic plants. Telegraph Publishing Company, Nashua, New Hampshire. 2008 (June 1). (accessed 8 October 2008).
37828 Report Bugbee, G.J., and S. Stebbins. 2020. Connecticut River Gateway Conservation Zone Invasive Aquatic Vegetation Survey Aquatic plant management options 2019. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, CT.
37829 Database Bugbee, G.J., and S. Stebbins. 2021. Invasive Aquatic Plants in the Connecticut River. The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Invasive Aquatic Plant Program, New Haven, CT. Accessed on 02/23/2022.
28912 Journal Article Capers, R.S., R. Selsky, G.J. Bugbee, and J.C. White. 2007. Aquatic plant community invasibility and scale-dependent patterns in native and invasive species richness. Ecology 88(12):3135-3143.
37948 Database Carr, D. 2021. Finger Lakes PRISM 2020 AIS survey. Finger Lakes Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management, Geneva, NY. Accessed on 02/09/2021.
24369 Database Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. 2019. EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system. The University of Georgia, Tifton, GA. Accessed on 01/27/2019.
10571 Conference Proceedings Ceska, O., and A. Ceska. 1985. Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae) species in British Columbia: Problems with identification. Pages 39-50 in Anderson, L.W.J, ed. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Watermilfoil and Related Haloragaceae species. Aquatic Plant Management Society. Vicksburg, MS.
17933 Web Page Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 2008. CAES Individual Lake Results.|. Accessed on 06/23/2008.
10203 Book Crow, G.E., and C.B. Hellquist. 1983. Aquatic vascular plants of New England: Part 6. Trapaceae, Haloragaceae, Hippuridaceae. New Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.
18167 News Curley, K. 2008. Invasive weed jeopardizes Lake Gardner. The Daily News of Newburyport, Newburyport, MA. 2008 (August 29). (accessed 8 October 2008).
19271 News Elliot, J. 2006. Milfoil menace generates alert. Kennebec Journal. 2006 (May 2):2 pp.
18120 News Elliott, J. 2008. Salmon Lake new type of milfoil found in lake. Kennebec Journal, Augusta, ME. 2008 (August 7). (accessed 9 September 2008).
28080 Database Environmental Assessment Program. 2018. Washington State Lakes Environmental Data Version 1.0. Washington State Department of Ecology, Lacey, WA. Accessed on 12/18/2018.
28500 Report ESS Group, Inc. 2016. Ecological and management study of the DelCarte ponds. Town of Franklin, Franklin, MA.
29531 News Fitzpatrick, T. 2017. Should we be treating milfoil in Paugus Bay with this chemical? Laconia Daily Sun. Created on 03/02/2017. Accessed on 03/03/2017.
27994 News FLOW. 2015. New aquatic invasive species confirmed in Lake Memphremagog. Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, Watershed Management Division. Montpelier, VT. Created on 09/16/2015. Accessed on 09/17/2015.
17286 News Garcia, N. 2007. R.I. under invasion. The Providence Journal, Providence, RI. 2007 (December 31).
19670 Web Page Gibbons, J. 2011. The Connecticut Agricultural Extension Station Aquatic Plant Survey Program.|.
18722 News Groves, E. 2009. Moosup Pond being treated for slimy, invasive weed. The Bulletin. Norwich, CT. Created on 06/06/2009. Accessed on 06/07/2009.
29910 Journal Article Halstead, J.M., J. Michaud, S. Hallas-Burt, and J.P. Gibbs. 2003. Hedonic analysis of effects of a nonnative invader (Myriophyllum heterophyllum) on New Hampshire (USA) lakefront properties. Environmental Management 32(3):391-398.
10748 Journal Article Hellquist, C.B. 1972. Range extensions of vascular aquatic plants in New England. Rhodora 74(797):131-140.
27462 Database iMapInvasives. 2018. Pennsylvania iMapInvasives. Pennsylvania Natural Heritage Program, Pittsburgh, PA. Accessed on 12/15/2016.
27712 Database iMapInvasives. 2019. New York iMapInvasives. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY. Created on 07/08/2015. Accessed on 07/08/2015.
18125 Web Page Invasive Aquatic Species Program, Maine Department of Environmental Protection. 2015. Maine DEP 2015 Invasive Aquatic Plant Map.,43.2134,-68.6784,44.6356.
16042 Database Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE). 2007. University of Conneticut, USDA. Accessed on 04/03/2007.
