Reference List

This list includes references used to derive specimen records.

Results also available in CSV (click to export table to spreadsheet)
Ref IDTypeAuthorDateTitle
16880 Web Page 2007Maine's Public Educational Access to Environmental Information (PEARL) website.
34470 Database 2018Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Surveillance Program Data - Osmerus Mordax
38924 Journal ArticleAnonymous1937Ichthyological notes
876 NewsAuer, N.1995A focus on the impacts of introduced species
52 Journal ArticleBouc, K.1987The Fish Book.
29898 DatabaseBowen, A.2017Invasive species monitoring in the Lake Erie and Lake Huron, 2013-2016.
31326 DatabaseBowen, A.2018Invasive Species Catch 2017
27295 DatabaseBrady, V.2015Great Lakes Coastal Monitoring Project: fish dataset (through 2014)
30327 DatabaseBriggs, A.S.2017Noningenous Fish Collections in the Lower Great Lakes in 2016.
708 Journal ArticleBurr, B.M.1991The fishes of Illinois: An overview of a dynamic fauna.
1664 Book ChapterBurr, B.M., and L.M. Page.1986Zoogeography of the fishes of the lower Ohio-upper Mississippi basin.
82 BookBurr, B.M., and M.L. Warren, Jr.1986A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Scientific and Technical Series No. 4.
1405 Journal ArticleBurr, B.M., and R.L. Mayden1980Dispersal of rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax, into the upper Mississippi River (Pisces:Osmeridae).
1358 Journal ArticleBurr, B.M., D.J. Eisenhour, K.M. Cook, C.A. Taylor, G.L. Seegert, R.W. Sauer, and E.R. Atwood1996Nonnative fishes in Illinois waters: what do the records reveal?
25922 DatabaseCanadian Museum of Nature2013Canadian Museum of Nature ichthyology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
772 Journal ArticleChristie, W.J.1974Changes in the fish species composition of the Great Lakes.
30084 Thesis or DissertationCochran, J.L.2017Ecology of the Young-of-the-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis atherinoides) in the Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, and Importance as a Forage Species
211 BookCooper, E.L.1983Fishes of Pennsylvania and the Northeastern United States.
23932 NewsCox, E.2011Little Concord Pond cleared of invasive fish.
27378 DatabaseCranberg, C., and R. Keller2020Illinois Database of Aquatic Non-native Species
292 Journal ArticleCreaser, C.W.1926The establishment of the Atlantic smelt in the upper waters of the Great Lakes.
13979 ReportCudmore-Vokey, B., and E.J. Crossman.2000Checklists of the fish fauna of the Laurentian Great Lakes and their connecting channels. Canadian Manuscript Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2550.
90 Journal ArticleDahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott1971Freshwater fishes of Georgia
97 Journal ArticleDahlberg, M.D., and D.C. Scott1971Introductions of freshwater fishes in Georgia
294 Journal ArticleDenoncourt, R.F., T.B. Robbins, and R. Hesser1975Recent introductions and reintroductions to the Pennsylvania fish fauna of the Susquehanna River drainage above Conowingo Dam.
34402 Journal ArticleDobosenski, J.A., J.L. Strasburg, W.A. Larson, and T.R. Hrabik2020Investigating population genetics of invasive rainbow smelt in the Great Lakes Region
16391 Journal ArticleDodson, J.J., J.-C. Dauvin, and B. D’Anglejan1989Abundance of larval rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax in relation to the maximum turbidity zone and associated macroplanktonic fauna of the middle St. Lawrence estuary, Canada.
74 BookEddy, S., and J.C. Underhill.1974Northern fishes, with special reference to the upper Mississippi Valley. 3rd edition.
460 ReportEmery, L.1985Review of fish introduced into the Great Lakes, 1819-1974. Technical Report No. 45.
705 BookEtnier, D.A., and W.C. Starnes.1993The fishes of Tennessee.
63 BookFerguson, T.B.1876Report of the Commissioners of Fisheries of Maryland to the General Assembly. January 1, 1876.
1797 Journal ArticleFetterolf, C.M., Jr.1956Stocking as a management tool in Tennessee Reservoirs
25936 DatabaseField Museum of Natural History.2013Field Museum of Natural History ichthyology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
1450 Journal ArticleFranzin, W.G., B.A. Barton, R.A. Remnant, D.B. Wain, and S.J. Pagel1994Range extension, present and potential distribution, and possible effects of rainbow smelt in Hudson Bay drainage waters of Northwestern Ontario, Manitoba, and Minnesota.
24462 ReportFukano, K.G., H. Gowing, M.J. Hansen, and L.N. Allison.1964Introduction of exotic fish into Michigan.
26212 DatabaseGBIF2013Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Database.
43 Journal ArticleGerking, S.D.1945Distribution of the fishes of Indiana.
1844 Journal ArticleGould, W.R.1981First records of the rainbow smelt (Osmeridae), sicklefin chub (Cyprinidae) and white bass (Percichthyidae) from Montana.
