Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records as well as those with scientific name Ctenopharyngodon idella listed in key words.

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REFTypeCut-and-Paste Reference
26793 Conference Proceedings 1994. . Page 245 pp in Haller, W.T, ed. Proceedings of the Grass Carp symposium. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Vicksburg, MS.
14982 Journal Article Abdusamadov, A.S. 1986. Biology of white amur, Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead, Aristichthys nobilis, acclimatized in the Terek region of the Caspian Basin. Journal of Ichthyology 26(4):41-49.
20321 Journal Article Adamec, L., and S. Husak. 2002. Control of Eurasian watermilfoil in NNR Brehynsky fishpond near Doksy, Czech Republic. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 40(1):45-46.
10129 Report Addor, E.E., and R.F. Theriot. 1977. Test plan for the large scale operations management test of the use of the white amur to control aquatic plants. Instructional Report A-77-1, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
28377 News Aleshire, P. 2016. Let The Monster Go, Kiddo. Payson Roundup. Payson, AZ. http://www.paysonroundup.com/news/2016/jan/26/let-monster-go-kiddo/. Created on 01/26/2016. Accessed on 01/28/2016.
14987 Journal Article Aliev, D.S. 1965. Reproduction of the grass carp and the silver carp and the bighead introduced in to the Amudarya Basin. Voprosy Iktiologii 5(4):593-599.
14990 Journal Article Alikunhi, K.H., and K.K. Sukumaran, et al. 1963. Induced spawning of the Chinese carps Ctenopharnygodon idellus (C. & V.) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (C. &V.) in ponds a Cuttack, India.
26811 Journal Article Aliyev, D.S. 1976. The role of herbivorous fish in the reconstruction of food ichthyofauna and the biological reclamation of water bodies. Journal of Ichthyology 16(2):216-229. https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a041377.pdf.
18042 Journal Article Allen, S.K. Jr, and R.J. Wattendorf. 1987. Triploid grass carp: status and management implications. Fisheries 12(4):20-24.
20331 Journal Article Allen, S.K., and J.G. Stanley. 1983. Ploidy of hybrid grass carp X bighead carp determined by flow cytometry. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112(3):431-435.
33212 Journal Article Altenritter, M.E., S.M. Pescitelli, A.L. Whitten, and A.F. Casper. 2019. Implications of an invasive fish barrier for the long‐term recovery of native fish assemblages in a previously degraded northeastern Illinois River system. River Research and Applications online first:1-9. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rra.3457.
26817 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
490 Journal Article Anonymous. 1977. Grass carp problems. SFI Bulletin 288:5.
1532 News Anonymous. 1990. Two enter guilty pleas in fish sale. Milwaukee Sentinel. June.
831 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
841 Journal Article Anonymous. 1994. Grass carp spawning in Texas. Fisheries 19(7):48.
1548 News Anonymous. 1996. Water officials release carp. Tampa Tribune, 18 Dec. 1996.
24133 News Anonymous. 2004. Angler may have world-record grass carp. BassonHook.com. http://www.bassonhook.com/newsinfo/article 619.html. Accessed 6/16/2011.
17284 Web Page Anonymous. 2008. City receives grant to combat invasive species at Brown’s Pond. http://www.midhudsonnews.com/News/BrownPond_grant_SCGJ-17Jan08.html (accessed 1 February 2008).
28379 News Anonymous. 2008. Weed-eating ‘little marines' to storm Green Valley Lakes. Payson Roundup. Payson, AZ. http://www.paysonroundup.com/news/2008/jul/17/weedeating_little_marines/. Created on 07/17/2008. Accessed on 01/28/2016.
19394 Report Asian Carp Working Group. 2007. Management and control plan for bighead, black, grass, and silver carps in the Unites States. Asian Carp Working Group.
1338 Journal Article Avault, J.W., Jr. 1965. Preliminary studies with grass carp for aquatic weed control. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 27(4):207-209.
30757 News Baab, B. 2017. Corps declares war on hydrilla; Thurmond to get 17,725 grass carp. The Augusta Chronicle. Augusta, GA. http://chronicle.augusta.com/sports/2017-11-02/corps-declares-war-hydrilla-thurmond-get-17725-grass-carp. Created on 11/02/2017. Accessed on 11/03/2017.
26724 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
24801 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
27256 Report Bailey, W.M. 1972. Arkansas's evaluation of the desirability of introducing the white amur (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) for control of aquatic weeds. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Lonoke, AR.
15002 Journal Article Bailey, W.M. 1978. A comparison of fish populations before and after extensive grass carp stocking. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):181-206.
15003 Conference Proceedings Bailey, W.M., and R.L. Boyd. 1970. A preliminary report on spawning and rearing of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Arkansas in Twenty-Fourth Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commisioners. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission. Little Rock, AR.
903 Journal Article Bain, M.B. 1993. Assessing impacts of introduced aquatic species: grass carp in large systems. Environmental Management 17(2):211-224.
815 Journal Article Bain, M.B., D.H. Webb, M.D. Tangedal, and L.N. Mangum. 1990. Movements and habitat use by grass carp in a large mainstream reservoir. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 119:553-561.
18996 News Barber, M. 2001. Mil-foiled at every turn, city hopes fish can clean up mess. Seattle Post. August 31,2001.
1052 News Bauers, S. 1995. Debate on fish that can't scale back. The Philadelphia Inquirer (June 4, 1995).
26776 Report Beach, M.L., W.W. Miley II, J.M. Van Dyke, and D.M. Riley. 1976. The effect of the Chinese grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.)) on the ecology of four Florida lakes and its use for aquatic weed control. Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, FL.
18365 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
26782 Report Beaty, P.R., R.G. Thiery, and R.K. Fuller. 1983. Impact of hybrid Amur in two California irrigation systems. Aquatic Research Group, Coachella Valley Water District, Coachella, CA.
17244 News Beck, C. 2007. Grass carp found in Lady Bird Lake. News 8 Austin. January 17. http://www.news8austin.com/content/your_news/default.asp?ArID=198139 (accessed Jan 17, 2008).
15016 Journal Article Beck, M.L., C.J. Biggers, and H.K. Dupree. 1980. Karyological analysis of Ctenopharyngodon idella, Aristichthys nobilis, and their F1 hybrid. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 109:433-438.
15015 Journal Article Beck, M.L., C.J. Biggers, et al. 1980. Chromosomal and electrophoretic analyses of hybrids between grass carp and bighead carp (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Copeia 1984(2):337-342.
15014 Journal Article Beck, M.L., C.J. Biggers, et al. 1983. Ploidy of hybrids between grass carp and bighead carp determined by morphological analysis. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112:808-811.
15017 Journal Article Beck, M.L., C.J. Biggers, et al. 1983. Electrophoretic analysis of protein systems of Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.), Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Rich.) and their F1 triploid hybrid. Journal of Fish Biology 22:603-611.
32270 Database Belcik, J.T. 2018. Nonindigenous Fishes in the Upper Illinois River Basin Waterways (2013-2018). U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Chicago, IL. Created on 11/20/2018.
26813 Report Bergersen, E.P. 1987. Grass carp and waterfowl interactions. Research Information Bulletin 87-51. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.
15022 Journal Article Berry, P.Y., and M.P. Low. 1970. Comparative studies on some aspects of the morphology and histology of Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Aristichthys nobilis, and their hybrid (Cyprinidae). Copeia 1970(4):708-726.