13439 Web Page IPANE. 2001. Invasive Plant Atlas of New England (IPANE) at the University of Connecticut online database.
34416 Database Johnson, M. 2018. E. L. Reed Herbarium (TTC). Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX.
10681 Database Kennedy, J. 2022. Harvard University Herbaria: Vascular Plants of North America (Harvard). Harvard University, Cambridge, MA. Accessed on 07/14/2022.
28145 Database Kishbaugh, S.A. 2015. NYS Exotic Aquatic Plant Locations 2015. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
10741 Journal Article Les, D.H., and L.J. Mehrhoff. 1999. Introduction of nonindigenous aquatic vascular plants in southern New England: a historical perspective. Biological Invasions 1(2-3):281-300.
19381 Database Madsen, J.D., G. Ervin, V. Maddox, & C. Abbott. 2010. Invasive Plant Atlas of the MidSouth. Mississippi State University.
17157 News Manuse, A.J. 2007. Lake Cochituate losing the battle. The Metro West Daily News. 2007 (December 8). (accessed on Dec 12, 2007).
17159 Web Page Many. 2007. Aquatic Invasive Plant Locations. Accessed on 12/12/2007.
29921 Database Mehrhoff, L.J., J.A. Silander, Jr., S.A. Leicht, E.S. Mosher, and N.M. Tabak. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Accessed on 04/14/2017.
43080 Journal Article Mickle, A.M. 1993. Pollution Filtration by Plants in Wetland-Littoral Zones. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 144:282-290.
18054 Journal Article Mills, E.L., M.D. Scheuerell, J.T. Carlton, and D.L. Strayer. 1997. Biological invasions in the Hudson River basin: an inventory and historical analysis. New York State Museum Circular 57:1-51.
13670 Journal Article Moody, M.L., and D.H. Les. 2002. Evidence of hybridity in invasive watermilfoil (Myriophyllum) populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(23):14867-14871.
29286 Journal Article Moore, G., R. Brecht, and D. Schweitzer. 2016. Additions and Corrections to the Checklist of Vascular Plants of Cumberland County, New Jersey. Bartonia 68:1-59.
37981 Report New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. 2020. Long-Term Variable Milfoil Management Plan. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services.
37978 Database New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. 2022. NHDES: Lake Information Mapper. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. Accessed on 05/05/2022.
5124 Report New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. 1989. Water milfoil. NHDES Technical Bulletin NHDES-WSPCD-1989-1. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, NH.
18127 Web Page New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. 2015. Exotic Aquatic Plant Infestations in New Hampshire. Created on 07/01/2015. Accessed on 02/03/2016.
28625 Report New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services. 2016. Long-term variable milfoil management plan. Beaver Lake Improvement Association, Derry, NH.
23835 News New York State Deparment of Environmental Convservation. 2011. Variable-leaf Watermilfoil Found in Lake Champlain's South Bay. 10 (13).
19302 Report Northeast Aquatic Plant Management Society. 2009. Nor'Easter Newsletters. Northeast Aquatic Plant Management Society.
19146 News O'Brien, J.A., JR. 2010. Vernon Town Council Approves Spending For Herbicide. Hartford Courant. 2010 (April 21):2 pp.
19407 Web Page O'Donnell, Jake. 2010. Merrymeeting milfoil mitigation commences in New Durham.
13671 Book Ogden, E.C. 1974. Anatomical patterns of some aquatic vascular plants of New York. Volume Bulletin 424. The University of the State of New York, State Education Department, Albany, NY.
28623 News O'Leary, J.T. 2016. Study: Lower Bolton Lake needs ongoing monitoring. Journal Inquirer. Manchester, CT. Created on 04/01/2016. Accessed on 04/04/2016.
30515 News Oren, C. 2017. Plants plucked, a bit of hopeful news for Long Lake. The Bridgton News. Bridgton, ME. Created on 08/25/2017. Accessed on 08/29/2017.
16041 Database Parsons, J. 2007. Washington Aquatic Plant Monitoring Database. Washington Department of Ecology, Lacey, WA.
28798 News Penney, J. 2016. Plainfield spending $12K on herbicides to rid Moosup Pond of invasive weed. The Bulletin. Norwich, CT. Created on 06/21/2016. Accessed on 06/18/2016.
17160 Database PLANTS Team, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). 2007. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA. Accessed on 12/13/2007.
19417 Report Porter, T. 2010. Milfoil Still a Problem in Maine Say Environmentalists. Maine Public Broadcasting Network, Maine News & Programming.