17446 DatabaseGreat Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC).2017Exotic Species Information Center.
9047 Journal ArticleGriffiths, R.W., S. Thornley, and T.A. Edsall1991Limnological aspects of the St. Clair River
1427 Journal ArticleGuillory, V.1982Fishes of the lower Mississippi River near St. Francisville, Louisiana.
13692 ReportHalliwell, D.B.2003Introduced Fish in Maine.
215 BookHarlan, J.R., E.B. Speaker, and J. Mayhew.1987Iowa fish and fishing.
103 Journal ArticleHartel, K.E.1992Non-native fishes known from Massachusetts freshwaters.
1739 Web PageHartel, K.E., D.B. Halliwell, and A.E. Launer.1996An Annotated Working List of the Inland Fishes of Massachusetts.
13443 Web PageHatch, J.T., and K. Schmidt2002Fishes of Minnesota: Distribution in 8 Major Drainage Basins
1720 Journal ArticleHavey, K.A.1973Effects of a smelt introduction on growth of landlocked salmon at Schoodic Lake, Maine
1819 Journal ArticleHendricks, M.L., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., and C.H. Hocutt1983The zoogeography of the fishes of the Youghiogheny River system, Pennsylvania, Maryland and West Virginia.
1406 Journal ArticleHendricks, M.L., J.R. Stauffer, Jr., C.H. Hocutt, and C.R. Gilbert1979A preliminary checklist of the fishes of the Youghiogheny River.
1662 Book ChapterHocutt, C.H., R.E. Jenkins, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr.1986Zoogeography of the fishes of the central Appalachians and central Atlantic coastal plain.
208 BookHolton, G.D.1990A field guide to Montana fishes.
34106 DatabaseHrabik, R.2019Osmerus mordax in Missouri.
67 Conference ProceedingsHubbs, C.L., and K.F. Lagler.1949Fishes of Isle Royale, Lake Superior, Michigan.
14435 NewsHull, C.2005A Day in the life of..
32616 DatabaseIllinois Natural History Survey2019INHS fish collection database
14920 ReportIrons, K.S., S.A. Delain, E. Gittinger, B.S. Ickes, C.S. Kolar, D. Ostendorf, E.N. Ratcliff, and A.J. Benson.2009Non-native fishes in the Upper Mississippi River System.
706 BookJenkins, R.E., and N.M. Burkhead.1994Freshwater fishes of Virginia.
27164 Journal ArticleLawson, Z.J., and S.R. Carpenter2014A morphometric approach for stocking Walleye fingerlings in lakes invaded by Rainbow Smelt.
1651 Journal ArticleLee, D.A., S.P. Platania, C.R. Gilbert, R. Franz, and A. Norden1981A revised list of the freshwater fishes of Maryland and Delaware.
275 BookLee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr.1980Atlas of North American freshwater fishes.
23942 Journal ArticleLinder, A.D.1963Idaho's alien fishes.
27173 DatabaseMaine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife2012Maine historical fish stocking through 2011
709 Journal ArticleMayden, R.L., F.B. Cross, and O.T. Gorman1987Distributional history of the rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax (Salmoniformes: Osmeridae), in the Mississippi River Basin.
162 BookMenhinick, E.F.1991The freshwater fishes of North Carolina
17204 Journal ArticleMercado-Silva, N., G.G. Sass, B.M. Roth, S. Gilbert, and M.J. Vander Zanden2007Impact of Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) invasion on walleye (Sander vitreus) recruitment in Wisconsin Lakes.
16631 Journal ArticleMercado-Silva, N., J.D. Olden, J.T. Maxted, T.R. Hrabik, and M.J. Vander Zanden2006Forecasting the spread of invasive Rainbow Smelt in the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America.
27950 DatabaseMichigan State University Board of Trustees.2019Midwest Invasive Species Information Network (MISIN)
109 BookMinckley, W.L.1973Fishes of Arizona.
24224 DatabaseMontana Fish, Parks, and Wildlife.2012Montana Fisheries Information System (MFISH).
18920 Web PageMontana Natural Heritage Program and Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks.2009Rainbow smelt - Osmerus mordax. Montana Field Guide.
18921 DatabaseMontana Natural Heritage Program.2009Natural Heritage Tracker - Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax).
34 BookMorrow, J.E.1980The freshwater fishes of Alaska.
38 ReportNelson, J.S., and S.D. Gerking1968Annotated Key to the Fishes of Indiana. Project Number 342-303-815
24779 DatabaseNew Hampshire Fish and Game Department.2012New Hampshire historical fish stocking database, ~1930-1990. Provided August 2012 by Scott Decker.
293 Journal ArticleNorris, T.1862Remarks on a species of Osmerus taken in the Schuykill, below Fairmount Dam.
25980 DatabaseOhio State University2013Ohio State University Museum ichthyology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
18417 DatabaseOntario Federation of Anglers and Hunters (OFAH)2010Exotic species data for Ontario, Canada (unpublished).
19331 DatabaseOntario Federation of Anglers and Hunters.2009OFAH Database All Species - 2009 Download.
26264 BookPennsylvania Sea Grant.2013Pennsylvania's Field Guide to Aquatic Invasive Species