14309 News Beshears, E. 2004. High water may have sent grass carp fleeing. The Charlotte Observer. September 26, 2004.
14397 News Beshears, E. 2005. Fish brought to feed on unwelcome weed. The Charlotte Observer. 2005 (June 8). http://www.charlotte.com/mld/charlotte/news/11840542.htm.
15023 Journal Article Bettoli, P.W., W.H. Neill, et al. 1985. Temperature preference and heat resistance of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes), bighead carp, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (Gray), and their F1 hybrid. Journal of Fish Biology 27:239-247.
15024 Journal Article Bezrukov, V.F., and G.D. Berdyshev. 1983. Variability in the muscle proteins of white amur, Ctenopharyngodon idella, silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, and bighead, Aristichthys nobilis (Cyprinidae). Journal of Ichthyology 23(3):134-139.
20387 Journal Article Blackwell, B.G., and B.R. Murphy. 1996. Low-density triploid grass carp stockings for submersed vegetation control in small impoundments. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 11(4):475-484.
18701 News Blount, D. 2009. Belews Lake Getting Grass Carp To Help With Hydrilla. digtriad.com. May 27. http://www.digtriad.com/news/local/article.aspx?storyid=124780&catid=57.
34233 Journal Article Bodis, E., P. Borza, I. Potyo, M. Puky, A. Weiperth, and G. Guti. 2012. Invasive mollusc, crustacean, fish and reptile species along the Hungarian stretch of the River Danube and some connected waters. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 58(Suppl):29-45.
33855 Report Bogutskaya, N., L.A. Jones, N.E. Mandrak, and B. Cudmore. 2017. Annotated bibliography of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) from Russian-language literature. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat Document 2016/094. https://www.researchgate.net.
15034 Book Chapter Bolu, Y., Z. Liang, Z. Yu, R. Lin, and M. He. 2006. A study of the early development of grass carp, black carp, silver carp, and bighead carp in the Yangtze River, China in Chapman, D.C, ed. Early development of four cyprinids native to Yangtze River, China. U.S. Geological Survey. Reston, VA.
33889 Journal Article Bonar, S.A., B. Bolding, and M. Divens. 2002. Effects of triploid grass carp on aquatic plants, water quality, and public satisfaction in Washington State. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:96-105.
15035 Journal Article Bonar, S.A., G.L. Thomas, and G.B. Pauley. 1988. Evaluation of the separation of triploid and diploid grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes). by external morphology. Journal of Fish Biology 33:895-898.
10486 Journal Article Bonar, S.A., G.L. Thomas, S.L. Thiesfeld, G.B. Pauley, and T.B. Stables. 1993. Effect of Triploid Grass Carp on the Aqautic Macrophyte Community of Devils Lake, Oregon. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 13:757-765.
14514 Journal Article Bonar, S.A., S.A. Vecht, C.R. Bennett, G.B. Paulay, and G.L. Thomas. 1992. Capture of grass carp from vegetated lakes. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 31:168-174. http://www.apms.org/japm/vol31/v31p168.pdf.
18648 Web Page Bowen, K. 2009. Clifton Park Ponds Getting More Weed-eating Fish. http://www.dailygazette.com/news/2009/may/05/0505_carpweed/ accessed 5/5/09.
26808 Conference Proceedings Boyle, T.P. 1979. Aquatic Plants, Lake Management, and Ecosystem Consequences of LAke Harvesting,. Pages 269-283 in Breck, J.E., R.T. Prentki, and O.L. Loucks, eds. Responses of experimental lentic aquatic ecosystems to supression of rooted macrophytes. University of Wisconsin. Madison, WI.
15039 Journal Article Bozhko, S.I., A. Horvath, and B. Meszaros. 1976. Karyological examinations for four species of Cyprinidae from Hungary. Acta Bilogica Debrecina 13:237-354.
32483 Journal Article Brandenburg, W.H., T.A. Francis, D.E. Snyder, K.R. Bestgen, B.A. Hines, W.D. Wilson, S. Bohn, A.S. Harrison, and S.L. Clark Barkalow. 2019. Discovery of Grass Carp larvae in the Colorado River arm of Lake Powell. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 39(1):166-171. https://afspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nafm.10258.
14510 Journal Article Brown, D.J., and T.G. Coon. 1991. Grass carp larvae in the lower Missouri River and its tributaries. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 11(1):62-66.
29302 Database Camacho, C. 2017. Asian Carp egg and larval presence in the Mississippi Basin, 2014-2015. Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources. Created on 01/10/2017.
29673 Web Page Candlewood Lake Authority. 2017. Five Facts: Candlewood Lake Grass Carp Program. www.icontactarchive. com/HJfY9I0NQYSQqba7g97DvgnFeC1CWK7U?w=4. Accessed on 03/23/2017.
468 Report Carp Task Force. 1989. Report to the Louisiana Legislature, March, 1989. US Fish and Wildlife Service.
26796 Journal Article Carter, C.C., and R.S. Hestand. 1979. Taxonomic characteristics of aquatic plants from the alimentary tract of grass carp. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 17:49-53.
15060 Journal Article Cassani, J.R. 1981. Feeding behaviour of underyearling hybrids of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (female) and the bighead, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (male) on selected species of aquatic plants. Journal of Fish Biology 18:127-133.
15684 Book Chapter Cassani, J.R. 1994. Grass carp manual; 1994 regulatory status of grass carp. Page p. 149 in Wattendorf & Phillippy.
33887 Journal Article Cassani, J.R. 1995. Problems and propects for grass carp as a management tool. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15:407-412.
15061 Journal Article Cassani, J.R., and W.E. Caton. 1985. Induced triploidy in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. Aquaculture 46:37-44.
26820 Journal Article Cassani, J.R., and W.E. Caton. 1986. Efficient production of triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) utilizing hydrostatic pressure. Aquaculture 55:43-50.
26822 Journal Article Cassani, J.R., and W.E. Caton. 1986. Growth comparisons of diploid and triploid grass carp under varying conditions. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 48:184-187.
15062 Journal Article Cassani, J.R., W.E. Caton, and B. Clark. 1984. Morphological comparisons of diploid and triploid hybrid grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (female) X Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (male). Journal of Fish Biology 25:269-278.
14432 Web Page Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina, Wilmington. 2004. Nonnative fishes of the Cape Fear River system. http://www.uncwil.edu/cmsr/aquaticecology/lcfrp/fisheries/nonnative.htm.
18979 Journal Article Champeau, T.R. 1990. Ichthyofaunal Evaluation of the Peace River, Florida. Florida Scientist 53(4):302-311.
31135 Journal Article Chapman D.C., Davis J.J., Jenkins J.A., Kocovsky P.M., Miner J.G., Farver J., and Jackson P.R. 2013. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin. Journal of Great Lakes Research 39(4):547-554. https://www-sciencedirect-com/science/article/pii/S0380133013001445.
27166 Book Chapman, D.C., and M.H. Hoff (eds.). 2007. Invasive Asian carps in North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 74, Bethesda, MD.
26598 Journal Article Chapman, D.C., J.J. Davis, J.A. Jenkins, P.M. Kocovsky, J.G. Miner, J. Farver, and P.R. Jackson. 2013. First evidence of grass carp recruitment in the Great Lakes Basin. Journal of Great Lakes Research 39(4):547-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2013.09.019.
15066 Journal Article Chen, N.-S., and C.-F. Shih. 1955. Oxygen consumption of Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Aristichthys nobilis. Acta Zoologica Sinica 7(1):42-57.
15070 Journal Article Chervinski, J. 1977. Note on the adaptability of silver carp -- Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.) -- and grass carp -- Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) -- to various salinities. Aquaculture 11:179-182.
