Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Hydrocharis morsus-ranae listed in key words.

Results also available in (click to export table to spreadsheet)

REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
19141 News 2007. Invasive Species Targeted on Water in Upstate New York. Protect Your Waters. 2007 (April 18).
16163 News Abruzzi, W. 2007. Frog's bit is the Park's latest invasive aquatic threat. The Adirondack Daily Enterprise. 2007 (July 20). (accessed on 7/23/07).
37717 Report Cahill, B.C. and A.K. Monfils. 2021. Development and Implementation of Michigan’s European Frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) Adaptive Management Framework: Lessons Learned. Central Michigan University, MI, USA.
37718 Report Cahill, B.C., R.T. Goebel, and A.K. Monfils. 2021. European Frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) Phenology and Reproductive Biology in Michigan. Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI.
37585 Report Cahill, B.C., R.T. Goebel, and A.K. Monfils. 2021. European Frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) Phenology and Reproductive Biology in Michigan. Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI.
37719 Report Cahill, B.C., R.T. Goebel, S.E. Hansen, and A.K. Monfils. 2021. European Frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in Michigan: Stakeholder Awareness, Perceptions, and Attitudes. Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI.
37948 Database Carr, D. 2021. Finger Lakes PRISM 2020 AIS survey. Finger Lakes Partnership for Regional Invasive Species Management, Geneva, NY. Accessed on 02/09/2021.
35245 Journal Article Catling, P. M., G. Mitrow, E. Haber, U. Posluszny, and W. A. Charlton. 2003. The biology of Canadian weeds. 124. Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L. 83:1001—1016. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 83:1001-1016.
10773 Journal Article Catling, P.M., and W.G. Dore. 1982. Status and identification of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and Limnobium spongia (Hydrocharitaceae) in northeastern North America. Rhodora 84(840):523-545.
10775 Journal Article Catling, P.M., and Z.S. Porebski. 1995. The spread and current distribution of European frogbit, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L., in North America. Canadian Field-Naturalist 109(2):236-241.
35244 Journal Article Catling, P.M., K.W. Spicer, and L.P. Lefkovitch. 1988. Effects of the introduced floating vascular aquatic, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (Hydrocharitaceae), on some North American aquatic macrophytes. Naturaliste Canadien 115:131-137.
24369 Database Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health. 2019. EDDMapS: Early detection and distribution mapping system. The University of Georgia, Tifton, GA. Accessed on 01/27/2019.
33976 Database Cleveland Metroparks. 2019. Aquatic plant survey for Hydrilla verticillata, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, and Nymphoides peltata. Cleveland Metroparks, Cleveland, OH. Accessed on 12/04/2019.
28510 Journal Article Cook, C.D.K., and R. Luond. 1982. A revision of the genus Hydrocharis (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquatic Botany 14:177-204.
27378 Database Cranberg, C., and R. Keller. 2020. Illinois Database of Aquatic Non-native Species. School of Environmental Sustainability, Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL. Created on 05/13/2015. Accessed on 05/06/2021.
10782 Journal Article Daniels, J. 2000. European Frogbit. What is it? Should we be worried? Upwellings 22(4):5.
10786 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
10774 Journal Article Dore, W.G. 1954. Frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in Ottawa River. Canadian Field-Naturalist 68:180-181.
10772 Journal Article Dore, W.G. 1968. Progress of the European frog-bit in Canada. Canadian Field-Naturalist 82:76-83.
31942 News Eichacker, C. 2018. European frogbit, an invasive water plant, discovered in Maine for first time. Portland Press Herald. Created on 08/15/2018. Accessed on 08/24/2018.
17285 Report Eichler, L.W. 2006. Annual Report - 2005 Darrin Fresh Water Institute Aquatic Plant Identification Program. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Bolton Landing, New York. (accessed 1 February 2008).
18198 Report Eichler, L.W. 2007. Annual Report - 2006 Darrin Fresh Water Institute Aquatic Plant Identification Program. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Bolton Landing, New York. (accessed 10 November 2008).