20918 Journal ArticlePeterson, G.S., J.C. Hoffman, A.S. Trebitz, C.W. West, and J.R. Kelly2011Establishment patterns of non-native fishes: lessons from the Duluth-Superior harbor and lower St. Louis River, and invasion-prone Great Lakes coastal ecosystem.
62 BookPhillips, G.L., W.D. Schmid, and J.C. Underhill.1982Fishes of the Minnesota region.
1690 Journal ArticlePropst, D.L., and C.A. Carlson.1986The distribution and status of warmwater fishes in the Platte River drainage, Colorado
1885 Conference ProceedingsRasmussen, J.L.1998Aquatic nuisance species of the Mississippi River basin.
716 BookRobison, H.W., and T.M. Buchanan1988Fishes of Arkansas.
25985 DatabaseRoyal Ontario Museum2014Royal Ontario Museum ichthyology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
1831 Journal ArticleSavage, J.1935Smelts in the Canadian waters of Lake Huron.
106 BookScarola, J.F.1973Freshwater fishes of New Hampshire.
36787 ReportSchmidt, K.20162016 Fish Surveys and Projects
133 BookSimpson, J., and R. Wallace.1978Fishes of Idaho.
1467 BookSimpson, J.C.1962Fishes of Idaho: checklist and keys.
98 BookSmith, C.L.1985The inland fishes of New York State.
53 BookSmith, J.V.C., M.D.1833A Natural History of the Fishes of Massachusetts. A reprint of the 1833 edition.
105 BookSmith, P.W.1979The fishes of Illinois.
26021 DatabaseSouth African National Biodiversity Institute2013South African Institute of Aquatic Biodiversity specimen collection.
1028 ReportSouth Dakota Department of Game, Fish, and Parks.1993South Dakota Fisheries: An Evaluation of Introduced Sport and Forage Fish Species in Pactola Reservoir, 1989-1991.
1882 Journal ArticleStorer, D.H.1840The introduction of Osmerus into Jamaica Pond, Boston, with comments on other introductions.
1404 Journal ArticleSuttkus, R.D., and J.V. Conner1980The rainbow smelt, Osmerus mordax, in the lower Mississipi River near St. Francisville, Louisiana.
13672 Journal ArticleTilmant, J.T.1999Management of nonindigenous aquatic fish in the U.S. National Park System.
25999 DatabaseTulane University2013Tulane University Museum of Natural History collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
14257 Web PageU.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.2005National Wildlife Refuge System Invasive Species.
25768 DatabaseU.S. Geological Survey2011Mississippi River Long Term Resource Monitoring Program.
25944 DatabaseUeda, K., J. Belmonte, A. Shepard, P. Leary, and S.
1832 Web PageUnderhill, J.C., J.T. Hatch, and K. Schmidt.1997Fishes of Minnesota: distribution of Minnesota fishes in 8 major drainage basins.
27764 DatabaseUnited States Environmental Protection Agency2015Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) Northeast Lakes 1991-1994.
25948 DatabaseUniversity of Kansas2013University of Kansas Biodiversity Institute ichthyology collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
25978 DatabaseUniversity of Nebraska State Museum2013University of Nebraska State Museum vertebrate collection. Accessed through GBIF data portal,
1390 ReportWalker, P.1993A list of the endemic and introduced fishes of Colorado-March 1993.
35 Book ChapterWebster, D.A.1941The life histories of some Connecticut fishes.
93 BookWerner, R.G.1980Freshwater Fishes of New York State: a field guide.
27924 DatabaseWisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WI DNR).2017Lakes and rivers with invasives species
27236 DatabaseWisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WIDNR)2014Wisconsin Center for Integrated Data Analytics (CIDA) fish dataset
13727 DatabaseWisconsin Department of Natural Resources.2003Wisconsin DNR Database, Northern Region.
19334 DatabaseWisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources.2010Aquatic Invasives Data and Maps.
306 BookWoodling, J.1985Colorado's little fish: a guide to the minnows and other lesser known fishes in the state of Colorado.
13764 ReportYoung, B.A., T.L. Welker, M.L. Wildhaber, C.R. Berry, and D. Scarnecchia, editors.1997Population structure and habitat use of benthic fishes along the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers.
30851 DatabaseZimmerman, B.2012Ohio non-native fish collection data, sampled during survey work on update to Trautman's (1981) "Fishes of Ohio"


The data represented on this site vary in accuracy, scale, completeness, extent of coverage and origin. It is the user's responsibility to use these data consistent with their intended purpose and within stated limitations. We highly recommend reviewing metadata files prior to interpreting these data.

Citation information: U.S. Geological Survey. [2023]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [9/30/2023].

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For general information and questions about the database, contact Wesley Daniel. For problems and technical issues, contact Matthew Neilson.