351 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
1048 Journal Article Chilton, II, E.W., and M.I. Muoneke. 1992. Biology and management of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinidae) for vegetation control: a North American perspective. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 2:283-320.
15074 Journal Article Ciborowska, J. 1971. The food of phytophagus fish (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val., Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val., Aristichthys nobilis Rich.) reared with common carp in fry ponds. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 94(2):41-59.
28795 Journal Article Clemens, B.J., J.J. Spangler, P.L. Robertson, G.M. Galovich, C.R. Banner, S.L. Gunckel, L.L. Ketchum, R.K. Bowden, S.T. Spagnoli, M.L. Kent, and J.P. Kirk. 2016. Persistence of triploid Grass Carp in Devils Lake, Oregon. Journal of Wildlife Management 7(1):153-161. http://www.fwspubs.org/doi/pdf/10.3996/042015-JFWM-044?ai=vjm&ui=10r3r&af=H ; http://www.fwspubs.org/doi/suppl/10.3996/042015-JFWM-044?ai=vjm&ui=10r3r&af=H.
15568 Report Clugston, J.P., and J.V. Shireman. 1987. Triploid grass carp for aquatic plant control. US Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC.
10654 Journal Article Colangelo, P.A. 1998. Fish and Boat Commission: Triploid Grass Carp Permit Applications. Pennsylvania Bulletin 28(40):4992.
1917 Journal Article Colle, D.E., R.L. Cailteaux, and J.V. Shireman. 1989. Distribution of Florida largemouth bass in a lake after elimination of all submersed aquatic vegetation. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:213-218.
185 Report Conner, J.V., R.P. Gallagher, and M.F. Chatry. 1980. Larval evidence for natural reproduction of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in the lower Mississippi River. In L.A. Fuiman, ed., Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Larval Fish Conference. FWS/OBS-80/43. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services Program, National Power Plant Team, Ann Arbor, MI.
26050 Journal Article Cornwell, E.R., G.B. Anderson, G.A. Wooster, R.G. Getchell, G.H. Groocock, J.W. Casey, M.B. Bain, and P.R. Bowser. 2012. Low prevalence of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3 found in common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio) collected from nine locations in the Great Lakes. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 48(4):1092-1096.
18736 Book Chapter Courtenay, W.R., Jr. 1979. Chapter 14: The introduction of exotic organisms. Pages 237-253 in Brokaw, H.P, ed. Wildlife and America: contributions to an understanding of American wildlife and its conservation. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, DC.
15081 Journal Article Courtenay, W.R., Jr., and C.R. Robins. 1972. The grass carp enigma. BioScience 22(4):210.
26810 Journal Article Cross, D.G. 1969. Aquatic weed control using grass carp. Journal of Fish Biology 1:27-30.
15092 Journal Article Cross, D.G. 1970. The tolerance of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.) to seawater. Journal of Fish Biology 2:231-233.
962 Journal Article Crossman, E.J., S.J. Nepszy, and P. Krause. 1987. The first record of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in Canadian waters. Canadian Field-Naturalist 101(4):584-586.
14305 Report Cudmore, B., and N.E. Mandrak. 2004. Biological synopsis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2705. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Burlington, Ontario.
29424 Report Cudmore, B., L.A. Jones, N.E. Mandrak, J.M. Dettmers, D.C. Chapman, C.S. Kolar, and G. Conover. 2017. Ecological risk assessment of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) for the Great Lakes Basin. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. http://www.dfo–mpo.gc.ca/csas–sccs/.
29040 Web Page Culbertson, J. 2016. Exotic fish discovered in urban bayous of Galveston Bay. https://tpwd.texas.gov/fishboat/fish/didyouknow/coastal/exotics.phtml. Accessed on 09/20/2016.
15314 Web Page Daniels, R.A. 2004. Nearshore fish assemblage of the tidal Hudson River. http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/noframe/m4060.
15177 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
1915 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
25797 Journal Article Deters, J.E., D.C. Chapman, and B. McElroy. 2013. Location and timing of Asian carp spawning in the lower Missouri River. Environmental Biology of Fishes 96(5):617-629. dx.doi.org/ 10.1007/s10641-012-0052-z.
18662 Journal Article DeVaney, S.C., K.M. McNyset, J.B. Williams, A.T. Peterson, and E.O. Wiley. 2009. A tale of four "carp": invasion potential and ecological niche modeling. PLoS ONE 4(5):10 pp. http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0005451.
33872 Journal Article Dibble, E.D., and K. Kovalenko. 2009. Ecological impact of grass carp: a review of the available data. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 47:1-15.
1577 Book Dill, W.A., and A.J. Cordone. 1997. History and status of introduced fishes in California, 1871-1996. Fish Bulletin 178. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=kt8p30069f&brand=calisphere.
26819 Report Donaldson, E.M. 1977. Bibliography of fish reproduction1963-1974, Part 2 of 3 Parts, Teleostei, Clupea to Ompok. Fisheries and Marine Service Technical Report 732. Department of Fisheries and the Environment, West Vancouver, British Columbia.
29621 Report Dupree, H.K., and J.V. Huner. (Eds.). 1984. Third Report to the Fish Farmers, The Status of Warmwater Fish Farming and Progress in Fish Farming Research. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C. https://ntrl.ntis.gov/NTRL/dashboard/searchResults/titleDetail/PB85116341.xhtml.
15108 Journal Article Edwards, S.J. 1973. Aquarium studies on the consumption of small animals by 0-group grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.). Journal of Fish Biology 5:599-605.
24137 News Egan, D'Arcy. 2011. Outdoor Note Book: Whew! Asian carp found in Lake Erie not bad kind. Cleveland.com.
20515 Journal Article Elder, H.S., and B.R. Murphy. 1997. Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in the Trinity River, Texas. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 12(2):281-289.
28780 Journal Article Embke, H.S., P.M. Kocovsky, C.A. Richter, J.J. Pritt, C.M. Mayer, and S.S. Qian. 2016. First direct confirmation of grass carp spawning in a Great Lakes tributary. Journal of Great Lakes Research 42(4):899-903. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jglr.2016.05.002.
33521 Journal Article Erickson, R.A., E.A. Eager, P.M. Kocovsky, D.C. Glover, J.L. Kallis, and K.R. Long. 2018. A spatially discrete, integral projection model and its application to invasive carp. Ecological Modelling 387:163-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2018.09.006.
15111 Journal Article Ewel, C.C., and T.D. Fontaine. 1982. Effects of white amur (Ctenopharyngodon idella) on a Florida Lake: a model. Ecological Modelling 16:251-273.
22903 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
34270 Journal Article Ferincz, A., A. Staszny, A. Weiperth, P. Takas, B. Urbanyi, L. Vilizzi, G. Paulovitz, and G.H. Copp. 2016. Risk assessment of non-native fishes in 3 the catchment of the largest Central-European shallow lake (Lake Balaton, Hungary). Hydrobiologia 780:85-97.
32336 Report Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2018. Socio-Economic Risk Assessment of the Presence of Grass Carp in the Great Lakes Basin. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Policy and Economics, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. http://dfo-mpo.gc.ca/species-especes/documents/profiles-profils/grasscarp-carperoseau/Grass-Carp-SE-Risk-Assessment-EN.pdf.
26772 Report Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 1977. The grass carp: a special research report to the governor and the cabinet. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, FL.
136 Report Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 1989. Aquatic Plant Management Utilizing triploid grass carp. 1 July 1988- 30 June 1989.