28080 Database Environmental Assessment Program. 2018. Washington State Lakes Environmental Data Version 1.0. Washington State Department of Ecology, Lacey, WA. Accessed on 12/18/2018.
29057 News Foreman, J., and S. LeSage. 2016. Invasive species alert: European frogbit detected in West Michigan lakes. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Lansing, MI. Created on 09/19/2016. Accessed on 09/27/2016.
10626 Web Page Haber, E. 1996. Invasive alien plants of Canada. Fact sheet No 3, European frog bit. (now:
10787 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
37623 Conference Proceedings Hansen, S. J. Buschbom, T. Karim and A. Monfils. 2021. Building the Digital Extended Specimen: A case study of invasive European frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in Biodiversity Information Science and Standards 5: e73814.
35249 Journal Article Haynes, R. R. 1988. Reproductive biology of selected aquatic plants. 75(3): 805—810. Annals of Missouri Botanical Garden 75(3):805-810.
28540 Journal Article Hellquist, C.B., and C.E. Hellquist. 2006. Invasive plants of the frogbit family in North America. The Water Garden Journal 21(2):5-8.
27712 Database iMapInvasives. 2019. New York iMapInvasives. New York Natural Heritage Program, Albany, NY. Created on 07/08/2015. Accessed on 07/08/2015.
29255 Database Isaac, B. (collections). 2016. Carnegie Museum of Natural History Herbarium (CM). Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA.
30461 News Jackson, T. 2017. Volunteers needed to battle invasive plant at Old Woman Creek. Sandusky Register. Sandusky, OH. Created on 08/23/2017. Accessed on 08/24/2017.
19353 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
28145 Database Kishbaugh, S.A. 2015. NYS Exotic Aquatic Plant Locations 2015. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Albany, NY.
36477 News Kretlow, A. 2021. Invasive European frogbit found in Oconto County. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Madison, WI. Created on 08/09/2021. Accessed on 08/24/2021.
29329 Thesis or Dissertation Lemein, T. 2016. The Response and Effect of Emergent Coastal Vegetation to Sedimentation and the Distribution of Coastal Vegetation Communities along Environmental Gradients. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
32114 Journal Article Lowden, R.M. 1992. Floral variation and taxonomy of Limnobium L. C. Richard (Hydrocharitaceae). Rhodora 94(878):111-134.
10788 Journal Article Lumsden, H.G., and D.J. McLachlin. 1988. European frog-bit, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, in Lake Ontario marshes. Canadian Field-Naturalist 102(2):261-263.
29921 Database Mehrhoff, L.J., J.A. Silander, Jr., S.A. Leicht, E.S. Mosher, and N.M. Tabak. 2003. IPANE: Invasive Plant Atlas of New England. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. Accessed on 04/14/2017.
27950 Database Michigan State University Board of Trustees. 2019. Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (MISIN). Michigan State University. Department of Entomology - Applied Spatial Ecology and Technical Services Laboratory, East Lansing, MI.
37885 Database MI-EGLE. 2022. Unpublished MI-EGLE Monitoring Data (2 spreadsheets).
703 Journal Article Mills, E.L., J.H. Leach, J.T. Carlton, and C.L. Secor. 1993. Exotic species in the Great Lakes: a history of biotic crises and anthropogenic introductions. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19(1):1-54.
28887 Database Minnaert-Grote, J. (manager). 2015. Illinois Natural History Survey Herbarium (ILLS). Prairie Research Institute, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL.
23864 Journal Article Minshall, W.H. 1940. Frogbit-Hydrocharis morusu-ranae L. at Ottawa. Canadian Field-Naturalist 54:44-45.
37628 Report Monfils, A.K., R.A. Hackett, and B.C. Cahill. 2018. Proceedings of the Aquatic Invasive Plant Species Stakeholders Workshop. Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI.