31372 News Reynolds, J. 2018. Battle against invasive species continues in Adirondack waters. Adirondack Explorer. Saranac Lake, NY. Created on 04/30/2018. Accessed on 05/02/2018.
33544 Report Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management. 2018. Freshwater Aquatic Invasive Species in Rhode Island. Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Providence, RI.
17209 News Sanok, A. 2007. Pow Wow Pond filled with milfoil. SeacoastOnline - Ottaway Newspapers, Inc. 2007 (December 14). (accessed on 9 January 2008).
30401 Database Schaffner, B. 2019. Maine DEP Invasive Aquatic Plant Map. Maine Department of Environmental Protection, Augusta, ME. Created on 09/27/2013. Accessed on 01/10/2019.
18803 Web Page Schmidt, S. 2009. 'Cancer of the Lakes' needs constant action.
29277 Database SERNEC Data Portal. 2019. SouthEast Regional Network of Expertise and Collections. Appalachian State University, Boone, NC. Accessed on 07/13/2017.
29207 Database Simpson, B.B. (director), and G. Yatskievych (curator). 2008. Plant Resources Center (PRC) Lundell Herbarium (LL). University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
38025 Journal Article Sivaci, A., E. Elmas, F. Gümüş, and E.R. Sivaci. 2008. Removal of Cadmium by Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. and Potamogeton crispus L. and Its Effect on Pigments and Total Phenolic Compounds. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 54:612-618.
18573 Journal Article Smagula, A.P. 2009. Success story: a volunteer saves the day. The Volunteer Monitor, The National Newsletter of Volunteer Watershed Monitoring 20(1):22-23.
33984 Report Smagula, A.P., R. Scott, C. Freise, and R. Pelletier. 2017. Exotic Species Program Report: 2013-2017. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, NH.
19385 Web Page Smith, George. 2010. How To Take Part in Maine’s War Against Invasive Species.
18197 News Smith, J. 2008. Suffolk targets invasive aquatic plants in Yaphank. newsdaycom, Melville, NY. 2008 (November 3).,0,84031.story.
1343 Journal Article Sprules, W.G., S.B. Brandt, and M. Munawar. 1994. Introduction: multiple trophic level comparisons of lakes Michigan and Ontario. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 51:2568-2569.
27638 Web Page State of Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Office of Water Resources. 2015. Aquatic Invasive Species: (AIS) Plants Documented in RI Freshwaters. Created on 04/29/2015. Accessed on 06/26/2015.
30611 Report Steiner, S., and K. Nelson. 2015. New Hampshire Volunteer Lake Assessment Program 2014 Seacoast Regional Report. New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, Concord, NH.
24845 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
19377 Web Page The Adirondack Park Invasive Plant Program. 2009. The Adirondack Park Invasive Plant Program Aquatic Invasive Species Project.
28149 Web Page The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station. 2015. Invasive Aquatic Plant Program (IAPP) - online herbarium.|. Created on 06/15/2015. Accessed on 11/13/2015.
34275 Journal Article Thum, R.A., M.P. Zuellig, R.L. Johnson, M.L. Moody, and C. Vossbrinck. 2011. Molecular markers reconstruct the invasion history of variable leaf watermilfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum) and distinguish it from closely related species. Biological Invasions 13:1687-1709.
25944 Database Ueda, K., J. Belmonte, A. Shepard, P. Leary, and S. Loarie. 2021. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA. Accessed on 11/23/2021.
27998 Database University of Michigan. 2020. University of Michigan Herbarium (MICH). SEINet Data Portal. Accessed on 04/17/2021.
29264 Database University of Pennsylvania. 2021. Morris Arboretum Herbarium (MOAR). SEINet Data Portal.
32415 Database Vital Signs Program. 2018. Vital Signs. Gulf of Maine Research Institute Program, Portland, ME. Accessed on 01/31/2019.
28643 Report Weinstein, M.J., L.E. Kennedy, and J. Colonna-Romano. 2001. Blackstone River Basin 1998 water quality assessment report. Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Watershed Management, Worcester, MA.
18341 Report Yan, C. 2007. Summary of variable-leaved milfoil 2007 survey; Crystal Lake, Ellington-Stafford, Connecticut. Revised February 2008. Prepared by Northeast Aquatic Research, LLC, Mansfield Center, CT for the Crystal Lake Association. (accessed 7 January 2009).


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2024]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [5/19/2024].

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For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.