21003 Journal Article Forester, J.S., and J.W. Avault, Jr. 1978. Effects of grass carp on freshwater red swamp crawfish in ponds. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):156-160. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1577/1548-8659%281978%29107%3C156%3AEOGCOF%3E2.0.CO%3B2.
21004 Journal Article Forester, T.S., and J.M. Lawrence. 1978. Effects of Grass Carp and Carp on Populations of Bluegill and Largemouth Bass in Ponds. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):172-175. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1577/1548-8659%281978%29107%3C172%3AEOGCAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2.
13774 Journal Article Freeze, M., and S. Henderson. 1982. Distribution and status of the bighead carp and silver carp in Arkansas. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 2:197-200.
20552 Journal Article Fry, D.L., and J.A. Osborne. 1980. Zooplankton abundance and diversity in central Florida grass carp pond. Hydrobiologia 68(2):145-155.
14403 Journal Article Garcia, A.M., D. Loebmann, J.P. Vieira, and M.A. Bemvenuti. 2004. First records of introduced carps (Teleostei, Cyprinidae) in the natural habitats of Mirim and Patos Lagoon estuary, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Revista Braxileira de Zoologia 21(1):157-159.
27214 Other Cut-and-paste reference not available due to unhandled reference type. Please contact support to request the addition of the 'Other' type.
25734 Journal Article Gasaway, R.D. 1977. Predation on introduced grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in a Florida lake. Florida Scientist 40(2):167-173.
26816 Journal Article Gasaway, R.D., and R.F. Drda. 1978. Effects of grass carp introduction on macrophytic vegetation and chlorophyll content of phytoplankton in four Florida lakes. Florida Scientist 41(2):101-109.
15124 Conference Proceedings Gasaway, R.D., and R.F. Drda. 1977. Effects of grass carp introduction on waterfowl habitat. Pages 73-85 in 42nd Annual North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference.
34375 Journal Article George, A.E., and D.C. Chapman. 2015. Embyronic and larval development and early behavior in grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella: implications for recruitment for rivers. PLoS ONE 10(3):e0119023.
17317 News George, P. 2008. Golf ball diver accused of stocking ponds with banned carp. statesman.com. 2008 (February 12). http://www.statesman.com/news/content/news/stories/local/02/12/0212golffish.html (accessed 2/13/2008).
34015 News Gibbons, B. 2020. Snails, Tilapia, Scooters Pulled From Drained San Antonio River. The Rivard Report. San Antonio, TX. https://therivardreport.com/snails-tilapia-scooters-pulled-from-drained-san-antonio-river/?fbclid=IwAR3DDWGnLSt1rrDstP8B1UfFUFU4L5yld1mI1QRA5MZDmXLa_lpqCpqCgP0. Created on 01/08/2020. Accessed on 01/10/2020.
15132 Journal Article Gorbach, E.I. 1972. Fecundity of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.)) in the Amur basin. Journal of Ichthyology 12:616-625.
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15136 Journal Article Greenfield, D.W. 1973. An evaluation of the advisability of the release of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, into the natural waters of the United States. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 66(1-2):47-53.
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10003 Report Guillory, V. 1979. Large-scale operations management test of use of the white amur for control of problem aquatic plants; Report 1, Baseline studies; Volume II: The fish, mammals, and waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida. US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
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32055 Conference Proceedings Haller, W.T. 1994. . Page 244 pp in Haller, W.T, ed. Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium March 7-9, 1994, Gainesville, FL. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. Vicksburg, MS.
20615 Journal Article Harberg, M.C., and T. Modde. 1985. Feeding behavior, food consumption, growth, and survival of hybrid grass carp in two South Dakota ponds. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 5(3B):457-464.
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28652 Report Harman, W.N. 2011. Catskill Region Aquatic Nuisance Species Survey for the Catskill Center for Conservation and Development. SUNY Oneonta, Biological Field Station, Oneonta, NY. http://www.oneonta.edu/academics/biofld/PUBS/ANNUAL/2011/23%20Aquatic%20Survey%20CRISP.pdf.
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13443 Web Page Hatch, J.T., and K. Schmidt. 2002. Fishes of Minnesota: Distribution in 8 Major Drainage Basins. http://www.gen.umn.edu/faculty_staff/hatch/fishes/distribution_table.html. Accessed on 01/09/2002.
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26781 Report Hestand III, R.S., B.Z. Thompson, and K.W. Phippen. 1987. Performance report for herbivourous fish project. State of Florida, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, FL.
26780 Report Hestand III, R.S., B.Z. Thompson, R.A. Krause, and J.L. Underwood. 1982. Progress report for hybrid grass carp project. State of Florida, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, FL.
15165 Journal Article Hickling, C.F. 1967. On the biology of a herbivorous fish, the white amur or grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 70B, Part 1(4):62-81.
32883 Thesis or Dissertation Holbrook, D.L. 2017. Corbicula fluminea invasion as a secondary effect of Hydrilla verticillata management via triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Unpublished M.S. thesis. University of North Texas, Denton, Texas.
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18236 News Hubbuch, C. 2008. Leaping silver carp found in Mississippi near La Crosse. Wisconsin State Journal. 2008 (December 2). http://www.madison.com/wsj/home/local/316885.
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32645 Journal Article Jenkins, J.A., M.D. Chauvin, D. Johnson, B.L. Brown, J. Bailey, A.M. Kelly, and B.T. Kinter. 2019. Defensible standardized ploidy assessments for Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinidae) intercepted from the commercial supply chain. Journal of Great Lakes Research 45(2):371-383. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0380133018302375.
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706 Book Jenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead. 1994. Freshwater fishes of Virginia. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, MD.
29407 Report Jones, L.A., D.A.R. Drake, N.E. Mandrak, C.L. Jerde, M.E. Wittmann, D.M. Lodge, A.S. van der Lee, T.B. Johnson, and M.A. Koops. 2017. Modelling survival and establishment of Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in the Great Lakes Basin. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/.
29427 Report Jones, L.A., N.E. Mandrak, and B. Cudmore. 2017. Updated (2003–2015) biological synopsis of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/.
29676 Journal Article June-Wells, M., T. Simpkins, A.M. Coleman, W. Henley, R. Jacobs, and P. Aarrestad. 2017. Seventeen years of grass carp: an examination of vegetation management and collateral impacts in Ball Pond, New Fairfield, Connecticut. Lake and Reservoir Management 33(1):84-100. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10402381.2017.1284966.
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15193 Journal Article Kasama, M., and H. Kobayasi. 1989. Hybridization experiment between female crucian carp and male grass carp. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 55(6):1001-1006.
26061 Book Chapter Kelly, A.M., C.R. Engle, M.L. Armstrong, M. Freeze, and A.J. Mitchell. 2011. History of introductions and governmental involvement in promoting the use of grass, silver, and bighead carps. Pages 163-174 in Chapman, D.C. and M.H. Hoff, eds. Invasive Asian Carps in North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 74. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD.
28143 Database Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources. 2015. Collection data of Asian Carp from Kentucky waters in 2015. Provided by Neal Jackson on 2015-09-16. Kentucky Department of Fish and Wildlife Resources, Murray, KY.
33875 Journal Article Kestemont, P. 1995. Different systems of carp production and their impacts on the environment. Aquaculture 129:347-372.
15197 Journal Article Kilambi, R.V. 1980. Food consumption, growth and survival of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. at four salinities. Journal of Fish Biology 17(6):613-618.