37720 Report Monfils, M.J., B.J. Klatt, R.A. Hackett, Y.M. Lee and P.J. Badra. 2019. A Proposed Framework to Assess the Effects of European Frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae) on Michigan Wetlands. MNFI Report No 2019-12. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, MI, USA.
19331 Database Ontario Federation of Anglers and Hunters. 2009. OFAH Database All Species - 2009 Download.
16041 Database Parsons, J. 2007. Washington Aquatic Plant Monitoring Database. Washington Department of Ecology, Lacey, WA.
31186 Database Reznicek, AA, E.g., Voss, and B.S. Walters. 2011. Michigan Flora Online. University of Michigan Herbarium, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Accessed on 01/01/2018.
30401 Database Schaffner, B. 2019. Maine DEP Invasive Aquatic Plant Map. Maine Department of Environmental Protection, Augusta, ME. Created on 09/27/2013. Accessed on 01/10/2019.
18818 Journal Article Scribailo, R.W., and U. Posluszny. 1985. Floral development of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (Hydrocharitaceae). American Journal of Botany 72(10):1578-1589.
28331 Database SEINet Portal Network. 2021. Southwest Environmental Information Network. Symbiota Software Project, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ. Accessed on 04/17/2021.
38005 Database The Nature Conservancy. 2021. Aquatic plant surveys for AIS early detection at Oswego, Rochester, and Buffalo harbors. Finger Lakes Lake Ontario Watershed Alliance, Fulton, NY. Accessed on 05/19/2022.
28178 Database The New York Botanical Garden. 2018. William and Lynda Steere Herbarium (NY). SEINet Data Portal. Accessed on 04/30/2021.
36478 News Thorensen, K. 2021. New aquatic invasive species found in Wisconsin for the first time. WXPR. Rhinelander, WI. Created on 08/23/2021. Accessed on 08/24/2021.
18821 Journal Article Trebitz, A.S., and D.L. Taylor. 2007. Exotic and invasive aquatic plants in Great Lakes coastal wetlands: distribution and relation to watershed land use and plant richness and cover. Journal of Great Lakes Research 33:705-721.
37531 Database Tucker, A. 2019. EDRR plant Survey, raw data. The Nature Conservancy.
37529 Report Tucker, A., G. Annis, L. Chadderton and E. Elgin. 2019. Detroit River at Gibraltar, MI 2018 aquatic plant survey results. The Nature Conservancy, MI, USA.
37527 Report Tucker, A., W.L. Chadderton, G. Annis, E. Elgin. 2019. Interstate aquatic invasive species prevention, early detection, and response: Aquatic plant survey mothods development and site assessment. MI DEQ, MI, USA.
18779 Report U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Predicting future introductions of nonindigenous species to the Great Lakes. Environmental Protection Agency.
25944 Database Ueda, K., J. Belmonte, A. Shepard, P. Leary, and S. Loarie. 2021. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA. Accessed on 11/23/2021.
35441 Database U-M Library Digital Collections. 2021. University of Michigan Herbarium Catalog Collection. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Accessed on 02/12/2021.
17241 Database United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2008. PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center.
10553 Database University of Georgia. 2021. University of Georgia Herbarium (GA). SEINet Data Portal. Accessed on 04/17/2021.
28698 Report US Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. National Wetland Condition Assessment: 2011 Technical Report. EPA-843-R-15-006. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
30809 Journal Article Van Onsem, S., J. Rops, and L. Triest. 2018. Submerged seed, turion and oospore rain: A trap quantifying propagule deposition under aquatic vegetation. Aquatic Botany 145:21-28.
37943 Database Warman, M.J. 2021. 2020 aquatic invasive plant survey in the Lake Erie Basin, Ohio. Cleveland Metroparks, Cleveland, OH. Accessed on 02/05/2021.
30922 Journal Article Zhu, B., C.C. Ottaviani, R. Naddafi, Z. Dai, and D. Du. 2018. Invasive European frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae L.) in North America: an updated review 2003–16. Journal of Plant Ecology 11(1):17-25.


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2022]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [6/25/2022].

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For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.