15198 Journal Article Kilambi, R.V., and A. Zdinak. 1980. The effects of acclimation on the saliity tolerance of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuv. and Val.). Journal of Fish Biology 16(2):171-175.
15200 Journal Article Kilambi, R.V., and A. Zdinak. 1981. Comparison of early developmental stages and adults of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and hybrid carp (female grass carp X male bighead carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and hybrid carp (female grass carp X male bighead Aristichthys nobilis). Journal of Fish Biology 19:457-465.
15201 Journal Article Kilambi, R.V., and A. Zdinak. 1982. Food intake and growth of hybrid carp (female grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella X male bighead, Aristichthys (Hypophthalmichthys) nobilis. Journal of Fish Biology 21:63-73.
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15202 Conference Proceedings Kilgen, R.H. 1973. Good habits of white amur, largemouth bass, bluegill, and redear sunfish reciving supplemental feed. Pages 620-624 in Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Columbia, SC.
15205 Journal Article Kilgen, R.H., and R.O. Smitherman. 1971. Food habits of the white amur stocked in ponds alone and in combination with other species. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 33(3):1213-127.
23123 Report Killgore, J., J.P. Kirk, and J.W. Barko. 1998. Littoral fishes response, Upper Lake Marion, SC, following triploid grass carp Hydrilla control. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
20680 Journal Article Killgore, K.J., J.P. Kirk, and J.W. Foltz. 1998. Response of littoral fishes in upper Lake Marion, South Carolina following hydrilla control by triploid grass carp. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 36(1):82-87.
31649 Journal Article Kinter, B.T., J.A. Jenkins, and J.T. Tyson. 2018. Assessing the risk of diploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella in the certified triploid supply chain in Ohio. Journal of Great Lakes Research 44(5):1093-1099. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0380133018301278.
15209 Journal Article Kirk, J.P. 1992. Efficacy of triploid grass carp in controlling nuisance aquatic vegetation in South Carolina farm ponds. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 12(3):581-584.
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33890 Journal Article Kirk, J.P., and R.C. Socha. 2003. Longevity and persistance of triploid grass carp stocked into the Santee Cooper reservoirs of South Carolina. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 41:90-92.
23277 Journal Article Kirk, J.P., J.V. Morrow, K.J. Killgore, S.J. De Kozlowski, and J.W. Preacher. 2000. Population response of triploid grass carp to declining levels of hydrilla in the Santee Cooper Reservoirs, South Carolina. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 38(1):14-17.
27013 Journal Article Kirk, J.P., K.L. Manuel, and S.D. Lamprecht. 2014. Long-term population response of triploid grass carp stocked in Piedmont and Coastal Plain reservoirs to control Hydrilla. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 34(4):795-801. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/02755947.2014.920741.
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26771 Report Kobylinski, G.J., W.W. Miley II, J.M. Van Dyke, and A.J. Leslie, Jr. 1980. The effects of grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) on vegetation, water quality, zooplankton, and macroinvertebrates of Deer Point Lake, Bay County, Florida. Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, Tallahassee, FL.
32518 Web Page Kočovský, P., M. Lubecki, and C. Billau. 2019. Newly Hatched Invasive Grass Carp Found in Maumee River, Ohio
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31666 Journal Article Kočovský, P.M., D.C. Chapman, and S. Qian. 2018. “Asian Carp” is societally and scientifically problematic. Let’s replace it. Fisheries 43(7):311-316. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/fsh.10087.
15214 Book Krasznai, Z., and T. Marian. 1977. Cross-breeding experiments with grass carp and bighead. Results of karyological and morphological examinations of the F1 hybrid. Fish Breeding Research Institute, Szarvas, Hungary.
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15216 Journal Article Krykhtin, M.L., and E. I Gorbach. 1981. Reproductive ecology of the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, and the silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, in the Amur Basin. Journal of Ichthyology 21(2):109-123.
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26779 Report Lembi, C.A., and B.G. Ritenour. 1977. The White Amur as a biological control for aquatic weeds in Indiana. Water Resources Research Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN.
33895 Journal Article Lembi, C.A., B.G. Ritenour, E.M. Iverson, and E.C. Forss. 1978. The effects of vegetation removal by grass carp on water chemistry and phytoplankton in Indiana ponds. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):161-171.
26791 Journal Article Leslie, A.J. Jr., J.M. Van Dyke, L.E. Nall, and W.W. Miley II. 1982. Current velocity for transport of grass carp eggs. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 111:99-101.
15652 Journal Article Leslie, A.J. Jr., L.E. Nall, and J.M. Van Dyke. 1983. Effects of vegetation control by grass carp on selected water-quality variables in four Florida lakes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 112:777-787.
15226 Journal Article Leslie, J., A.J., and G.J. Kobylinski. 1985. Benthic macroinvertebrate response to aquatic vegetation removal by grass carp in north-Florida reservoir. Florida Scientist 48:220-231.
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15244 Journal Article Lirski, A., and K. Opuszynski. 1988. Lower lethal temperatures for carp (Cyprinus carpio L. ) and the phytophagous fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella Cal., Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val., Aristichthys nobilis Rich.) in the first period of life. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 101(4):11-29.
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15252 Journal Article Maceina , M.J., and J.V. Shireman. 1980. Effects of salinity on vegetation consumption and growth in grass carp. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 42:50-53.
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14482 Report Mandrak, N.E., and B. Cudmore. 2005. Risk assessment for Asian carps in Canada. Research Document 2004/103. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Burlington, Ontario.
27566 Journal Article Manuel, K.L., J.P. Kirk, D.H. Barwick, and T.W. Bowen. 2013. Hydrilla management in Piedmont reservoirs using herbicides and triploid Grass Carp: A case study. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 33(3):488-492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02755947.2013.768570.
26773 Conference Proceedings Many. 1979. . Page 236 in J.V. Shireman, ed. Proceedings of the Grass Carp Conference. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Gainesville, FL.
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26794 Journal Article Marsh, P.C., and M.A. Dhaenens. 1985. Growth of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in artificial central Arizona ponds. California Fish and Game 71(2):107-128.
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34431 Web Page Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2020. DNR removes 18 invasive carp from Little Sioux River watershed in southwestern Minnesota. https://www.dnr.state.mn.us/news/2020/07/16/dnr-removes-18-invasive-carp-little-sioux-river-watershed-southwestern-minnesota. Created on 07/20/2020. Accessed on 07/20/2020.
34190 Web Page Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. 2020. More than 50 invasive carp captured on Mississippi River. https://www.dnr.state.mn.us/news/2020/03/13/more-50-invasive-carp-captured-mississippi-river. Created on 03/17/2020. Accessed on 03/17/2020.
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26783 Report Montegut, R.S., R.D. Gasaway, D.F. DuRant, and J.L. Atterson. 1976. An ecological evaluation of the effects of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) introduction in Lake Wales, Florida. State of Florida, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, FL.
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15146 Web Page New Mexico Fish and Game. 2000. Biota Information System of New Mexico BISON: Grass Carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. http://151.199.74.229/states/nmex_main/species/010085.htm.
14814 Book Chapter Nico, L.G. 2005. Changes in the fish fauna of the Kissimmee River Basin, peninsular Florida: nonnative additions. Pages 523-556 in Rinne, J.N., R.M. Hughes, and B. Calamusso, eds. Historical changes in large river fish assemblages of the Americas. American Fisheries Society Symposium 45. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD.
20901 Book Chapter Nico, L.G., A. Demopoulos, D. Gualtieri, and C. Wieser. 2011. Use of stable isotopes and mercury to assess trophic positions of black carp and other large fishes in the Red-Atchafalaya River system, Louisiana, USA. Pages 105-120 in Chapman, D.C., and M.H. Hoff, eds. Invasive Asian carps in North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 74. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD.
20900 Book Chapter Nico, L.G., and H.L. Jelks. 2011. The black carp in North America: an update. Pages 89-104 in Chapman, D.C., and M.H. Hoff, eds. Invasive Asian carps in North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 74. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD.
26823 Report Nixon, D.E., R.L. Miller, and R.D. Gasaway. 1977. Movement and ecological effects of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) introduced in an open reservoir system. Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, Tallahassee, FL.
26646 Journal Article Nixon, D.E., and R.L. Miller. 1978. Movements of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in an open reservoir system as determined by underwater telemetry. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):146-148.
33861 Journal Article Noble, R.L., P.W. Bettoli, and R.K. Betsill. 1986. Considerations for the use of grass carp in large, open systems. Lake and Reservoir Management 2(1):46-48.
30965 Database North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission. 2017. NCWRC Aquatic Wildlife Diversity Program database, collection records for nonindigenous aquatic species in North Carolina. North Carolina Wildlife Resources Commission, Raleigh, NC. Accessed on 10/12/2017.
29931 Database Ohio Department of Natural Resources (OHDNR). 2017. Grass Carp Ploidy Report. Ohio Department of Natural Resources. Created on 05/04/2017. Accessed on 05/24/2017.
33319 Database Ohio Department of Natural Resources and Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 2019. Captures of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Lake Erie. Accessed on 05/13/2019.
26185 News O'keefe, D. 2012. The other Asian carp: why grass carp deserve more attention. Michigan State University Extension. http://msue.anr.msu.edu/news/the_other_asian_carp_why_grass_carp_deserve_more_attention/.
15345 Journal Article Okoniewska, G., and A. Kruger. 1979. Passage of various foods through the digestive tract of fish (Cyprinus carpio L Ctenopharyngodon idella Val. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.). Roczniki Nauk rolniczych 99(3):179-200.
27261 Journal Article Opuszynski, K. 1968. Carp polyculture with plant-feeding fish: grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val.). Bulletin de L'Academie Polonaise Des Sciences 16(11):677-681.
15353 Journal Article Opuszynski, K., L. Myszkowski, et al. 1989. Rearing of common carp, grass carp, silver carp and bighead carp larvae using zooplankton and/or different try feeds. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 36(2):217-230.
26775 Report Osborne, J.A. 1980. Efficacy of hydrilla control and a stocking model for hybrid grass carp in freshwater lakes. Dept. of Biological Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL.
15356 Journal Article Osborne, J.A. 1985. A preliminary study of the efficacy of hybrid grass carp for Hydrilla control. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 23:16-20.
20743 Journal Article Osborne, J.A., and R.D. Riddle. 1999. Feeding and growth rates for triploid grass carp as influenced by size and water temperature. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 14(1):41-45.
15357 Journal Article Oshima, M. 1917. Contributions to the study of the freshwater fishes of the Island of Formosa. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 12(1).
695 Report Page, L.M., and C.A. Laird. 1993. The identification of the nonnative fishes inhabiting Illinois Water. Center for Biodiversity Technical Report 1993(4). Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IL.
33954 Book Chapter Papoulias, D.M., J. Candrl, J.A. Jenkins, and D.E. Tillitt. 2010. Verification of ploidy and reproductive potential in triploid black carp and grass carp. Pages 251-266 in D.C. Chapman and M.H. Hoffman, eds. Invasive Asian Carps in North America. American Fisheries Society Symposium 74. Bethesda, Maryland.
1714 Report Pauley, G.B., G.L. Thomas, S.A. Bonar, J.D. Frodge, D.A. Marino, S.L. Thiesfeld, S. Vecht, K.L. Bowers, and H. Sehgal. 1994. An overview of the use and efficacy of triploid grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella as a biological control of aquatic macrophytes in Oregon and Washington Lakes. IN Proceedings of the Grass Carp Symposium March 7-9, 1994, Gainesville, FL. US Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
10477 Conference Proceedings Pauley, G.B., G.L. Thomas, S.A. Bonar, S.L. Thiesfeld, and J. Frodge. 1988. Aquatic macrophyte changes in Devil's Lake, Oregon, and Keevies Lake, Washington, following stocking of triploid grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Pages 281-291 in Proceedings of the 22nd Annual Meeting on Aquatic Plant Control Research Programs. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station. Vicksburg, MS.
15361 Journal Article Payusova, A.N., and T.N. Tselikova. 1981. Differences and differentiation between grass carp, silver carp, and big-head stocks of different origin from . .. Voprosy ikhtiologii 21(4):608-615.
15367 Journal Article Petridis, D. 1990. The influence of grass carp on habitat structure and its subsequent effect on the diet of tench. Journal of Fish Biology 36:533-544.
131 Book Pflieger, W.L. 1975. The Fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.
731 Journal Article Pflieger, W.L. 1978. Distribution and status of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in Missouri streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):113-118.
1737 Book Pflieger, W.L. 1997. The Fishes of Missouri. Revised edition. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, MO.
30742 Journal Article Phelps, Q.E., S.J. Tripp, K.R. Bales, D. James, R.A. Hrabik, and D.P. Herzog. 2017. Incorporating basic and applied approaches to evaluate the effects of invasive Asian Carp on native fishes: A necessary first step for integrated pest management. PLoS ONE 12(9):e0184081. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0184081.
15371 Journal Article Pierce, B.A. 1983. Grass carp in the United States: A review. Environmental Management 7(2):151-160.
1742 Journal Article Pigg, J., R. Gibbs, and J. Stahl. 1992. Distribution records for three new introduced species of the ichthyofauna of Oklahoma waters. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 72:1-2.
15372 Journal Article Pike, T. 1990. Recovery of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella, from the Umgeni River, and the possible spread of grass carp in rivers in Natal. Lammergeyer 41:42-43.
32699 Journal Article Pine, R.T. and W.J. Anderson. 1991. Plant preference of triploid grass carp. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 29:80-82.
33874 Journal Article Pipalova, I. 2002. Initial impact of low stocking density of grass carp on aquatic macrophytes. Aquatic Botany 73:9-18.
33873 Journal Article Pipalova, I. 2006. A review of grass carp use for aquatic weed control and its impacts on water bodies. Pípalová. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 44:1-12.
18981 Journal Article Poulakis, G.R., R.E. Matheson, Jr., M.E. Mitchell, D.A. Blewett, and C.F. Idelberger. 2004. Fishes of the Charlotte Harbor Estuarine System, Florida. Gulf of Mexico Science 22(2):117-150.
29672 News Quinn, A. 2017. Carp program to be expanded for Squantz Pond and Candlewood Lake. The News-Times. Danbury, CT. http://www.newstimes.com/local/article/Carp-program-to-be-expanded-for-Squantz-Pond-and-11020642.php. Created on 03/22/2017. Accessed on 03/23/2017.
29749 News Quinn, A. 2017. Candlewood carp are eating milfoil as hoped, report says. NewsTimes. Danbury, CT. http://www.newstimes.com/local/article/Candlewood-carp-are-eating-milfoil-as-hoped-11058915.php. Created on 04/07/2017. Accessed on 04/10/2017.
840 Journal Article Raibley, P.T., D. Blodgett, and R.E. Sparks. 1995. Evidence of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) reproduction in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi Rivers. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 10(1):65-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/02705060.1995.9663418.
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733 Journal Article Riley, D.M. 1978. Parasites of grass carp and native fishes in Florida. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):207-212.
1534 News Ritchie, B. 1996. County wants carp to control hydrilla. The Gainesville Sun. 2 July:1B, ?B.
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30843 Database Rogers, M.W. 2017. Collection data on Asian carps from the Tennessee River basin, 2016-2017. Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN. Created on 12/08/2017.
23206 Journal Article Romvári, R., C. Hancz, Z. Petrási, T. Molnár, and P. Horn. 2002. Non-invasive measurement of fillet composition of four freshwater fish species by computer tomography. Aquaculture International 10(3):231-240.
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26799 Journal Article Rottmann, R. 1977. Management of weedy lakes and ponds with grass carp. Fisheries 2(5):8-14.
26778 Thesis or Dissertation Rottmann, R.W. 1976. Limnological and ecological effects of grass carp in ponds. Unpublished M.S. thesis. University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.
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22926 Journal Article Roy, R., E. Fodor, K. Kitajka, and T. Farkas. 1999. Fatty acid composition of the ingested food only slightly affects physicochemical properties of liver total phospholipids and plasma membranes in cold-adapted freshwater fish. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 20(1):1-11.
15412 Journal Article Rykova, T.I. 1971. Cortical changes in the eggs of grass carp, silver carp and bighead. Trudy - Vsesokiluznyfi nauchno-issledovatel'skifi institut morskogo rybnogo khozkilafistva i okeanografii 81:160-178.
26667 Web Page Sakamoto, R. 2011. University of Washington Freshwater Ecology & Conservation Lab: Ctenopharyngodon idella report. http://depts.washington.edu/oldenlab/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Ctenopharyngodon-idella_Sakamoto.pdf. Created on 10/01/2011. Accessed on 01/16/2014.
33894 Journal Article Santha, C.R., W.E. Grant, W.H. Neill, and R.K. Strawn. 1991. Biological control of aquatic vegetation using grass carp: simulation of alternative strategies. Ecological Modelling 59(3-4):229-245.
27025 Report Scarnecchia, D.L. 2000. An Assessment of the Environmental Impact of Introducing Grass Carp into Montana. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Helena, MT. http://www.uidaho.edu/~/media/Files/orgs/CNR/wildlifefish/Faculty%20publications/Scarnecchia/Montana-Grass%20carp%20environmental%20assessment.ashx.
33897 Conference Proceedings Scherer, N., H. Gibbons, W. Daley, M. Gibbons, and L. Wilson. 1995. The impact of introduced grass carp on the aquatic and wetland plant communities of a western Washington lake. Page 6 pp in Proceedings of the International Symposium of the American Public Works Association. University of Washington. Seattle, WA.
1661 Book Chapter Schmidt, R.E. 1986. Zoogeography of the northern Appalachians. Pages 137-160 in Hocutt, C.H., and E.O. Wiley, eds. The zoogeography of North American freshwater fishes. John Wiley and Sons. New York, NY.
14731 Journal Article Scholz, T., and G. Salgado-Maldonado. 2000. The introduction and dispersal on Centrocestus formanus (Nishigori, 1924) (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Mexico: a review. American Midland Naturalist 143(1):185-200.
13896 Report Schramm, H.L., Jr., and M.C. Basler. 2004. Evaluation of capture methods and distribution of black carp in Mississippi. Mississippi State University.
26798 Journal Article Schramm, Jr., H.L., and K.J. Jirka. 1986. Evaluation of methods for capturing grass carp in agricultural canals. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 24:57-59.
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15425 Journal Article Shimma, Y., and H. Shimma. 1969. A comparative study of fatty acid compositions of the native and reared silver carps, big heads and grass carps. Bulletin of Freshwater Fisheries Research Laboratory 19(1):37-46.
15426 Report Shireman, J.V., and C.R. Smith. 1983. Synopsis of biological data on the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1844). FAO Fisheries Synopsis 135, Rome, Italy. www.fao.org/docrep/017/ap938e/ap938e.pdf‎.
33893 Journal Article Shireman, J.V., and M.J. Maceina. 1981. The utilization of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella Val., for hydrilla control in Lake Baldwin, Florida. Journal of Fish Biology 19:629-636.
26770 Report Shireman, J.V., and M.J. Maceina. 1983. Field evaluation of the hybrid grass carp and impact assessment of grass carp. Center for Aquatic Plants, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
26795 Journal Article Shireman, J.V., D.E. Colle, and M.J. Maceina. 1980. Grass carp growth rates in Lake Wales, Florida. Aquaculture 19:379-382.
26777 Report Shireman, J.V., D.E. Colle, and R.G. Martin. 1977. Ecological study of Lake Wales, Florida after introduction of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
26797 Journal Article Shireman, J.V., D.E. Colle, and R.W. Rottmann. 1978. Size limits to predation on grass carp by largemouth bass. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):213-215.
26809 Journal Article Sills, J.B. 1970. A review of herbivorous fish for weed control. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 32(3):158-161.
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15431 Journal Article Singh, S.B., K.K. Sukumaran, et al. 1970. Further observation on induced breeding of silver carp and grass carp during 1968. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of India 40b(III):88-98.
15430 Journal Article Singh, S.B., R.K. Dey, et al. 1976. Some additional notes on the piscivorous habits of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquaculture 9:195-198.
15434 Journal Article Slack, H.D. 1962. The maturation of chinese grass-carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus C. et V.) in tropical waters. Malaysian Agricultural Journal 43(4):299-306.
15437 Journal Article Sneed, K.E. 1971. The white amur: a controversial biological control. The Amercian Fish Farmer 1971(May):6-9.
15439 Journal Article Soin, S.G., and A.I. Sukhanova. 1972. Comparative morphological analysis of the development of the grass carp, the black carp, the silver carp and the bighead (Cyprinidae). Journal of Ichthyology 12:61-71.
34156 Web Page SOLitude Lake Management. 2020. Controlling Invasive Weeds in a Large Lake. https://www.solitudelakemanagement.com/lake-and-pond-management-success-stories-and-case-studies-moneta-va. Accessed on 03/10/2020.
23985 Database Spaeth, J. 2011. Fish collection database for Ohio and Illinois river basins 1957-2011. Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission, Cincinnati, OH.
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33886 Journal Article Stanley, J.G. 1974. Energy balance of white amur fed Egeria. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 12:62-66. http://www.apms.org/japm/vol12/v12p62.pdf.
15443 Journal Article Stanley, J.G. 1976. Female homogamety in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) determined by gynogenesis. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 33(6):1372-1374.
15444 Journal Article Stanley, J.G. 1976. Reproduction of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) outside its native range. Fisheries 1(3):7-10.
26789 Report Stanley, J.G. 1976. Production of monosex white amur for aquatic plant control. Contract Rept. A-76-1. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
26815 Journal Article Stanley, J.G. 1978. Special Section: Grass carp in the United States. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107(1):104.
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19796 Journal Article Stanley, J.G., W.W. Miley, II, and D.L. Sutton. 1978. Reproductive requirements and likelihood for naturalization of escaped grass carp in the United States. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 107:119-128.
15446 Report Starling, C.C. 1981. A report of annual hatcheries' progress, 1980-1981; and a report of procreation, development and culture of hybrid grass carp. State of Florida, Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission.
15449 Journal Article Stevenson, J.H. 1965. Observations on grass carp in Arkansas. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 27(4):203-206.
26358 Journal Article Stich, D.S., V. Dicenzo, E.A. Frimpong, Y. Jiao, and B.R. Murphy. 2013. Growth and population size of grass carp incrementally stocked for Hydrilla control. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 33(1):14-25. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02755947.2012.739983#preview.
33900 Journal Article Stocker, R.K, and N.T. Hagsstrom. 1986. Control of submerged aquatic plants with triploid grass in southern California irrigation canals. Lake and Reservoir Management 2(1):41-45.
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24236 Book Chapter Stone, M.D. 1995. Fish stocking programs in Wyoming: a balanced perspective. Pages 47-51 in Schramm, H.L., Jr., and R.G. Piper, eds. Uses and effects of cultured fishes in aquatic ecosystems. American Fisheries Society Symposium 15. American Fisheries Society. Bethesda, MD.
15450 Journal Article Stott, B. 1977. On the question of the introduction of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.) into the United Kingdom. Fisheries Management 8(3):63-71.
15452 Conference Proceedings Stott, B., D.G. Cross, R.E. Iszard, and T.O. Robson. 1971. Recent work on grass carp in the United Kingdom from the standpoint of its economics in controlling submerged aquatic plants. Pages 105-116 in Proceedings of the European Weed Research Council's 3rd International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds. European Weed Research Council. Wageningen, Netherlands.
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15469 Conference Proceedings Terrell, J.W., and A.C. Fox. 1974. Macrophyte control by grass carp in catfish ponds. Pages 235-242 in Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Columbia, SC.
15468 Conference Proceedings Terrell, J.W., and A.C. Fox. 1974. Food habits, growth, and catchability of grass carp in the absence of aquatic vegetation. Pages 251-259 in Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Southeastern Asssociation of Game and Fish Commissioners. Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Columbia, SC.
26805 Journal Article Terrell, J.W., and T.T. Terrell. 1975. Macrophyte control and food habits of the grass carp in Georgia ponds. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol 19:2515-2520.
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23693 Journal Article Tian, L.X., Y.J. Liu, and S.S.O. Hung. 2004. Utilization of glucose and cornstarch by juvenile grass carp. North American Journal of Aquaculture 66(2):141-145.
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28343 Report Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge. 2009. Fishes of Trinity River National Wildlife Refuge. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Liberty, TX. http://www.fws.gov/uploadedFiles/TRNWRFish_2009.pdf.
30211 Book Chapter Tripathi, S.D. 1989. Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Val.) and Ctenopharyngodon idellaExotic elements in freshwater carp polyculture in India. Pages 27-33 in Mohan, J.M, ed. Exotic aquatic species in India. Asian Fisheries Society, Indian Branch. Karnataka, India.
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30759 Report U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District. 2016. Avian Vacuolar Myelinopathy (AVM) Plan For U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers, Savannah District J. Strom Thurmond Project. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Savannah District. http://www.sas.usace.army.mil/Portals/61/docs/lakes/thurmond/Avian_Vacuolar_Myelinopathy_Plan_Final.pdf.
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29349 Journal Article van der Lee, A.S., T.B. Johnson, and M.A. Koops. 2017. Bioenergetics modelling of grass carp: Estimated individual consumption and population impacts in Great Lakes wetlands. Journal of Great Lakes Research 43:308-318. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0380133016302398.
33896 Journal Article van Dyke, J.M., A.J. Leslie, Jr., and L.E. Nall. 1984. The effects of the grass carp on the aquatic macrophytes of four Florida lakes. Journal of Aquatic Plant Management 22:87-95.
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34242 Journal Article Verbrugge, L.N.H., G. van der Velde, A.J. Hendriks, H. Verreycken, and R.S.E.W. Leuven. 2012. Risk classifications of aquatic non-native species: Application of contemporary European assessment protocols in different biogeographical settings. Aquatic Invasions 7(1):49-58.
15478 Journal Article Verigin, B.V., A.P. Makeyeva, et al. 1975. The morphology of underyearling hybrids of the bighead Aristichthys nobilis and the grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Journal of Ichthyology 15(2):226-231.
15477 Journal Article Verigin, B.V., A.P. Makeyeva, et al. 1978. Natural Spawning of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, the bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis, and the grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella, in the Syr-Dar'ya River. Journal of Ichthyology 18(1):143-146.
34300 Journal Article Vilizzi, L. and G.H. Copp. 2013. Application of FISK, an Invasiveness Screening Tool for Non-Native Freshwater Fishes, in the Murray-Darling Basin (Southeastern Australia). Risk Analysis 33(8):1432-1440.
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15488 Journal Article Wagner, B.A., D.R. Edds, et al. 1983. Grass carp in Oklahoma streams. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 63:106.
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15493 Conference Proceedings Ware, F.J., and R.D. Gasaway. 1976. Effects of grass carp on native fish populations in two Florida lakes in Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners Thirtieth Annual Conference. Southeastern Association of Game and Fish Commissioners. Lake Wales, FL.
15494 Journal Article Watkins, C.E., J.V. Shireman, R.W. Rottman, and D.G. Colle. 1981. Food habits of fingerling grass carp. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 43:95-97.
26821 Journal Article Watterndorf, R.J. 1986. Rapid identification of triploid grass carp with a Coulter counter and channelyzer. The Progressive Fish-Culturist 48:125-132.
33892 Journal Article Wells, R.D.S., H.J. Bannon, and B.J. Hicks. 2003. Control of macrophytes by grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in a Waikato drain, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 37:85-93.
34036 Web Page West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. 2020. Two West Virginia anglers scored record catches in the first two weeks of 2020! https://www.facebook.com/wildlifewv/posts/1517798008369139. Created on 01/16/2020. Accessed on 01/22/2020.
31132 Journal Article Wieringa J.G., S.J. Herbst, and A.R. Mahon. 2017. The reproductive viability of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) in the western basin of Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 43(2):405-409. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0380133016302362.
22857 Journal Article Wiley, M.J., and L.D. Wike. 1986. Energy balances of diploid, triploid, and hybrid grass carp. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 115(6):853-863.
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14999 Journal Article Wolf, K. 1980. Book Review: Artificial propagation of grass carp, silver carp, bighead in China: Nursing fry culture of adult fish and technique about prevention and treatment of fish diseases. Fish Health News 9(4):1 p.
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15500 Journal Article Wozniewski, M., and K. Opuszynski. 1988. Threshold oxygen content in water for juvenile stages of the cyprinids ( Ctenopharyngodon idella Val., Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Val., Aristichthys nobilis Rich., Cyprinus carpio L. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 101(4):51-59.
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13561 News Yoon, C.K. 2003. Texans call in a monster fish to tame a monster weed. New York Times. April 8, 2003.
13764 Report Young, B.A., T.L. Welker, M.L. Wildhaber, C.R. Berry, and D. Scarnecchia, editors. 1997. Population structure and habitat use of benthic fishes along the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers. US Army Corps of Engineers and the US Bureau of Reclamation. http://www.cerc.usgs.gov/pubs/benfish/pdfdocs/benth97.pdf.
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1711 Conference Proceedings Zimpfer, S.P., C.F. Bryan, and C.H. Pennington. 1987. Factors associated with the dynamics of grass carp larvae in the lower Mississippi River Valley. 10th Annual Larval Fish Conference. Pages 102-108 in American Fiseries Society Symposium. Bethesda, MD.
15516 Journal Article Zimpfer, S.P., C.F. Byran, et al. 1987. Factors associated with the dynamics of grass carp larvae in the lower Mississippi River valley. American Fisheries Society Symposium 2:102-108.



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Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2020]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [8/12/2020].

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